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GREAT BRITAIN, with 15 Maps, 30 Plans, and a Panorama. 

Seconi Ei'ition. 1S90. j0marks.j 

LONDON and its ENVIRONS, with 3 Maps am" .:5F)p-.ij 

Se/entd Edition. 13J9. .6.i»iai^'L- 

BELGIUM and HOLLAND, with 13 Maps and >!) PUdr; 

Tenth Edition. 1891. 6 Wki 

THE RHINE from Rotterdam to Constance, '.vir.h'.^p 

Maps and 22 Plans. Eleventh Edition. 1889. \; Aijp 

NORTHERN GERMANY, with C5 Maps ?fafr? ^fil 

Tenth Edition. 1890. 

SOUTHERN flT; ' 1)lfAvfV 

30 Plan 

THE EAU r . 

12 Plan; 




Y :iNNA 


a P-\not 




15 Plans 

PARIS ani 

yiA, with lp Ma^3f 
the Bavarian High . 

, L'uC. With 35 Maps, 
.tioii. 1.o3l. 8 marks.* 

x Pa.ioi>ma cf Athene, 
i 10 mar-;s. 

iorn, Florence, Ra- 

i± Edition. 1892. 8 marks. 

Maps, 31 Plans, and 
890. 6 marks. 

Excursions to tile 
Sardinia, Malta, and 

! Edition. 1890. 6 marks. 

PK. with 26 Mips, 

i. iS'.C l' 1 marks. 

j'JTl^ f oi\r Loi- rT )or 

to Paris, witn i' Maps ana 01 Fl.-.ns. Tenth tidition. l^J 6 'n rk? 

NORTHERN FRANCE, with 9 Maps sad 25 ?] ■;- . 8W. 

7 ir.arks. 

JOuTHERN FRANCE, ith 14 Maps and 19 PJ.ns. 'P9i. 

C Livks. 

SWITZERLAND , and ^he adjacent Pap, n s w I aly,- 

SAVOY, and the TYROL, with 39 Maps, 11 PI; js, xvA 1'; 1> a,ii(,...mas y 
Fourteenth. Edition. ±891. 8 tu.viks. 

LOWER EGYPT with the Peninsula of *\$a t '; with lf>. 

jlu,pa, 30 Plans, and 7 Views Second Edition. 1^85. 

UPPER EGYPT, with Nubia as far as the Sec 

RACT, AND TUE WESTERN OASES. With 11 Maps «.^iL , 
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PALESTINE and SYRIA, with t8 Map.:, 43 PV £ r .'htioJ 
vama of Jerusalem, and 10 Views. 1876. 20ms"ks? 

CONVERSATION DICTIONARY in four 1, guege:-. Eng- 

lish, French, German, Italk. ii 3 ji. »ks. 


English, (jkkman, Fukn'h:, and Italian. 3 minks. 


(Comp. p. xi.~) 

Approximate Equivalents. 














Mk. 1 Pfg. 

Fl. 1 Kr. 






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2i| 2 




















9»| 4 










7» 2 






















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Distances. Since the consolidation of the Kingdom of Italy the 
French metre system has been in use throughout the country, but the old 
Italian miglio (pi. le miglia) is still sometimes preferred to the new kilo- 
metre. One kilometre is equal to 0.62138, or nearly 5 /sths, of an English 
mile. The Tuscan miglio is equal to 1.65 kilometre or 1 M. 44 yds.; the 
Roman miglio is equal to 1.49 kilometre or 1630 yds. 

---'■- Ifp 













With 16 Maps and 28 Plans 



All rights reserved. 

l Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto tbiem all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 


The objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists of 
three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the trav- 
eller with some information regarding the culture and art of 
the people he is about to visit, as well as regarding the nat- 
ural features of the country, to render him as independent as 
possible of the services of guides and valets-de-place, to pro- 
tect him against extortion, and in every way to aid him in 
deriving enjoyment and instruction from his tour in one of 
the most fascinating countries in the world. The Handbook 
will also , it is hoped , be the means of saving the traveller 
many a trial of temper ; for there is probably no country in 
Europe where the patience is more severely taxed than in 
some parts of Italy. 

The Handbook is founded on the Editor's personal ac- 
quaintance with the places described, most of which he has 
repeatedly and carefully explored. As, however, changes 
are constantly taking place, he will highly appreciate any 
communications with which travellers may kindly favour 
him, if the result of their own observation. The information 
already received from numerous correspondents , which he 
gratefully acknowledges, has in many cases proved most 

The present volume, corresponding to the thirteenth Ger- 
man edition, has, like its predecessor, been thoroughly revised 
and considerably augmented. Its contents have been divided 
into groups of routes arranged historically and geographically 
(Piedmont , Liguria , Lombardy , Venetia , The Emilia , and 
Tuscany), each group being provided with a prefatory outline 
of the history of the district. Each section is also prefaced 
with a list of the routes it contains, and may be removed 
from the volume and used separately if desired. 

The introductory article on Art, which has special re- 
ference to Northern Italy and Florence, and the art-historical 


notices prefixed to the descriptions of the larger towns and 
principal picture-galleries are due to the late Professor Anton 
Springer, of Leipzig. In the descriptions of individual pic- 
tures, the works of Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle have been 
laid extensively under contribution, and also occasionally 
the works of Buskin and others. 

The Maps and Plans , upon which special care has been 
bestowed, will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre), and Distances in English miles (comp. p. ii). The 
Populations are given from the most recent official sources. 

Hotels (comp. p. xviii). Besides the modern palatial and 
expensive establishments, the Handbook also mentions a se- 
lection of modest, old-fashioned inns, which not unfrequently 
afford good accommodation at moderate charges. The asterisks 
indicate those hotels which the Editor has reason to believe 
from his own experience, as well as from information supplied 
by numerous travellers, to be respectable, clean, and reason- 
able. The value of these asterisks, it need hardly be observed, 
varies according to circumstances , those prefixed to town 
hotels and village inns signifying respectively, that the 
establishments are good of their kind. At the same time the 
Editor does not doubt that comfortable quarters may occasion- 
ally be obtained at inns which he has not recommended or 
even mentioned. The average charges are stated in accord- 
ance with the Editor's own experience , or from the bills 
furnished to him by travellers. Although changes frequently 
take place , and prices generally have an upward tendency, 
the approximate statement of these items which is thus 
supplied will at least enable the traveller to form an estimate 
of his probable expenditure. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and courtesy 
towards travellers forms the sole passport to his commend- 
ation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly ex- 
cluded from his Handbooks. 




I. Travelling Expenses. Money xi 

II. Period and Plan of Tour xii 

III. Language xiii 

IV- Passports. Custom House. Luggage xiv 

V- Public Safety. Beggars xv 

VI. Gratuities. Guides xv 

VII. Railways. Steam Tramways xvi 

VIII. Hotels xviii 

IX. Restaurants, Cafe's, Osterie xix 

X. Sights, Theatres, etc xxi 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph xxii 

XII. Climate. Winter Stations. Seaside Resorts. Health xxii 

History of Art, by Prof. A. Springer xxvii 

Route L Routes to Italy. Page 

1. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis 1 

2. From Brig over the Simplon to Novara or to Lago 
Maggiore 3 

3. From Lucerne to Lugano, Chiasso, and Como (Milan) . . 5 

4. From Coire to Colico over the Spliigen 14 

5. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner 16 

6. From Vienna to Venice via Pontebba 20 

II. Piedmont 23 

7. Turin 25 

8. From Turin to Aosta and Courmayeur. Excursion to the 

Graian Alps 39 

9. From Turin to Milan via Novara 47 

10. From Bellinzona to Genoa 50 

11. From Turin to Piacenza via Alessandria 52 

12. From Turin to Genoa 52 

III. liguria 57 

13. Genoa 58 

14. From Genoa to Ventimiglia 72 

16. From Nice to Cuneo (Turin) by the Col di Tenda ... 80 

16. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante 81 

IV. Lombardy 87 

17. Milan 89 

18. From Milan to Como and Lecco Ill 

19. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza 116 

20. Lake of Como 117 


Route p age 

21. From Menaggio on the Lake of Como via Lugano to Luino 

on the Lago Maggiore 125 

22. From Milan to Laveno and Arona 128 

23. Lago Maggiore 131 

24. From Stresa to Orta and Varallo 138 

25. From Milan to Voghera (Genoa) via Pavia. CertosadiPavia 140 

26. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona 145 

27. From Milan to Bergamo 148 

28. From Milan to Yerona 151 

29. Brescia 152 

30. The Lago di Garda 158 

31. From Brescia to Tirano. Lago d'Iseo 163 

V. Venetia 165 

32. Verona 167 

33. From Verona to Mantua and Modena 178 

34. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza 184 

35. Padua 189 

36. From Vicenza to Treviso. From Padua to Bassano . . 196 

37. Venice 198 

38. From Venice to Trieste 251 

VI. The Emilia 257 

39. From Milan to Bologna. Piacenza. Reggio 259 

40. Parma 264 

41. Modena 270 

42. From Padua to Bologna 273 

43. Ferrara 276 

44. Bologna 281 

45. From Bologna to Ravenna 299 

46. From Bologna to Florence 309 

VII. Tuscany 311 

47. From (Qenoa) Leghorn to Florence via Pisa and Empoli 314 

48. Pisa 317 

49. From Pisa to Florence via, Lucca and Pistoja 328 

50. Florence 343 

51. Environs of Florence 423 

List of Artists 437 

Index 445 


1. General Map of North Italy (1 : 1,350,000), Western Half: 
before the title. 

2. General Map of North Italy, Eastern Half: after the Index. 

3. The Eastern Environs of Turin (1 : 66,200) : p. 25. 

The Environs of Genoa (1 : 100,000) : p. 








5-6. The Riviera di Ponente from Genoa to Mentone (1 : 500,000) : 
pp. 73, 74. 

The Riviera di Levante from Genoa to Spezia (1 : 500,000) : p. 82. 
The Lakes of Como and Lugano (1 : 250,000) : p. 116. 
Lago Maggiore and Lago d'Orta (1 : 250,000) : p. 130. 
The Environs of Pavia (1 : 86,400) : p. 142. 
Lago di Garda (1 : 500,000) : p. 158. 
The Environs of Bologna (1 : 86,400): p. 300. 
The Environs of Ravenna (1 : 86,400): p. 301. 
The Environs of Florence (1 : 55,000) : p. 424. 
Environs of Vallombrosa, Camaldoli, and La Verna, with the 
Casentino (1 : 280,000): p. 432. 
Key Map of Italy (1 : 7,000,000) : at the end of the Handbook. 

Plans of Towns. 

1. Bergamo (1 : 25,000). — 2. Bologna (1 : 13,350). — 3. Brescia 
(1 : 18,300). — 4. Cremona (1 : 15,000). — 5. Ferrara (1 : 20,000). 

— 6. Florence (1 : 10,000). — 7. Genoa (1 : 10,000). — 8. Leghorn 
(1 : 36,800). — 9. Lucca (1 : 27,000). — 10. Lugano (1 -. 16,600). 

— 11. Mantua (1 : 18,000). — 12. Milan (1 : 17,500). — 13. 
Modena (1 : 12,000). — 14. Novara (1 : 12,500). — 15. Padua 
(1 : 22,500). — 16. Parma (1 : 13,000). — 17. Pavia (1 : 20,000). 

— 18. Piacenza(l : 20,000). — 19. Pisa (1 : 8500). — 20. Pistoia 
(1 : 15,600). —21. Ravenna (1 : 11,150). —22. Reggio (1 : 14,000), 
with Environs. — 23. San Remo (1 : 17,100). — 24. Trent 
(1 : 12,500). — 25. Turin (1 : 23,500). — 26. Venice (1 : 12,500), 
with Environs. — 27. Verona (1 : 11,500). — 28. Vicenza 


M. = Engl. mile. 

hr. = hour. 

min. = minute. 

Alb. = Albergo (hotel). 

Omn. = omnibus. 

N. = north, northwards, northern. 

S. = south, etc. 

E. = east, etc. 

W. = west, etc. 

R. = room. 

B. = breakfast. 

D. = dinner. 

A. = attendance. 

L. = light. 

dej. = dejeuner 'a la fourchette 1 . 

pens. = pension. 

Distances. The number prefixed to the name of a place on a railway 
or high-road indicates its distance in English miles from the starting- 
point of the route or sub-route. 

Asterisks. Objects of special interest, and hotels which are believed 
worthy of special commendation, are denoted by asterisks. 


Chronological Table of Recent Events. 

1846. June 16. Election of Pius IX. 

1848. March 18. Insurrection at Milan. — March 22. Charles Albert enters 
Milan. Republic proclaimed at Venice. — May 15. Insurrection at 
Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. ('ReBomba , ). — May 29. Radetzky's 
victory at Curtatone. — May 30. Radetzky defeated at Goito; capit- 
ulation of Peschiera. — July 25. Radetzky's victory at Custozza. 

— Aug. 6. Radetzky's victory at Milan. — Aug. 9. Armistice. — 
Nov. 15. Murder of Count Rossi at Rome. — Nov. 25. Flight of the 
Pope to Gaeta. 

1849. Feb. 5. Republic proclaimed at Rome. — Feb. 17. Republic pro- 
claimed in Tuscany, under Guerazzi. — March 16. Charles Albert 
terminates the armistice (ten days' campaign). — March 23. Radetzky's 
victory at Novara. — Mar. 24. Charles Albert abdicates ; accession of 
Victor Emmanuel II. — Mar. 26. Armistice; Alessandria occupied 
by the Austrians. — Mar. 31. Haynau conquers Brescia. — April 5. 
Republic at Genoa overthrown by La Marmora. — Apr. 11. Reaction 
at Florence. — Apr. 30. Garibaldi defeats the French under Oudinot. 

— May 15. Subjugation of Sicily. — July 4. Rome capitulates. — 
Aug. 6. Peace concluded between Austria and Sardinia. — Aug. 22. 
Venice capitulates. 

1850. April 4. Pius IX. returns to Rome. 

1855. Sardinia takes part in the Crimean War. 

1856. Congress at Paris. Cavour raises the Italian question. 

1859. May 20. Battle of Montebello. — June 4. Battle of Magenta. — 
June 24. Battle of. Solferino. — July 11. Meeting of the emperors 
at Villafranca. — Nov. 10. Peace of Zurich. 

1860. March 18. Annexation of the Emilia (Parma, Modena, Romagna). — 
Mar. 22. Annexation of Tuscany. — Mar. 24. Cession of Savoy and 
Nice. — May 11. Garibaldi lands at Marsala. — May 27. Taking of 
Palermo. — July 20. Battle of Melazzo. — Sept. 7. Garibaldi enters 
Naples. — Sept. 18. Battle of Castelfidardo. — Sept. 29. Ancona ca- 
pitulates. — Oct. 1. Battle of the Volturno. — Oct. 21. Plebiscite 
at Naples. — Dec. 17. Annexation of the principalities, Umbria, and 
the two Sicilies. 

1861. Feb. 13. Gaeta capitulates after a four months 1 siege. — March 17. 
Victor Emmanuel assumes the title of king of Italy. — June 6. 
Death of Cavour. 

1864. Sept. 15. Convention between France and Italy. 

1866. June 20. Battle of Custozza. — July 5. Cession of Venetia. — July 20. 
Naval battle of Lissa. 

1867. Nov. 3. Battle of Mentana. 

1870. Sept. 20. Occupation of Rome by Italian troops. — Oct. 9. Rome 

declared the capital of Italy. 
1878. Jan. 9. Death of Victor Emmanuel II.; accession of Humbert I. — 

Feb. 7. Death of Pius IX. — Feb. 20. Election of Leo XIII. 


'Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree; 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced.' 


I. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Italy depends of course on the 
traveller's resources and habits, hut, as a rule, it need not exceed 
that incurred in other much frequented parts of the continent. The 
average expenditure of a single traveller, when in Italy, may he 
estimated at 25-30 francs per day, or at 12-15 francs when a pro- 
longed stay is made at one place ; hut persons acquainted with the 
language and habits of the country may easily restrict their ex- 
penses to still narrower limits. Those who travel as members of a 
party effect a considerable saving by sharing the expense of guides, 
carriages, and other items. When ladies are of the party, the ex- 
penses are generally greater. 

Money. The French monetary system is now in use throughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc (lira ox franco) contains 100 centesimi ; 
1 fr. 25 c. = 1 s. = 1 German mark (comp. p. ii). In copper (bronzo 
or rame) there are coins of 1, 2, 5, and 10 centesimi. A piece of 
5 c. is called a soldo, or sou, and as the lower classes often keep 
their accounts in soldi, the traveller will find it useful to accustom 
himself to this mode of reckoning. The gold and silver coins of 
France, Switzerland, Greece, and Belgium circulate freely in Italy. 
The traveller should be on his guard against base coin (forged 
pieces of Y2, 1, and 2 lire are common), worn pieces, Swiss silver 
coins with the seated figure of Helvetia , coins from the papal 
mint, and South American and Roumanian coins, which cannot be 
parted with except at a loss, and he should also refuse Greek 
copper coins. Even Italian gold coins issued before 1863 ('Re 
eletto') are not current. The recognized paper currency in N. Italy 
consists of the Blglietti di Stato and the banknotes of the Banca 
Nazionale , to which may be added those of the Banca di Toscana 
in Tuscany ; other notes should be refused. The smallest bank- 
notes now issued are those of 5 fr. 

Best Monet foe the Toub. Circular Notes or Letters of Credit, ob- 
tainable at the principal English or American banks, form the proper 
medium for the transport of large sums, and realise the most favourable 
exchange. English and German banknotes also realise their nominal 
value. A moderate supply of French Gold will also be found desirable. 


Sovereigns are received at the full value (about 25-26 fr.) by the principal 
hotel-keepers, but not in out-of-the-way places. 

Exchange. Foreign money is most advantageously changed in the 
larger towns , either at one of the English bankers or at a respectable 
money-changer's Qcambiavaluta 1 ). As a rule, those money-changers are 
the most satisfactory who publicly exhibit a list of the current rates of 
exchange. The traveller should always be provided with an abundant 
supply of small notes, at it is often difficult to change those of large 
amount. Besides the small notes, I-IV2 fr. in copper should also be carried 
in a separate pocket or pouch. 

Money Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding 101., are now 
granted by the English Post Office at the following rates: up to 21., Qd . ; 
51., is.; 11., Is. 6d. ; 101., 2s. These are paid in gold. The identity of 
the receiver must sometimes be guaranteed by two well-known residents, 
or by a Libretto di Ricognizione Postale (1 fr. ; with 10 coupons), obtained 
at any head post-office , but an exhibition of the passport often suffices. 
The charge for money-orders granted in Italy and payable in England is 
40c. per 11. sterling. 

II. Period and Plan of Tour. 

Season. As a general rule the spring and autumn months are 
the best season for a tour in N. Italy, especially April and May or 
September and October. Winter in Lombardy and Piedmont is 
generally a much colder season than it is in England, but Nice and 
the whole of the Riviera, Pisa, and "Venice afford pleasant and 
sheltered quarters. The height of summer can hardly be recom- 
mended for travelling. The scenery, indeed, is then in perfection, 
and the long days are hailed with satisfaction by the enterprising 
traveller ; but the fierce rays of an Italian sun seldom fail to im- 
pair the physical and mental energies. 

Plan. The chief centres of attraction in N. Italy are Milan, 
Venice , Genoa , and Florence. The following short itinerary, be- 
ginning and ending at Milan, though very far from exhausting the 
beauties of N. Italy , includes most of the places usually visited, 
with the time required for a glimpse at each. 


Milan (R. 17), and excursion to Pavia (the Certosa, R. 25) . . . 2 l fo 
To the Lago di Como, Lago di Lugano, and Lago Maggiore (RE. 20, 

21, 23) and on to Turin 2Va 

Turin (R. 7) . . 1 

From Turin to Genoa (R. 12a or 12b) 1/2 

Oenoa (R. 13), and excursion to Pegli (Villa Pallavicini, p. 73) . 2 

Via Spezia to Pisa, see R. 16 ; Pisa (R. 48) ±i/ 2 

Via Lucca and Pistoja to Florence, see R. 49 1 

Florence (R. 50) .6 

From Florence to Bologna (R. 46) 1/2 

Bologna (R. 44) li/ 2 

Excursion to Ravenna (R. 45) 1 

From Bologna via, Ferrara (R. 43) to Padua, see R. 42 .... 1 

[Or to Modena (R. 41) and Parma (R. 40), see R. 39 H/ 2 

From Modena via, Mantua to Verona (see R. 33) and via, Vicenza 

to Padua (see R. 34)] li/ 2 ] 

Padua (R. 35), and thence to Venice 1 

Venice (R. 37) .^ ! 1 4 

From Venice (via, Vicenza) to Verona (R. 32), see R. 34 .... 2 
[Excursion to Mantua (p. 179), when the way from Modena to Verona 

via, Mantua is not adopted i/ 2 ] 



Lago di Oarda (R. 30) l'/2 

From Peschiera via, Brescia (E. 29) and Bergamo to Milan (RR. 28, 27) 1 
To those who wish to visit only a part of North Italy (whether 
the eastern or western), the following itineraries may he recom- 
mended : — 

a. Eastern Part, starting from the Brenner Railway. Days 

From Trent or Mori to Riva (p. 161), Lago di Garda (R. 30). . . IV2 

Verona (R. 32) 1 

Excursion to Mantua (p. 179) V2 

From Verona via Vicenza (p. 184) to Padua 1 

Padua (R. 35), and thence to Venice 1 

Venice (R. 37) 4 

From Venice via Ferrara (R. 43) to Bologna 1 

Bologna (R. 44) IV2 

Excursion to Ravenna (R. 45) 1 

From Bologna to Modena (R. 41) and Parma (R. 40), see R. 39 . . IV2 

From Parma via, Piaeenza (p. 260) to Milan V2 

Milan (R. 17), and excursion to Pavia (the Certosa, R. 25) . . . 2 J /2 
Lago Maggiore, Lago di Lugano, Lago di Como (RR. 20, 21, 23) and 

from Lecco via, Bergamo and Brescia (R. 29) to Verona . . . 3 J /2 

b. Western Part, starting from the St. Gotthard, Spliigen, or Simplon. 

Lago di Como, Lago di Lugano, Lago Maggiore (RR. 20, 21, 23) . 2 

Milan (R. 17) 2 

From Milan to Turin (R. 11) 1 

Turin (R. 7), and thence to Genoa (R. 12a or 12b) 1 

Genoa (R. 13), and excursion to Pegli (Villa Pallavicini, p. 73) . 1 

Excursion to Nice 3 

From Genoa via, Novi, Voghera, and Pavia (Certosa, R. 25) to Milan IV2 

The traveller entering Italy for the first time should do so, if 
the season be favourable, not by rail, but by one of the Alpine passes 
(Spliigen, Simplon, etc.), as only thus will he obtain an adequate 
idea of the full ethnographical significance of the Alps, which 
conceal so new and so strange a world from northern Europe. The 
luxurious character of the Italian climate, vegetation, and scenery, 
the soft richness of the language, and the courtly manners of the 
upper classes all present a striking contrast to the harsher and 
rougher characteristics of German Switzerland or the Tyrol. On no 
account, however, should he traverse these passes at night, and he 
should always inform himself beforehand of the condition of the 
diligence, and raise an energetic protest against broken windows 
and similar inconveniences. In spring it is advisable to wear co- 
loured spectacles as a precaution against the dazzling reflection 
from the extensive snow-fields (p. xxvi). 

III. Language. 

It is quite possible for persons entirely ignorant of Italian and 
French to travel through Italy with tolerable comfort ; but such tra- 
vellers cannot conveniently deviate from the ordinary track, and 
are moreover invariably made to pay '■alia Ingles e' by hotel-keepers 
and others, t. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. French 


is very useful, as the Italians are very partial to that language, and 
it may suffice for Rome and some of the main routes ; but for those 
who desire the utmost possible freedom, and who dislike being im- 
posed upon, a slight acquaintance with the language of the country 
is indispensable. Those who know a little Italian , and who take 
the usual precaution of ascertaining charges beforehand [con- 
trattare , bargain) in the smaller hotels , in dealings with drivers, 
gondoliers, guides etc., and in shops, will rarely meet with attempts 
at extortion in North Italy, f 

IV. Passports. Custom House. Luggage. 

Passports, though not required in Italy, are occasionally useful. 
Registered letters, for example, will not be delivered to strangers, 
unless they exhibit a passport to prove their identity. The count- 
enance and help of the English and American consuls can, of course, 
be extended to those persons only who can prove their nationality. 
The Italian police authorities are generally civil and obliging. 

Foreign Office passports may be obtained through Lee and Carter, 
440 West Strand, E. Stanford, 26 Cockspur Street, Charing Cross, or W. J. 
Adams, 59 Fleet Street (charge 2s.; agent's fee 1*. Qd.). 

Custom House. The examination of luggage at the Italian 
frontier railway-stations is generally lenient, but complaints are 
sometimes made as to a deficiency of official courtesy at diligence- 
stations. Tobacco and cigars (only six pass free) are the articles 
chiefly sought for. The custom-house receipts should be preser- 
ved, as travellers are sometimes challenged by the excise officials 
in the interior. At the gates of most of the Italian towns a tax 
(dazio consumo) is levied on comestibles , but travellers' luggage is 
passed at the barriers (limite daziario) on a simple declaration that 
it contains no such articles. 

Luggage. If possible , luggage should never be sent to Italy 
by goods-train , as it is liable to damage , pilferage , and undue 
custom-house detention. If the traveller is obliged to forward it in 
this way, he should employ a trustworthy agent at the frontier and 
send him the keys. As a rule it is advisable, and often in the end' 
less expensive , never to part from one's luggage , and to super- 
intend the custom-house examination in person (comp. p. xvii). 

t A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons un- 
acquainted with the language. C before e and i is pronounced like the 
English ch; g before e and i like j. Before other vowels c and g are 
hard. Gh and gh, which generally precede e or i, are hard. Sc before e 
or i is pronounced like sh; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
The vowels a, e, », o, u are pronounced ah, a. ee, o, oo. — In ad- 
dressing persons of the educated classes 'Ella 1 or *Lei\ with the 3rd pers. 
sing., should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with 
the 3rd pers. pi). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., 'tii* 
by those only who are proficient in the language. 'Voi' is the usual mode 
of address among the Neapolitans, but elsewhere is generally regarded a 
inelegant or discourteous. 



Y. Public Safety. Beggars. 

Public Safety in North. Italy is on as stable a footing as to the 
N. of the Alps. The policeman in the town is called Quardia; 
the gend'arme in the country, Carabiniere (black coat with red 
facings and cocked hats). No one may carry weapons without a 
licence. Concealed weapons (sword-sticks ; even knives with spring- 
blades, etc.) are absolutely prohibited. 

Begging still continues to be one of those national nuisances 
to which the traveller must accustom himself. It is most prevalent 
at church-doors , but has also begun to increase in some country- 
districts. If a donation be bestowed , it should consist of the 
smallest possible copper coin. 

VI. Gratuities. Guides. 

Gratuities. — The traveller should always be abundantly 
supplied with copper coin in a country where trifling donations 
are in constant demand. Drivers, guides, and other persons of the 
same class invariably expect, and often demand as their right, a 
gratuity (buona mano , mancia, da bere, bottiglia,.caffe, fumata) in 
addition to the hire agreed on, varying according to circumstances 
from 2-3 sous to a franc or more. The traveller need have no 
scruple in limiting his donations to the smallest possible sums, as 
liberality frequently becomes a source of annoyance and embarass- 
ment. Thus, if half-a-franc is bestowed where two sous Would 
have sufficed, the fact speedily becomes known , and the donor is 
sure to be besieged by numerous other applicants whose demands 
it is impossible to satisfy. The following hints will be found useful 
by the average tourist. In private collections a single visitor should 
bestow a gratuity of l /% fr., 2-3 pers. 3 / 4 , 4 pers. 1 fr. For repeated 
visits half as much. For opening a church-door, etc. 10-20 c. 
is enough, but if extra services are rendered (e.g. uncovering an 
altar-piece, lighting candles, etc.) from 1/3 to 1 fr- m *y be given. 

In hotels and restaurants about 5-10°/ of the reckoning should 
be given in gratuities, or less if service is charged for. When 'ser- 
vice' and 'couvert' appear on the bill, no fees should be given. 

Valets de Place (Guide, sing, la Quida) may be hired at 0-7 fr. 
per day. The most trustworthy are those attached to the chief 
hotels. In some towns the better guides have formed societies as 
'Guide patentate'. Their services may generally well be dispensed 
with by those who are not pressed for time. Purchases should never 
be made, nor contracts with vetturini or other persons drawn up, 
in presence or with the aid of a commissionnaire, as any such inter- 
vention tends considerably to increase the prices. 

In Venice etc. parties are frequently formed by the guides , who 
undertake to conduct them to all the sights at a charge of 4 fr. each per- 
son, which includes gondola- fares and fees, but, as the number is un- 
limited, the members of the party lose their independence. A party of 
2-6 persons will find it far preferable to have a guide at their own dis- 
posal (fee about 20 fr. per day, including everything). 


VII. Railways and Steam Tramways. 

Railways. — Northern Italy is now overspread with so com- 
plete a network of railways that the traveller will seldom use any 
other conveyance , except on the Alpine routes and on the lakes. 
The rate of travelling is very moderate , rarely reaching 30 M. per 
hour. The first-class carriages are tolerably comfortable, the second 
are inferior to those of the German railways, and resemble the 
English and French , while the third class is chiefly frequented by 
the lower orders. Separate first and second-class compartments are 
reserved for ladies. Sleeping-carriages (coupe a letti) are provided on 
all the main lines at a small extra charge. Railway time is that 
of Rome, 52 min. before Greenwich and 40 min. before Paris. 

Among the expressions with which the railway-traveller, will soon 
become familiar are — '■pronW (ready), ''partenza' (departure), 's« cambia 
convoglio'' (change carriages), and i usci(a'' (egress). The station-master is 
called l, capostazione\ Smoking compartments are labelled ^pei fumatori\ 
those for non-smokers '£ vietato di fumare\ 

"When about to start from a crowded station , the traveller will 
find it convenient to have as nearly as possible the exact fare ready 
before taking tickets. 'Mistakes' are far from uncommon on the 
part of the ticket-clerks. In addition to the fare , a tax of 5 c. is 
payable on each ticket, and the express fares are 10 per cent higher 
than the ordinary. It is also very important to be at the station 
early. The ticket-office at large stations is open 1 hr., at small 
stations V4-Y2 nT - before the departure of the train. Holders of 
tickets alone have the right of admission to the waiting-rooms. At 
the end of the journey tickets are given up at the usctta, except 
in the case of the very large stations, where they are collected be- 
fore the passengers alight. 

Passengers by night-trains from the larger stations may hire pillows 
(cuscino, gucmciale; 1 fr.). These must not be removed from the compartment. 

The traveller should, if possible, know the weight of his lug- 
gage approximately , in order to guard against imposition (1 kilo- 
gramme = about 2^5 lbs.). No luggage is allowed free, except 
small articles taken by the passenger into his carriage. The luggage- 
ticket is called lo scontrino. Porters who convey luggage to and 
from the carriages are sufficiently paid with a few sous , where 
there is no fixed tariff. Those who intend to make only a short 
stay at a place, especially when the town or village lies at a con- 
siderable distance from the railway, had better leave their heavier 
luggage at the station till their return {dare in deposito , or de- 
positare ; 10 c. per day per cwt. or fraction of a cwt.). Luggage, 
however, may be sent on to the final destination, though the tra- 
veller himself break the journey. On alighting at small stations, 
the traveller should at once look after his luggage in person. 

During the last few years an extraordinary number of robberies of pass- 
engers' luggage have been perpetrated in Italy without detection, and ar- 
ticles of great value should not be entrusted to the safe-keeping of any 
trunk or portmanteau, however strong and secure it may seem (comp. p. xiv). 

The enormous weight of the large trunks used by some travellers not 


infrequently causes serious injury to the porters who have to handle them. 
Heavy articles should therefore always be placed in the smaller packages. 

The best collections of time-tables are tbe l Indicatore Ufficiale 
delle Strade Ferrate', etc. (published monthly by the Fratelli Pozzo 
at Turin ; price 1 fr.) and the Orario del Movimento Trent e Piro- 
scafi (published by Arnaboldi at Florence; lfr.). Smaller editions, 
fox of N. Italy only (Ferrovie dell' Alia Italia), are also issued. 

Through Tickets to various parts of Italy are issued in London 
(at the principal stations of the southern railways ; by Messrs. Cook 
& Son, Ludgate Circus; etc.), in Paris, and at the chief towns of 
Germany and Switzerland. They are generally available for 30 days, 
and each passenger is allowed 56 Engl. lbs. of luggage free. 

Those with whom economy is an object may save a good deal by tak- 
ing return -tickets "to the Swiss frontier, travelling third-class through 
Switzerland, and then taking circular tour tickets in Italy. 

Circular Tickets (viaggi circolari) to the principal towns in 
Italy, the Italian lakes, etc., available for 20-60 days, may be 
purchased in London , in France , and in Germany, as well as in 
Italy, at a reduction of 45 per cent (but without a free allowance of 
luggage). For Northern Italy there are upwards of twelve different 
circular tours, for which 10-30 days are allowed, and which are de- 
scribed in detail in the railway guides mentioned above. These tickets 
require to be stamped at each fresh starting-point with the name ol 
the next station at which the traveller intends to halt. If, therefore, 
the traveller leaves the train before the station for which his ticket 
has been stamped he must at once apply to the capostazione for re- 
cognition of the break in the journey Caecertare il cambiamento di 
destinazione'^. When the traveller quits the prescribed route, in- 
tending to rejoin it at a point farther on, he has also to procure 
an ' annotazione' 1 at the station where he alights, enabling him to 
resume his circular tour after his digression {^vale per riprendere 
alia stazione . . . il viaggio interrotto a . . .'). If this ceremony be 
neglected the holder of the ticket is required to pay treble fare for 
the omitted portion of the route for which the ticket is issued. 

Return Tickets (Biglietti d'andata e ritorno) may often be 
advantageously used for short excursions , but they are generally 
available for one day only, except those issued on Saturdays and 
the eves of festivals. It should also be observed that if the traveller 
alights at a station short of his destination he forfeits the rest of 
his ticket for the direction in which he is proceeding. In returning 
the ticket is not available unless he starts from the end-station for 
which the ticket was issued. 

Within the last few years a system of Steam Tramways (Tramvia a 
Vapore) has been developed in North Italy, which entirely throws into the 
shade anything of the kind hitherto attempted in Great Britain or America. 
The principal centres of this system are Milan and Turin (see pp. 90, 26). 
These tramways are on the whole of little importance for the tourist, but 
facilitate a visit to several interesting little towns at some distance from 
the great railway-routes. The rate of speed attained on them is about half 
that of the ordinary railways. Comp. the Indicatore Ufficiale. 

Baedeker. Italy I. 9th Edit. b 

xviii HOTELS. 

VIII. Hotels. 

First Class Hotels, comfortably fitted up, are to be found at 
all the principal resorts of travellers in Northern Italy, mostofthem 
having fixed charges : room 2V 2 -5 fr- > bougie 75 c. to 1 fr. , atten- 
dance (exclusive of the 'facchino' and porter) lfr., table d'hote 
4-6 fr. The charge for dinner does not include wine, which is 
usually poor and dear. For a prolonged stay an agreement may 
generally be made with the landlord for pension at a more moder- 
ate rate. Visitors are expected to dine at the table d'hote ; other- 
wise the charge for rooms is apt to be raised. The cuisine is a 
mixture of French and Italian. The charge for the use of the hotel- 
omnibus from the station to the hotel is so high (l-l 1 /^ fr.)> that 
it is often cheaper to take a cab. It is also easier for those who use 
a cab to proceed to another hotel, should they not like the rooms 
offered them. Rooms on the ground-floor should be avoided. 

The Second Class Hotels are thoroughly Italian in their ar- 
rangements, and are rarely very clean or comfortable. The charges 
are little more than one - half of the above. They have no table 
d'hote, but there is generally a trattoria connected with the house, 
where refreshments a la carte, or a dinner a prezzo fisso, may be 
procured at any hour. Morning coffee , especially in the smaller 
towns, is usually taken at a cafe and not at the inn. It is everywhere 
customary to make enquiries beforehand as to the charges for 
rooms, not forgetting the servizio e candela. These inns will often 
be found convenient and economical by the voyageur en gargon, 
and the better houses of this class may be visited by ladies; but 
the new-comer should frequent hotels of the first class only. 

The Pensions of Venice and Florence also receive passing tra- 
vellers, but as the price of dejeuner is usually (though not uni- 
versally) included in the fixed daily charge, the traveller has either 
to sacrifice some of the best hours for visiting the galleries or to 
pay for a meal he does not consume. 

Hotels Garnis are to be found in most of the larger towns, 
with charges for rooms similar to those in the second-class hotels. 

Private Apartments are recommended for a prolonged stay. 
A distinct agreement as to rent should be made beforehand. When 
a whole suite of apartments is hired, a written contract on stamped 
paper should be drawn up with the aid of some one acquainted 
with the language and customs of the place [e.g. a banker), in 
order that 'misunderstandings' may be prevented. For single tra- 
vellers a verbal agreement with regard to attendance, linen, stoves 
and carpets in winter, a receptacle for coal , and other details will 
generally suffice. Comp. p. xxvi. 

Money and other valuables should either be carried on the per- 
son or entrusted to the landlord in exchange for a receipt. 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Italy is behind the age, dirt being 
perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by the brilliancy of 


their climate. The traveller in N. Italy will rarely suffer from -this short- 
coming even in hotels of the second class ; but those who quit the beaten 
track must be prepared for privations. Iron bedsteads should if possible be 
selected, as they are less likely to harbour the enemies of repose. Insect- 
powder (polvere di Persia, or Keating's.) or camphor somewhat repels their 
advances. The zanzare , or gnats , are a source of great annoyance , and 
often of suffering , during the autumn months. Windows should always 
be carefully closed before a light is introduced into the room. Light 
muslin curtains (zanzarieri) round the beds, masks for the face, and 
gloves are employed to ward of the attacks of these pertinacious in- 
truders. The burning of insect powder over a spirit lamp is also recom- 
mended, and pastilles may be purchased at the principal chemists 1 for the 
same purpose (see p. 199). A weak solution of carbolic acid in water is 
efficacious in allaying the discomforts occasioned by the bites. 

A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing 
(la biancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman: Shirt 
(linen, cotton, woollen), la camicia (di tela, di cotone, di lana); collar, 
il solino, il colletto; cuff, tt polsino ; drawers, le mutande; woollen under- 
shirt, una flanella or giubetta di flanella ; petticoat, la sottana ; stocking, 
la calza:, sock, la calzetta; handkerchief (silk), il fazoletto (di seta). To give 
out to wash, dare a bucato (di bucato, newly washed) ; washing list, la nota; 
washerwoman, laundress, la stiratrice, la lavandaja ; buttons, i bottom. 

IX. Restaurants, Cafes, Osterie. 

Restaurants of the first class (Ristoranti) in the larger towns 
resemble those of France or Germany, and have similarly high 
charges. — The more strictly national Trattorie are chiefly fre- 
quented by Italians and gentlemen travelling alone, hut those of 
the better class may he visited by ladies also. They are generally 
open from 11 till comparatively early in the evening, hut are fre- 
quented chiefly between 5 and 8. Breakfast or a light luncheon 
before 1 o'cl. may be more conveniently obtained at a cafe (p. xxj. 
Dinner may be obtained alia carta for 1V2-3 fr. , and sometimes 
a prezzo fisso for 2-5 fr. The waiters expect a gratuity of 2-5 soldi. 
The diner who wishes to confine his expenses within reasonable 
limits should refrain from ordering dishes not mentioned in the bill 
Of fare. The waiter is called cameriere (or bottegd), but the approved 
way of attracting his attention is by knocking on the table. If too 
importunate in his recommendations or suggestions he may be 
checked with the word i ba$ta>. The diner calls for his bill with 
the words HI conto\ 

List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants. 

Salami, sausage (usually with garlic, 

Polio, or pollastro, fowl. 
Potaggio di polio, chicken-fricassee. 
Anitva, duck. 

Antipasti, relishes taken as whets. 
Minestra or Zuppa, soup. 
Brodo or Consume, broth or bouillon. 
Zuppa alia Santh, soup with green 

vegetables and bread. 
Gnocchi, small puddings. 
Minestra di riso con piselli, rice-soup 

with peas. 
Risotto (alia Milanese), a kind of rice 

pudding (rich). 
Paste asciutte, maccaroni, al sugo e 
ty al burro, with sauce and butter; 
'£al pomidoro, with^tomatoes. 

Gallinaccio, turkey. 
Stufatino, ragout. 
Crochetti, croquettes. 
Erbe, vegetables. 

Contorno , Guamizione , garnishing, 
vegetables, usually not charged for. 
Asparagi, asparagus. ; _j 
Spinaci spinach. 




Carciofi, artichokes. 

Piselli, peas. 

Lenticchie, lentils. 

Cavoli fiori, cauliflower. 

Fare, beans. 

Fagiolini, Cornetti, French beans. 

Mostarda, simple mustard. 

Mostarda inglese or. 

Senape, hot mustard. 

Sale, salt. 

Pepe, pepper. 

Ostriche, oysters (good in winter only). 

Dolce, sweet dish. 

Frutta, Giardinetto, fruit-desert. 

Croslata di frvlti, fruit-tart. 

Crostata di pasta sfoglia , a kind of 

Fragole, strawberries. 
Pera, pear. 
Pomi, Mele, apples. 
Pirsici, Pesche, peaches. 
Uva, bunch of grapes. 
Fichi, figs. 
Noci, nuts. 
Limone, lemon. 

Arancio or portogallo, orange. 
Finocchio, root of fennel. 
Pane francese, bread made with yeast 

(the Italian is made without). 
Formaggio, cacio, cheese (Gorgonzola, 


Carne lessa, bollita, boiled meat; in 

umido , alia genovese, with sauce; 

ben cotto, well-done; ol sangue, 

aW inglese, underdone; ai ferri, 

cooked on the gridiron. 
Manzo, boiled beef. 
Fritto, una Frittura, fried meat. 
Fritlata, omelette. 
Arrosto, roasted meat. 
Arrosto di vitello, or di mongana, 

Bistecca, beefsteak. 
Ma j ale, pork. 
Montone, mutton. 
Coscietto, loin. 
Testa di vitello, calf's head. 
Figato di vitello, calf's liver. 
Braccioletta di vitello, veal-cutlet. 
Costoletta alia minida, veal -cutlet 

with calves 1 ears and truffles ; alia 

Milanese, baked in dough. 
Esgaloppe , veal-cutlet with bread- 
Patate, potatoes. 
Quaglia, quail. 
Tordo, field-fare. 
Lodola, lark. 
Pesce, fish. 

Sfoglia, a kind of sole. 
Funghi, mushrooms (often too rich). 
Presciutto, ham. 

The Wine Shops (Osterie) are almost exclusively frequented 
by the lower ranks, except in Tuscany. Bread, cheese, and eggs 
are usually the only viands provided. 

Wine {vino da pasta, table-wine; nero, red; bianco, white; pastaso, 
sweet; asciutto, dry; del paese, nostramo, wine of the country) is usually 
supplied in bottles one-half or one-fifth of a litre (un mezzo litro; un quinto 
or bicchiere). Wines of a better quality are sold in ordinary quarts and 

In the Nokth of Italy tbe following are the b^st wines: the care- 
fully manufactured Piedm on tese brands, Bavolo, Nebiolo, Grignolino, Bar- 
ber a, and the sparkling Asti spumante; Valtellinn, known also in E. Switzer- 
land; the Vincentine Marzemino and Breganze (a white sweet wine); the 
Paduan Bagnoli; the Veronese Valpolicella ; in the province of Treviso, 
Conegliano , Raboso di Piave , Prosecco, and Verdiso ; in Udine , Refosco; 
the wine of Bologna, partly from French vineyards; Lambrusco, etc. 

In Tuscany the best wines (all red) are : Ghianti (best Broglio), Rufina 
(best Pontine), Nipozzhno, Altomena, and Carmignono, and Aha'ico (sweet). 
Orvielo and Montepulciano are produced farther to the south. — In Tus- 
cany a 'fiasco 1 a straw-covered Pask, usually holding three ordinary bottles 
is generally brouglit, but only the quantity consumed is paid for. Smaller 
bottles may be obtained: mezzo fiasco (Va), quarto fiasco Q/i), ottavino ('/s). 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and lunch, and in the evening 
by numerous consumers of ices. 

Caffe nero, or coffee without milk, is usually drunk (20-25 c. per 
cup). Caffe latte is coffee mixed with milk before served (30-50 c); or 
caffe e latte, i. e. with the milk served separately, may be preferred. Mis- 
chio, a mixture of coffee and chocolate (20-25 c), is considered wholesome 
and nutritious. Cakes or biscuits 10-15 c. 

The usual viands for lunch are ham, sausages, cutlets, beefsteaks, and 
eggs {uova da here, soft; tosle, hard; uova al piatto, fried). 


Ices (sorbetto or gelato) of every possible variety are supplied at the 
cafes at 30-90 c. per portion; or half a portion (mezzo) may be ordered. 
Granita, or half-frozen ice, is much in vogue in the forenoon. Limonata, 
iced lemonade, Gassosa, aerated lemonade, and Aranciata, orangade, are 
also frequently ordered. The waiters, who expect a sou or more, according 
to the amount of the payment, are apt to be inaccurate in changing money. 

The principal Parisian and Viennese newspapers are to be found at 
all the larger cafe's , English less often. Italian papers (usually 5 c.) are 
everywhere offered by newsvendors. 

Cigars in Italy are a monopoly of Government, and bad. The 
prices of the home-made cigars {Scelti Romani, Virginias, Vevays, 
Pressati, Cavours, Napoletani, Toscani, Minghetti, etc.) vary from 
7 ! / 2 to 18 c. Good imported cigars may be bought at the best shops 
in the large towns for 25-60 c. each, and also foreign cigarettes. 
— Passers-by are at liberty to avail themselves of the light burn- 
ing in every tobacconist's, without making any purchase. 

X. Sights, Theatres, etc. 

Churches are open in the morning till 12 or 12. 30, and generally 
again from 4 to 7 p. m. Visitors may inspect the works of art 
even during divine service, provided they move about noiselessly, 
and keep aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. On 
the occasion of festivals and for a week or two before Easter the 
works of art are often entirely concealed by the temporary decora- 
tions. Those which are always kept covered are shown by the verger 
(sagrestano, or nonzolo), who expects a fee of 30-50 c. from a single 
traveller, more from a party 

Museums , picture-galleries , and other collections are usually 

open from 9 or 10 to 4 o'clock. All the collections which belong 

to government are open on week-days at a charge of 1 fr., and on 

Sundays (and sometimes on Thursdays also) gratis. Artists are 

admitted without charge. Gratuities are forbidden. 

The collections are closed on the following public holidays : New 
Year's Day, Epiphany (6th Jan.), the Monday and Tuesday during the 
Carnival, Palm Sunday, Easter Sunday, Ascension Day, Whitsunday, Fete 
de Dieu (Corpus Christi), the Festa dello Statuto (first Sunday in June), 
Assumption of the Virgin (15th Aug.), Nativity of the Virgin (8th Sept.), 
Festival of the Annunciation (25th Mar.), All Saints 1 Day (1st Nov.), and 
on Christmas Day. A good many other days are also sometimes observed 
as holidays, such as the Thursday before the Carnival (Giovedi grasso), 
the day sacred to the local patron-saint, and the birthdays of the king 
(14th Mar.) and queen (20th Nov.). — For Florence, comp. p. 348. 

Theatres. Performances in the large theatres begin at 8 or 8.30, 
and terminate at midnight or later, operas and ballets being exclu- 
sively performed. The lirst act of an opera is usually succeeded 
by a ballet of three acts or more. The pit (platea), to which the 
'biglietto d'ingresso' gives access, is the usual resort of the men, 
while the boxes and sometimes the stalls (scanni chiusi, sedie chiuse, 
poltrone, or posti distinti) are frequented by ladies. A box (palco) 
must always be secured in advance. — A visit to some of the 
smaller theatres, where dramas and comedies are acted, is recom- 


mended for the sake of accustoming the ear to the language. Per- 
formances in summer take place in the open air , in which case 
smoking is allowed. — The theatre is the usual evening-resort of 
the Italians, who seldom observe strict silence during the perfor- 
mance of the orchestra. The instrumental music is rarely good. 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph. 

In the larger towns the Post-Office is open daily from 8a.m. to 
8 or 8.30 p.m. (also on S,undays and holidays); in smaller places 
it is generally closed in the middle of the day for two or three hours. 

Letters (whether 'poste restante\ Italian 'ferma in posta? , or to 
the traveller's hotel) should be addressed very distinctly, and the 
name of the place should be in Italian. When asking for letters the 
traveller should present his visiting-card instead of giving his name 
orally. Postage-stamps (francobolli) are sold at the post-offices and 
at many of the tobacco-shops. 

Letters of 15 grammes O/2 oz., about the weight of three sous) by 
town-post 5c, to the rest of Italy 20c, abroad (per lestero) to any of 
the states included in the postal union (now comprising the whole of 
Europe as well as the United States, Canada, etc.) 25c The penalty 
(segnatassa) for insufficiently prepaid letters is considerable. — Post- 
cards (carlolina postale) for both Italy (white) and abroad (per Testero; 
green) 10 c, reply-cards (con risposta pagata), inland 15 c, abroad 
20 c — Book-packets (stampe sotto fascia), 2 c. per 50 grammes, for 
abroad 5 c. — Registration-fee (raccomandazione) for letters for the 
same town and printed matter 10 c, otherwise 25 c. The packet or letter 
must be inscribed l raccomandata\ and the stamps must be affixed in front 
at the different corners. — Post Office Orders, see p. xii. 

A Parcel Post exists between Italy and Great Britain, the rates and 
conditions of which may be ascertained at any post-office. Articles such 
as flowers, etc., not liable to duty are best sent as samples of no value 
(campions senza valore)) in Italy 2 c. per 50 gr., abroad 10 c. 

Telegrams. For telegrams to foreign countries the following 
rate per word is charged in addition to an initial payment of 1 fr. : 
GreatBritain 39 c, France 14, Germany20, Switzerland 6-14, Austria 
6-14, Belgium 19, Denmark 23, Russia 49 , Sweden 38, Norway 
36 c. To America from 3 3 / 4 fr. per word upwards, according to the 
state. — Within the kingdom of Italy, 15 words 1 fr., each addi- 
tional word 5c. 5 telegrams with special haste (telegrammi urgenti), 
which take precedence of all others , may be sent at thrice the 
above rates. 

XII. Climate. Winter Stations. Seaside Resorts. Health, 

by Dr. Hermann Reimer. 

It is a common error on the part of those who visit Italy for the 
first time to believe that beyond the Alps the skies are always blue 
and the breezes always balmy. It is true that the traveller who 
has crossed the Splugen, the Brenner, or the St. Gotthard in winter 
and finds himself in the district of the N. Italian lakes, cannot fail 
to remark what an admirable barrier against the wind is afforded 

CLIMATE. xxiii 

by the central chain of the Alps. The average winter-temperature 
here is 37-40° Fahr. as compared with 28-32° on the N. side of the 
mountains. Places nestling close to the S. base of the Alps, such 
as Arco, Oardone-Riviera, Lugano, and Pallanza, thus form an ex- 
cellent intermediate stage between the bleak winter of N. Europe and 
the semi-tropical climate of the Riviera or S. Italy. A peculiarity of 
the climate here is afforded by the torrents of rain which may be 
expected about the equinoctial period. The masses of warm and 
moisture - laden clouds driven northwards by the S. wind break 
against the Alpine chain , and discharge themselves in heavy 
showers, which rill the rivers and occasion the inundations from 
which Lombardy not unfrequently suffers. If , however, the trav- 
eller continues his journey towards the S. through the plain of Lom- 
bardy he again enters a colder and windy region. The whole plain 
of the Po, enclosed by snow-capped mountains, exhibits a climate 
of a thoroughly continental character ; the summer is as hot as that 
of Sicily, while the winter is extremely cold, the mean temperature 
being below 35° Fahr. or about equal to that of the lower Rhine. 
Changes of weather, dependent upon the direction of the wind, are 
frequent; and the humidity of the atmosphere, occasioned in part 
by the numerous canals and rice-marshes, is also very considerable. 
A prolonged residence in Turin or Milan should therefore be avoided 
by invalids, while even robust travellers should be on their guard 
against the trying climate. As we approach the Adriatic Sea the 
climate of the Lombard plain loses its continental character and 
approximates more closely to that of the rest of the peninsula. The 
climatic peculiarities of Venice are described at p. 202. 

As soon as we cross the mountains which bound the S. margin 
of the Lombard plain and reach the Mediterranean coast, we find a 
remarkable change in the climatic conditions. Here an almost un- 
interrupted series of winter-resorts extends along the coast from 
Hyeres to Genoa and thence to Leghorn, and these are rapidly in- 
creasing both in number and popularity. The cause of the mild 
and pleasant climate at these places is not far to seek. The Maritime 
Alps and the Ligurian Apennines form such an admirable screen 
on the N., that the cold N. winds which pass these mountains do 
not touch the district immediately at their feet, but are first per- 
ceptible on the sea 6-10 M. from the coast. It is of no unfrequent 
occurrence in the Riviera that the harbours are perfectly smooth 
while the open sea is agitated by a brisk tempest. Most of the towns 
and villages on the coast lie in crescent -shaped bays, opening 
towards the S., while on the landward side they are protected by 
an amphitheatre of hills. These hills are exposed to the full force 
of the sun's rays, and the limestone of which they are composed 
absorbs an immense amount of heat. It is therefore not to be 
wondered at that these hothouses of the Riviera show a higher tem- 
perature in winter than many places much farther to the S. Thus, 

xxiv CLIMATE. 

while the mean temperature of Rome in the three coldest months is 
46° Fahr., that of the Riviera is 48-50°. 

It would , however, be a mistake to suppose that this strip of 
coast is entirely free from wind. The rapid heating and cooling of 
the strand produces numerous light breezes, while the rarefaction 
of the masses of air by the strength of the sun gives rise to strong 
currents rushing in from the E. and W. to supply the vacuum. 
The most notorious of these coast-winds is the Mistral, which is 
at its worst at Avignon and other places in the Rhone Valley, 
where it may be said without exaggeration to blow on one of every 
two days. As a rule this wind lasts for a period of 3-17 days at a 
time, rising at about 10 a.m. and subsiding at sunset; and each 
such period is generally followed by an interval of calm and fine 
weather. As the Mistral sweeps the coast from W. to E. it gradu- 
ally loses its strength, so that at San Remo, for instance, it is much 
less violent than at Cannes or Hyeres. The N.E. wind on the con- 
trary is much stronger in Alassio and San Remo than on the coast 
of Provence. The Scirocco as known on the Ligurian coast is by no 
means the dry and parching wind experienced in Sicily and even 
at Rome 5 passing as it does over immense tracts of sea it is gener- 
ally charged with moisture and is often followed by rain. 

The prevalent belief that the Riviera has a moist climate, on 
account of its proximity to the sea, is natural but erroneous. The 
atmosphere, on the contrary, is rather dry, especially in the AV. 
half of it, while the humidity rapidly increases as we approach 
the Riviera di Levante. The same holds good of the rainfall. 
While Nice has 36 rainy days between November and April, Men- 
tone has 44, Nervi 54, and Pisa 63. The average number of rainy 
days during the three winter months in the Riviera is 16. Snow 
is rarely seen ; it falls perhaps once or twice in the course of the 
winter, but generally lies only for a few hours , while many years 
pass without the appearance of a single snow-flake. Fogs are very 
rare on the Ligurian coast; but a heavy dew-fall in the evening is 
the rule. In comparison with the Cisalpine districts, the Riviera 
enjoys a very high proportion of bright, sunny weather. 

The mildness of the climate of the Riviera requires, perhaps, no 
better proof than its rich southern vegetation. The Olive, which is 
already found in the neighbourhood of the N. Italian lakes, here 
attains great luxuriance , while the Eucalyptus globulus (which 
grows rapidly and to an astonishing height), the Orange, the 
Lemon, and several varieties of Palms also flourish. 

The geological character of the Riviera is also of sanitary signi- 
ficance. The prevailing formation is limestone, which absorbs the 
sun's rays with remarkable rapidity and radiates it with equal speed, 
thus forming an important factor in making the most of the winter- 
sunshine. On account of its softness it is also extensively used 
for road-making, and causes the notorious dust of the Riviera, which 


forms the chief objection to a region frequented by so many per- 
sons with weak lungs. The authorities of the various health-resorts, 
however, take great pains to mitigate this evil as far as practicable. 
After heavy rain the roads are apt to be very muddy. 

The advantages that a winter-residence in the Riviera, in contra- 
distinction to the climate of northern Europe, offers to invalids and 
delicate persons, are a considerably warmer and generally dry at- 
mosphere, seldom disturbed by storms, yet fresh and pure, a more 
cheerful sky, and comparative immunity from rain. The 'invalid's 
day', or the time during which invalids may remain in the open 
air with impunity, lasts here from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. The general 
effeet of a prolonged course of open-air life in the Riviera may be 
described as a gentle stimulation of the entire physical organism. 
It is found particularly beneficial for convalescents, the debilitated, 
and the aged ; for children of scrofulous tendency ; and for the mar- 
tyrs of gout and rheumatism. The climatic cure of the Riviera is 
also often prescribed to patients with weak chests, to assist in the 
removal of the after-effects of inflammation of the lungs or pleurisy, 
or to obviate the danger of the formation of a chronic pulmonary 
discharge. The dry and frequently-agitated air of the Riviera is, 
however, by no means suitable for every patient of this kind, and 
the immediate vicinity of the sea is particularly unfavourable to 
cases of a feverish or nervous character. The stimulating effects of 
the climate are then often too powerful , producing sleeplessness 
and unwholesome irritation. The dry air of the Riviera di Ponente 
is also prejudicial to many forms of inflammation of the wind-pipe 
and bronchial tubes, which derive benefit from the air of Nervi, 
Pisa, or Ajaccio. Cases of protracted nephritis or diabetes, on the 
contrary, often obtain considerable relief from a residence here. 

The season on the Ligurian coast lasts from about the beginn- 
ing of October to the middle of May. In September it is still too 
hot, and in March it is so windy that many patients are obliged to 
retire farther inland, e.g. from Nice to Cimiez. Many invalids make 
the mistake of leaving the Riviera too soon, and thus lose all the 
progress they have made during the winter, through reaching home 
in the unfavourable transition period between winter and spring. 
It is better to spend April and May at some intermediate station, 
such as Pallanza or Lugano. 

The average temperature of the three winter-months (Decem- 
ber, January, and February) at the. following winter-resorts is as 
here given: Lugano 36.5° Fahr., Pallanza 38.5°, Venice 38.75°, 
Arco 38.75®, Gardone-Riviera 40°, Pisa 42°, Nervi 48°, Nice 49°, 
Cannes 49.5°, Mentone (E. bay) 49.75°, SanRemo 51°, Ajaccio 52°. 

The above considerations will show that it is often necessary to 
discount the unpropitious opinions of those who happen to have 
visited the Riviera under peculiarly unfavourable climatic con- 
ditions. Not only do the ordinary four seasons differ from each other 

xxvi HEALTH. 

on the Riviera, but the different parts of winter are also sharply 
discriminated. An uninterrupted series of warm and sunshiny days 
may he counted on with almost complete certainty in October and 
the first half of November. Then follows a rainy season, lasting till 
the end of the year, which restricts, but by no means abolishes, 
open-air exercise. January and February are generally fine and 
cloudless, but invalids have often to be on their guard against 
wind. March here, as elsewhere in the south, is the windiest month 
of all, but is much less boisterous in the E. part of the Riviera 
(from Mentone to Nervi) than at Hyeres, Cannes, and Nice. April 
and May are delightful months for those who require out-door life 
in a warm climate. Places such as Nice, Cannes, Mentone, San Remo, 
and Nervi naturally offer many comforts and resources in unfavour- 
able weather which are lacking at smaller and newer health-resorts. 

Good opportunities for sea-bathing are offered at many points on the 
Mediterranean coast of N. Italy, such as Cannes, Nice, Alassio, Savona, 
Pegli, Spezia, Viareggio, Leghorn, and Venice. The Mediterranean is almost 
tideless ; it contains about 41 per cent of common salt, a considerably 
higher proportion than the Atlantic; its average temperature during the 
bathing-season is 71° Fahr. The bathing- season on the Ligurian coast be- 
gins in April, or at latest in May, and lasts till November, being thus much 
longer than the season at any English seaside-resort. 

Most travellers must in some degree alter their mode of living whilst 
in Italy, without however implicitly adopting the Italian style. Inhabi- 
tants of more northern countries generally become unusually susceptible 
to cold in Italy, and therefore should not omit to be well supplied with 
warm clothing tor the winter. Woollen underclothing is especially to be 
recommended. A plaid should be carried to neutralise the often consider- 
able difference of temperature between the sunshine and the shade. In 
visiting picture-galleries or churches on warm days it is advisable to drive 
thither and walk back, as otherwise the visitor enters the cool building 
in a heated state and has afterwards no opportunity of regaining the de- 
sirable temperature through exercise. Exposure to the summer-sun should 
be avoided as much as possible. According to a Roman proverb, dogs and 
foreigners (Inglesi) alone walk in the sun, Christians in the shade. Um- 
brellas, or spectacles of coloured glass (grey, concave glasses to protect the 
whole eye are best), may be used with advantage. Blue veils are recom- 
mended to ladies. Repose during the hottest hours is advisable, and a 
moderate siesta is often refreshing. 

Great care should also be taken in the selection of an apartment. Car- 
pets and stoves are indispensable in winter. A southern aspect in winter 
is an absolute essential for delicate persons, and highly desirable for the 
robust. The visitor should see that all the doors and windows close sa- 
tisfactorily. Windows should be closed at night. 

Health. English and German medical men are to be met with in the 
larger cities, and in most of the wintering-stations of the Riviera. English 
and German chemists, where available, are recommended in preference to 
the Italian, whose drugs are at once dearer and of poorer quality. Foreigners 
frequently suffer from diarrhoea in Italy, which is generally occasioned by 
the unwonted heat. The homoeopathic tincture of camphor may be men- 
tioned as a remedy, but regulated diet and thorough repose are the chief 
desiderata. A small portable medicine-case, such as those prepared and 
stocked with tabloid drugs by Messrs. Burroughs, Wellcome, & Co., Holborn 
Viaduct, London, will often be found useful. 

Italian Art.' 

A Historical Sketch by Professor A. Springer. 

One of the primary objects of the enlightened traveller in Italy 
is usually to form some acquaintance with its treasures of art. 
Even those whose usual avocations are of the most prosaic DU ctor"y 
nature unconsciously become admirers of poetry and art in 
Italy. The traveller here finds them so interwoven with scenes of 
everyday life, that he encounters their influence at every step, and 
involuntarily becomes susceptible to their power. A single visit 
can hardly suffice to enable any one justly to appreciate the 
numerous works of art he meets with in the course of his tour, nor 
can a guide-book teach him to fathom the mysterious depths of 
Italian creative genius, the past history of which is particularly at- 
tractive; but the perusal of a few remarks on this subject will be 
found materially to enhance the pleasure and facilitate the researches 
of even the most unpretending lover of art. "Works of the highest class, 
the most perfect creations of genius, lose nothing of their charm by 
being pointed out as specimens of the best period of art; while 
those of inferior merit are invested with far higher interest when 
they are shown to be necessary links in the chain of development, 
and when, on comparison with earlier or later works, their relative 
defects or superiority are recognised. The following observations, 
therefore, will hardly be deemed out of place in a work designed to 
aid the traveller in deriving the greatest possible amount of enjoy- 
ment and instruction from his sojourn in Italy. 

The two great epochs in the history of art which principally 
arrest the attention are those of Classic Antiquity, and of the Classicand 
16th century, the culminating period of the so-called Renais- Renais- 
sance. The intervening space of more than a thousand years sance 
is usually, with much unfairness, almost entirely ignored ; EEI0DS - 
for this interval not only continues to exhibit vestiges of the first 
epoch, but gradually paves the way for the second. It is a common 
error to suppose that in Italy alone the character of ancient art can 
be thoroughly appreciated. This idea dates from the period when no 
precise distinction was made between Greek and Roman art, when 
the connection of the former with a particular land and nation, 
and the tendency of the latter to pursue an independent course 
were alike overlooked. Now , however , that we are acquainted 
with more numerous Greek originals , and have acquired a 

xxviii ITALIAN ART. 

deeper insight into the development of Hellenic art, an indis- 
criminate confusion of Greek and Roman styles is no longer to be 

Greek and apprehended. We are now well aware that the highest per- 
Roman fection of ancient architecture is realised in the Hellenic 

Styles dis- temple alone. The Doric order, in which majestic gravity is 

tinguished. eX p ressed by mass i ve proportions and symmetrical decoration, 
and the Ionic structure, with its lighter and more graceful char- 
acter, exhibit a creative spirit entirely different from that mani- 
fested in the sumptuous Roman edifices. Again, the most valuable 
collection of ancient sculptures in Italy is incapable of affording so 
admirable an insight into the. development of Greek art as the sculp- 
tures of the Parthenon and other fragments of Greek temple - archi- 
tecture preserved in the British Museum. But, while instruction is 
afforded more abundantly by other than Italian sources, ancient art 
is perhaps thoroughly admired in Italy alone , where works of art 
encounter the eye with more appropriate adjuncts, and where climate, 
scenery, and people materially contribute to intensify their impres- 
siveness. As long as a visit to Greece and Asia Minor is within the 
reach of comparatively few travellers, a sojourn in Italy may be recom- 
mended as best calculated to afford instruction with respect to the 
growth of ancient art. An additional facility, moreover, is afforded by 
the circumstance , that in accordance with an admirable custom of 
classic antiquity the once perfected type of a plastic figure was not 
again arbitrarily abandoned, but rigidly adhered to, and continually 
reproduced. Thus in numerous cases, where the more ancient 
Greek original had been lost, it was preserved in subsequent copies ; 
and even in the works of the Roman imperial age Hellenic creative 
talent is still reflected. 

This supremacy of Greek intellect in Italy was established in a 
Greece twofold manner. In the first place Greek colonists intro- 

supreme in duced their ancient native style into their new homes. This 
Art. } s p rove( i "by the existence of several Doric temples in Si- 
cily, such as those of Selinunto (but not all dating from the same 
period), and the ruined temples at Syracuse, Oirgenti, and Segesta. 
On the mainland the so-called Temple of Neptune at Pcestum, 
as well as the ruins at Metapontum, are striking examples of the 
fully developed elegance and grandeur of the Doric order. But, in 
the second place, the art of the Greeks did not attain its universal 
supremacy in Italy till a later period, when Hellas, nationally ruined, 
had learned to obey the dictates of her mighty conqueror , and the 
Romans had begun to combine with their political superiority the re- 
finements of more advanced culture. The ancient scenes of artistic 
activity in Greece (Athens for example) became re-peopled at 
the cost of Rome ; Greek works of art and Greek artists were in- 
troduced into Italy ; and ostentatious pride in the magnificence of 
booty acquired by victory led by an easy transition to a taste for 
such objects. To surround themselves with artistic decoration thus 


gradually became the universal custom of the Romans , and the 
foundation of public monuments came to be regarded as an in- 
dispensable duty of government. 

Although the Roman works of art of the imperial epoch are 
deficient in originality compared with the Greek , yet their Roman 
authors never degenerate into mere copyists, or entirely re- Abchitec- 
nounce independent effort. This remark applies especially to tube. 
their Architecture. Independently of the Greeks, the ancient Italian 
nations, and with them the Romans, had acquired a knowledge of 
stone-cutting, and discovered the method of constructing arches 
and vaulting. With this technically and scientifically important 
art they aimed at combining Greek forms , the column supporting 
the entablature. The sphere of architecture was then gradually ex- 
tended. One of the chief requirements was now to construct edifices 
with spacious interiors , and several stories in height. No precise 
model was afforded by Greek architecture , and yet the current 
Greek forms appeared too beautiful to be lightly disregarded. The 
Romans therefore preferred to combine them with the arch-prin- 
ciple, and apply this combination to their new architectural designs. 
The individuality of the Greek orders, and their originally un- 
alterable coherence were thereby sacrificed, and divested of much 
of their importance ; that which once possessed a definite organic 
significance frequently assumed a superficial and decorative charac- 
ter ; but the aggregate effect is always imposing, the skill in blend- 
ing contrasts, and the directing taste admirable. The lofty gravity 
of the Doric Style f must not be sought for at Rome. The Doric 

+ Those unacquainted with architecture will easily learn to distinguish 
the different Greek styles. In the Doric the shafts of the columns 
(without hases) rest immediately on the common pavement, in the Ionic 
they are separated from it hy hases. The flutings-of the Doric column 
immediately adjoin each other, heing separated by a sharp ridge, while 
those of the Ionic are disposed in pairs, separated hy broad unfluted 
intervening spaces. The Doric capital, expanding towards the summit, 
somewhat resembles a crown of leaves, and was in fact originally adorned 
with painted representations of wreaths ; the Ionic capital is distinguished 
by the volutes (or scrolls) projecting on either side, which may be re- 
garded rather as an appropriate covering of the capital than as the cap- 
ital itself. The entablature over the columns begins in the Doric style 
with the simple, in the Ionic with the threefold architrave; above which 
in the Doric order are the metopes (originally openings , subsequently 
receding panels) and triglyphs (tablets with two angular grooves in front, 
and a half groove at each end, resembling extremities of beams), and in 
the Ionic the frieze with its sculptured enrichments. In the temples of 
both orders the front culminates in a pediment. The so-called Tuscan, 
or early Italian column, approaching most nearly to the Doric, exhibits 
no decided distinctive marks ; the Corinthian , with the rich capital 
formed of acanthus-leaves , is essentially of a decorative character only. 
The following technical terms should also be observed. Temples in 
which the columns are on both sides enclosed by the projecting walls 
are termed 'in antis 1 (antse = end-pilasters); those which have one ex- 
tremity only adorned by columns , prostyle ; those with an additional 
pediment at the back, supported by columns, amphiprostyle; those entirely 
surrounded by columns , peripteral. In some temples it was imperative 


column in the hands of Roman architects lost the finest features 
of its original character, and was at length entirely disused. The 
Ionic column also, and corresponding entablature, were regarded 
with less favour than those of the Corinthian order, the sumptuous- 
ness of which was more congenial to the artistic taste of the 
Romans. As the column in Roman architecture was no longer 
destined exclusively to support a superstructure, hut formed a 
projecting portion of the wall, or was of a purely ornamental 
character , the most ornate forms were the most sought after. The 
graceful Corinthian capital, consisting of slightly drooping 
acanthus-leaves, was at length regarded as insufficiently enriched, 
and was superseded by the so-called Roman capital (first used 
in the arch of Titus) , a union of the Corinthian and Ionic. An 
impartial judgment respecting Roman architecture cannot, however, 
be formed from a minute inspection of the individual columns, 
nor is the highest rank in importance to be assigned to the Roman 
temples, which, owing to the different (projecting) construction of 
their roofs, are excluded from comparison with the Greek. Atten- 
tion must be directed to the several -storied structures, in which 
the tasteful ascending gradation of the component parts , from 
the more massive (Doric) to the lighter (Corinthian), chiefly 
arrests the eye ; and the vast and artistically vaulted interiors, as 
well as the structures of a merely decorative description , must 
also be examined , in order that the chief merits of Roman art 
may be understood. In the use of columns in front of closed 
walls {e.g. as members of a facade) , in the construction of domes 
above circular interiors, and of cylindrical and groined vaulting 
over oblong spaces, the Roman edifices have served as models to 
posterity, and the imitations have often fallen short of the originals. 
It is true that in the districts to which this volume of the Hand- 
book is devoted, the splendour and beauty of ancient art is not so 
prominently illustrated as in Rome or S. Italy. Nevertheless N. 
Italy also contains many interesting relics of Roman architecture 
(such as the Amphitheatre at Verona, the Triumphal Arches at Aosta 
and Susa, etc.), and though the smaller local collections of Lom- 
bardy and Tuscany may not detain the traveller long, he will un- 
doubtedly find ample food for his admiration in the magnificent 
antique sculptures at Florence (the Niobe Group, the Apollino, the 
formerly over-rated Medicean Venus, etc.). — Upper Italy and Tus- 

that the image of the god erected in the cella should be exposed to the 
rays of the sun. In this case an aperture was left in the ceiling and 
roof, and such temples were termed hypsethral. Temples are also named 
tetrastyle, hexastyle, octastyle, etc. according to the number of columns 
at each end. — A most attractive study is that of architectural mouldings 
and enrichments, and of those constituent members which respectively in- 
dicate superincumbent weight, or a free and independent existence. 
Research in these matters will enable the traveller more fully to appreciate 
the strict harmony of ancient architecture 


cany stand, on the other hand, in the very forefront of the artistic 
life of the middle ages and early Renaissance , and Venice may 
proudly boast of having brilliantly unfolded the glories of Italian 
painting at a time when that art had sunk at Rome to the lowest 
depths. In order, however, to place the reader at a proper point 
of view for appreciating the development of art in N. Italy, it is 
necessary to give a short sketch of the progress of Italian art in 
general from the early part of the middle .ages onwards. 

In the 4th century the heathen world, which had long been in 
a tottering condition, at length became Christianised, and a Christiai, 
new period of art began. This is sometimes erroneously re- Pekiod 
garded as the result of a forcible rupture from ancient 0F Art - 
Roman art, and a sudden and spontaneous invention of a new style. 
But the eye and the hand adhere to custom more tenaciously than 
the mind. While new ideas, and altered views of the character of 
the Deity and the destination of man were entertained, the wonted 
forms were still necessarily employed in the expression of these 
thoughts. Moreover the heathen sovereigns had by no means been 
unremittingly hostile to Christianity (the most bitter persecutions 
did not take place till the 3rd century), and the new doctrines were 
permitted to expand, take deeper root, and organise themselves in 
the midst of heathen society. The consequence was, that the trans- 
ition from heathen to Christian ideas of art was a gradual one, and 
that in point of form early Christian art continued to follow up the 
lessons of the ancient. The best proof of this is afforded by the 
paintings of the Roman Catacombs. These were by no means ori- 
ginally the secret, anxiously-concealed places of refuge of the prim- 
itive Christians, but constituted their legally-recognised, publicly- 
accessible burial-places. Reared in the midst of the customs of 
heathen Rome, the Christian community perceived no necessity to 
deviate from the artistic principles of antiquity. In the embellish- 
ment of the catacombs they adhered to the decorative forms handed 
down by their ancestors; and in design, choice of colour, grouping 
of figures, and treatment of subject, they were entirely guided by 
the customary rules. Even the sarcophagus-sculptures of the 4th 
and 5th centuries differ in purport only, and not in technical treat- 
ment, from the type exhibited in the tomb-reliefs of heathen Rome. 
Five centuries elapsed before a new artistic style sprang up in the 
pictorial , and the greatly neglected plastic arts. Meanwhile archi- 
tecture had developed itself commensurately with the requirements 
of Christian worship, and, in connection with the new modes of 
building, painting acquired a different character. 

The term Basilica Style is often employed to designate early 
Christian architecture down to the 10th century. The name Church 
is of great antiquity, but it is a mistake to suppose that the Architect 
early Christian basilicas possessed anything beyond the mere ture. 
name in common with those of the Roman fora. The latter struc- 


tures, which are proved to have existed in most of the towns of the 
Roman empire, and served as courts of judicature and public as- 
sembly-halls , differ essentially in their origin and form from the 
churches of the Christians. The forensic basilicas were neither fit- 
ted up for the purposes of Christian worship, nor did they, or the 
heathen temples, serve as models for the construction of Christian 
churches. The latter are rather to be regarded as extensions of the 
private dwelling-houses of the Romans, where the first assemblies 
of the community were held , and the component parts of which 
were reproduced in ecclesiastical edifices. The church, however, 
was by no means a servile imitation of the house, but a free devel- 
opment from it, of which the following became the established 
type. A small portico borne by columns leads to the anterior court 
(atrium), surrounded by colonnades and provided with a fountain 
(cantharus) in the centre; the eastern colonnade is the approach to 
the interior of the church, which usually consisted of a nave and 
two aisles, the latter lower than the former, and separated from it 
by two rows of columns, the whole terminating in a semicircle (ap- 
sis). In front of the apse there was sometimes a transverse space 
(transept) ; the altar, surmounted by a columnar structure, occupied 
a detached position in the apse ; the space in front of it , bounded 
by cancelli or railings , was destined for the choir of officiating 
priests, and contained the two pulpits (ambones) where the gospel 
and epistles were read. Unlike the ancient temples , the early 
Christian basilicas exhibit a neglect of external architecture, the 
chief importance being attached to the interior, the decorations of 
which, however, especially in early mediaeval times, were often pro- 
cured by plundering the ancient Roman edifices, and transferring 
the spoil to the churches with little regard to harmony of style and 
material. The most appropriate ornaments of the churches were the 
metallic objects, such as crosses and lustres, and the tapestry be- 
stowed on them by papal piety ; while the chief decoration of the 
walls consisted of mosaics, especially those covering the back- 
ground of the apse and the 'triumphal' arch which separates the 
apse from the nave. The mosaics, as far at least as the material 
was concerned, were of a sterling monumental character, and con- 
tributed to give rise to a new style of pictorial art ; in them an- 
cient tradition was for the first time abandoned, and the harsh and 
austere style erroneously termed Byzantine gradually introduced. 
Christian art originated at Rome , but its development was 
actively promoted in ether Italian districts, especially at Ravenna, 
where during the Ostrogothic supremacy (493-552), as well 
1^tle INE as uncler tne succeeding Byzantine empire, architecture 
was zealously cultivated. The basilica-type was there more 
highly matured, the external architecture enlivened by low arches 
and projecting buttresses, and the capitals of the columns in the 
interior appropriately moulded with reference to the superincum- 

ITALIAN ART. xxxiii 

bent arches. There, too, the art of mosaic painting was sedu- 
lously cultivated, exhibiting in its earlier specimens fin S. Gio- 
vanni in Fonte and S. Nazario e Celso) greater technical excellence 
and better drawing than the contemporaneous Roman works. At 
Ravenna the Western style also appears in combination with the 
Eastern, and the church of S. Vitale (dating from 547) may be 
regarded as a fine example of a Byzantine structure. 

The term 'Byzantine' is often misapplied. Every work of the 
so-called dark centuries of the middle ages, everything in archi- 
tecture that intervenes between the ancient and the Gothic, every- 
thing in painting which repels by its uncouth , ill-proportioned 
forms, is apt to be termed Byzantine ; and it is commonly supposed 
that the practice of art in Italy was entrusted exclusively to By- 
zantine hands from the fall of the Western Empire to an ad- 
vanced period of the 13th century. This belief in the universal 
and unqualified prevalence of the Byzantine style, as well as the 
idea that it is invariably of a clumsy and lifeless character, is 
entirely unfounded. The forms of Byzantine architecture are 
at least strongly and clearly defined. While the basilica is a 
long -extended hall, over which the eye is compelled to range 
until it finds a natural resting-place in the recess of the apse, 
every Byzantine structure may be circumscribed with a curved 
line. The aisles, which in the basilica run parallel with the 
nave, degenerate in the Byzantine style to narrow and in- 
significant passages; the apse loses its intimate connection with 
the nave, being separated from it; the most conspicuous feature 
in the building consists of the central square space , bounded 
by four massive pillars which support the dome. These are the 
essential characteristics of the Byzantine style, which culminates 
in the magnificent church of S. Sophia, and prevails throughout 
Oriental Christendom, but in the West, including Italy, only 
occurs sporadically. With the exception of the churches of S. Vi- 
tale at Ravenna, and St. Mark at Venice, the edifices of Lower 
Italy alone show a frequent application of this style. 

The Byzantine imagination does not appear to have exercised a 
greater influence on the growth of other branches of Italian growth 
art than on architecture. A brisk traffic in works of art of Art is 
was carried on by Venice, Amalfi, and other Italian towns, Italy. 
with the Levant; the position of Constantinople resembled that of 
the modern Lyons; silk wares, tapestry, and jewellery were most 
highly valued when imported from the Eastern metropolis. By- 
zantine artists were always welcome visitors to Italy , Italian con- 
noisseurs ordered works to be executed at Constantinople, chiefly 
those in metal, and the superiority of Byzantine workmanship 
was universally acknowledged. All this, however, does not justify 
the inference that Italian art was quite subordinate to Byzantine. 
On the contrary , notwithstanding various external influences, it 

Baedeker. Italy I. 9th Edit. c 


underwent an independent and unbiassed development, and never 
entirely abandoned its ancient principles. A considerable interval 
indeed elapsed before tbe fusion of tbe original inhabitants with 
the early mediaeval immigrants was complete, before tbe aggregate 
of different tribes , languages , customs, and ideas became blended 
into a single nationality, and before tbe people attained sufficient 
concentration and independence of spirit to devote themselves 
successfully to the cultivation of art. Unproductive in the pro- 
vince of art as this early period is , yet an entire departure from 
native tradition, or a serious conflict of the latter with extraneous 
innovation never took place. It may be admitted , that in the 
massive columns and cumbrous capitals of the churches of Upper 
Italy , and in the art of vaulting which was developed here at an 
early period , symptoms of the Germanic character of the inhabi- 
tants are manifested, and that in the Lower Italian and especially 
Sicilian structures , traces of Arabian and Norman influence are 
unmistakable. In the essentials, however, the foreigners continue 
to be the recipients; the might of ancient tradition, and the natio- 
nal idea of form could not be repressed or superseded. 

About the middle of the 11th century a zealous and promis- 
Roman- i n S artistic movement took place in Italy , and the seeds 
esque were sown which three or four centuries later yielded so 
Style, luxuriant a growth. As yet nothing was matured, nothing 
completed, the aim was obscure, the resources insufficient; mean- 
while architecture alone satisfied artistic requirements , the at- 
tempts at painting and sculpture being barbarous in the ex- 
treme ; these, however, were the germs of the subsequent devel- 
opment of art observable as early as the 11th and 12th centuries. 
This has been aptly designated the Romanesque period (11th- 
13th cent."), and the then prevalent forms of art the Ro- 
manesque Style. As the Romance languages, notwithstanding 
alterations, additions, and corruptions, maintain their filial rela- 
tion to the language of the Romans, so Romanesque art, in 
spite of its rude and barbarous aspect, reveals its immediate 
descent from the art of that people. The Tuscan towns were the 
principal scene of the prosecution of mediaeval art. There an in- 
dustrial population gradually arose, treasures of commerce were 
collected, independent views of life were acquired in active party- 
conflicts, loftier common interests became interwoven with those 
of private life, and education entered a broader and more enlight- 
ened track; and thus a taste for art also was awakened, and 
aesthetic perception developed itself. When Italian architecture 
of the Romanesque period is examined, the difference between its 
character and that of contemporaneous northern works is at once 
apparent. In the latter the principal aim is perfection in the 
construction of vaulting. French, English, and German churches 
are unquestionably the more organically conceived, the individual 


parts are more inseparable and more appropriately arranged. But 
the subordination of all other aims to that of the secure and ac- 
curate formation of the vaulting does not admit of an unrestrained 
manifestation of the sense of form. The columns are apt to be 
heavy, symmetry and harmony in the constituent members to be 
disregarded. On Italian soil new architectural ideas are rarely 
found, constructive boldness not being here the chief object; on the 
other hand, the decorative arrangements are richer and more grate- 
ful, the sense of rhythm and symmetry more pronounced. The cathe- 
dral of Pisa, founded as early as the 11th century, or the church 
of S. Miniato near Florence, dating from the 12th, may be taken 
as an example of this. The interior with its rows of columns, the 
mouldings throughout, and the flat ceiling recall the basilica-type ; 
while the exterior, especially the facade destitute of tower, with 
the small arcades one above the other, and the variegated colours 
of the courses of stone , presents a fine decorative effect. At the 
same time the construction and decoration of the walls already 
evince a taste for the elegant proportions which we admire in later 
Italian structures ; the formation of the capitals, and the design of 
the outlines prove that the precepts of antiquity were not entirely 
forgotten. In the Baptistery of Florence (S. Giovanni) a definite 
Roman structure (the Pantheon) has even been imitated. A pe- 
culiar conservative spirit pervades the mediaeval architecture of 
Italy; artists do not aim at an unknown and remote object; 
the ideal which they have in view, although perhaps instinctive- 
ly only, lies in the past; to conjure up this, and bring about 
a Renaissance of the antique , appears to be the goal of their 
aspirations. They apply themselves to their task with calmness 
and concentration, they indulge in no bold or novel schemes, but 
are content to display their love of form in the execution of details. 
What architecture as a whole loses in historical attraction is 
compensated for by the beauty of the individual edifices. While 
the North possesses structures of greater importance in the history 
of the development of art, Italy boasts of a far greater number of 
pleasing works. 

There is hardly a district in Italy which does not boast of 
interesting examples of Romanesque architecture. At Verona we 
may mention the famous church of St. Zeno with its sculp- r man- 
tured portals. In the same style are the cathedrals of Fer- esque 
rara, Modena, Parma, and Piacenza, the church of S. Am- Churches 
brogio at Milan, with its characteristic fore-court and facade, and 
that of S. Michele at Pavia, erroneously attributed to the Lombardi. 
Tuscany abounds with Romanesque edifices. Among these the palm 
is due to the cathedral of Pisa, a church of spacious dimensions in 
the interior, superbly embellished with its marble of two colours 
and the rows of columns on its facade. To the same period also 
belong the neighbouring Leaning Tower and the Baptistery. The 



churches of Lucca are copies of those at Pisa. Those of Florence, 
however, such as the octagonal, dome-covered baptistery and the 
church of S. Miniato al Monte, exhibit an independent style. 

The position occupied by Italy with regard to Gothic archi- 
tecture is thus rendered obvious. She could not entirely 
Sttle° ig nore its influence, although incapable of according an un- 
conditional reception to this, the highest development of 
vault-architecture. Gothic was introduced into Italy in a mature 
and perfected condition. It did not of necessity, as in France, 
develop itself from the earlier (Romanesque) style, its progress 
cannot be traced step by step; it was imported by foreign archi- 
tects (practised at Assisi by the German master Jacob) , and 
adopted as being in consonance with the tendency of the age ; it 
found numerous admirers among the mendicant orders of monks 
and the humbler classes of citizens, but could never quite dis- 
engage itself from Italianising influences. It was so far transformed 
that the constructive constituents of Gothic are degraded to a de- 
corative office, and the national taste thus became reconciled to it. 
The cathedral of Milan cannot be regarded as a fair specimen of 
Italian Gothic, but this style must rather be sought for in the 
mediseval cathedrals of Florence, Siena, Orvieto, in the church of 
S. Petronio at Bologna, and in numerous secular edifices, such as 
the Loggia dei Lanzi at Florence , the communal palaces of me- 
diaeval Italian towns, and the palaces of Venice. An acquaintance 
with true Gothic construction, so contracted notwithstanding all its 
apparent richness, so exclusively adapted to practical requirements, 
can certainly not be acquired from these cathedrals. The spacious 
interior, inviting, as it were, to calm enjoyment, while the cathe- 
drals of the north seem to produce a sense of oppression, the pre- 
dominance of horizontal lines, the playful application of pointed 
arches and gables , of finials and canopies , prove that an organic 
coherence of the different architectural distinguishing members was 
here but little considered. The characteristics of Gothic architecture, 
the towers immediately connected with the facade, and the promi- 
nent flying buttresses are frequently wanting in Italian Gothic edi- 
fices, ■ — whether to their disadvantage, it may be doubted. It is not 
so much the sumptuousness of the materials which disposes the 
spectator to pronounce a lenient judgment, as a feeling that Italian 
architects pursued the only course by which the Gothic style could 
be reconciled with the atmosphere and light, the climate and nat- 
ural features of Italy. Gothic lost much of its peculiar character 
in Italy, but by these deviations from the customary type it there 
became capable of being nationalised , especially as at the same 
period the other branches of art also aimed at a greater degree of 
nationality, and entered into a new combination with the funda- 
mental trait of the Italian character, that of retrospective adherence 
to the antique. 

ITALIAN ART. xxxvii 

The apparently sudden and unprepared-for revival of ancient 
ideals in the 13th century is one of the most interesting phenomena 
in the history of art. The Italians themselves could only r, EV ival 
account for this by attributing it to chance. The popular of Ancient 
story was that the sculptor Niccolo Pisano was induced by^ 81 Ir>EALS - 
an inspection of ancient sarcophagi to exchange the prevailing style 
for the ancient, and indeed in one case we can trace back a work of 
his to its antique prototype. We refer to a relief on the pulpit in 
the Baptistery at Pisa, several figures in which are borrowed from 
a Bacchus vase still preserved in the Campo Santo of that city 
(pp. 321, 324). Whether Niccolo Pisano was a member of a local 
school or was trained under foreign influences we are as yet unable 
to determine. His sculptures on the pulpits in the Baptistery of 
Pisa and the Cathedral of Siena introduce us at once into a new 
world. It is not merely their obvious resemblance to the works 
of antiquity that arrests the eye ; a still higher interest is awakened 
by their peculiarly fresh and lifelike tone, indicating the enthu- 
siastic concentration with which the master devoted himself to his 
task. During the succeeding period (Pisan School) ancient character- 
istics were placed in the background, and importance was attached 
solely to life and expression {e.g. reliefs on the facade of the 
Cathedral at Orvieto). Artists now began to impart to their com- 
positions the impress of their own peculiar views, and the public 
taste for poetry, which had already strongly manifested itself, was 
now succeeded by a love of art also. 

From this period (14th century) therefore the Italians date the 
origin of their modern art. Contemporaneous writers who ob- RlSE OF 
served the change of views, the revolution in sense of form, Modern 
and the superiority of the more recent works in life and ex- Aet - 
pression, warmly extolled their authors, and zealously proclaimed 
how greatly they surpassed their ancestors. But succeeding genera- 
tions began to lose sight of this connection between ancient and 
modern art. A mere anecdote was deemed sufficient to connect 
Giotto di Bondone (1276-1336), the father of modern Italian art, 
with Giovanni Cimabije (d. after 1302), the most celebrated re- 
presentative of the earlier style. (Cimabue is said to have watched 
Giotto , when, as a shepherd-boy, relieving the monotony of his 
office by tracing the outlines of his sheep in the sand, and to have 
received him as a pupil in consequence.) But it was forgotten 
that a revolution in artistic ideas and forms had taken place at 
Rome and Siena still earlier than at Florence, that both Cimabue 
and his pupil Giotto had numerous professional brethren , and 
that the composition of mosaics , as well as mural and panel- 
painting, was still successfully practised. Subsequent investigation 
has rectified these errors, pointed out the Roman and Tuscan 
mosaics as works of the transition-period, and restored the Sienese 
master Duccio, who was remarkable for his sense of the beauti- 

xxxviii ITALIAN ART. 

ful and the expressiveness of his figures, to his merited rank. 
Giotto, however, is fully entitled to rank in the highest class. The 
amateur, who before entering Italy has become acquainted with 
Giotto from insignificant easel-pictures only, often arbitrarily 
attributed to this master, and even in Italy itself encounters 
little else than obliquely drawn eyes , clumsy features , and 
cumbrous masses of drapery as characteristics of his style, will 
regard Giotto's reputation as ill-founded. He will be at a loss 
to comprehend why Giotto is regarded as the inaugurator of a 
new era of art , and why the name of the old Florentine master 
is only second in popularity to that of Raphael. The fact is that 
Giotto's Giotto's celebrity is not due to any single perfect work of 
Influence, art. His indefatigable energy in different spheres of art, the 
enthusiasm which he kindled in every direction, and the develop- 
ment for which he paved the way, must be taken into consideration, 
in order that his place in history may be understood. Even when, 
in consonance with the poetical sentiments of his age, he embodies 
allegorical conceptions, as poverty, chastity, obedience, or displays 
to us a ship as an emblem of the Church of Christ, he shows a 
masterly acquaintance with the art of converting what is perhaps 
in itself an ungrateful idea into a speaking, life-like scene. 
Giotto is an adept in narration, in imparting a faithful reality to 
his compositions. The individual figures in his pictures may fail 
to satisfy the expectations, and even earlier masters , such as 
Duccio, may have surpassed him in execution, but intelligibility 
of movement and dramatic effect were first naturalised in art by 
Giotto. This is partly attributable to the luminous colouring 
employed by him instead of the dark and heavy tones of his 
predecessors , enabling him to impart the proper expression to 
his artistic and novel conceptions. On these grounds there- 
fore Giotto, so versatile and so active in the most extended spheres, 
was accounted the purest type of his century, and succeeding 
generations founded a regular school of art in his name. As 
in the case of all the earlier Italian painters, so in that of Giotto 
and his successors, an opinion of their true merits can be formed 
from their mural paintings alone. The intimate connection of the 
picture with the architecture, of which it constituted the living 
ornament, compelled artists to study the rules of symmetry and 
harmonious composition, developed their sense of style, and, as 
extensive spaces were placed at their disposal, admitted of broad 
and unshackled delineation. Almost every church in Florence 
boasted of specimens of art in the style of Giotto, and almost ev- 
ery town in Central Italy in the 14th century practised some 
branch of art akin to Giotto's. The most valuable works of this style 
are preserved in the churches of S. Croce (especially the choir- 
chapels) and 8. Maria Novella at Florence. Beyond the precincts of 
the Tuscan capital the finest works of Giotto are to be found at Assist 


and in the Madonna dell' Arena at Padua, where in 1306 he exe- 
cuted a representation of scenes from the lives of the Virgin and 
the Saviour. The Campo Santo of Pisa affords specimens of the 
handiwork of his pupils and contemporaries. In the works on the 
walls of this unique national museum the spectator cannot fail to 
he struck hy their finely-conceived, poetical character (e.g. the 
Triumph of Death), their sublimity (Last Judgment, Trials of Job), 
or their richness in dramatic effect (History of St. Rainerus, and of 
the Martyrs Ephesus and Potitus). 

In the 15th century, as well as in the 14th, Florence continued 
to take the lead amongst the capitals of Italy in matters of art. 
Vasari attributes this merit to its pure and delicious atrno- Florence 
sphere, which he regards as highly conducive to intelligence a Cjradle 
and refinement. The fact, however, is, that Florence did OF Aet - 
not itself produce a greater number of eminent artists than other 
places. During a long period Siena successfully vied with her in 
artistic fertility, and Upper Italy in the 14th century gave birth to 
the two painters d'Avanzo and Altichieri (paintings in the Chapel 
of 8. Giorgio in Padua), who far surpass Giotto's ordinary style. On 
the other hand, no Italian city afforded in its political institutions 
and public life so many favourable stimulants to artistic imagina- 
tion, or promoted intellectual activity in so marked a degree, or 
combined ease and dignity so harmoniously as Florence. What 
therefore was but obscurely experienced in the rest of Italy, and 
manifested at irregular intervals only, was generally first realised 
here with tangible distinctness. Florence became the birthplace 
of the revolution in art effected by Giotto , and Florence was the 
home of the art of the Renaissance, which began to prevail soon 
after the beginning of the 15th century and superseded the style 
of Giotto. 

The word Renaissance is commonly understood to designate a 
revival of the antique ; but wbile ancient art now began to r E nais- 
influence artistic taste more powerfully, and its study to be sance 
more zealously prosecuted , the essential character of the Cdltukk 
Renaissance consists by no means exclusively, or even principally, 
in the imitation of the antique ; nor must the term be confined 
merely to art , as it truly embraces the whole progress of civili- 
sation in Italy during the 15th and 16th centuries. How the 
Renaissance manifested itself in political life , and the different 
phases it assumes in the scientific and the social world , cannot 
here be discussed. It may, however, be observed that the Re- 
naissance in social life was chiefly promoted by the 'humanists', 
who preferred general culture to great professional attainments, 
who enthusiastically regarded classical antiquity as the golden 
age of great men , and who exercised the most extensive in- 
fluence on the bias of artistic views. In the period of the Re- 
naissance the position of the artist with regard to his work , and 


the nature and aspect of the latter are changed. The education and 
taste of the individual leave a more marked impress on the work of 
the author than was ever before the case; his creations are pre-emi- 
nently the reflection of his intellect; his alone is the responsibility, 
his the reward of success or the mortification of failure. Artists 
now seek to attain celebrity, they desire their works to be examined 
and judged as testimonials of their personal endowments. Mere 
technical skill by no means satisfies them, although they are far 
from despising the drudgery of a handicraft (many of the most emi- 
nent quattrocentists having received the rudiments of their education 
in the workshop of a goldsmith), the exclusive pursuit of a single 
sphere of art is regarded by them as an indication of intellectual 
poverty, and they aim at mastering the principles of each different 
branch. They work simultaneously as painters and sculptors, and 
when they devote themselves to architecture, it is deemed nothing 
unwonted or anomalous. A comprehensive and versatile education, 
united with refined personal sentiments, forms their loftiest aim. 
This they attain in but few instances, but that they eagerly aspired 
to it is proved by the biography of the illustrious Leon Battista. 
Alberti, who is entitled to the same rank in the 15th century, as 
Leonardo da Vinci in the 16th. Rationally educated, physically and 
morally healthy , keenly alive to the calm enjoyments of life, and 
possessing clearly defined ideas and decided tastes, the Renaissance 
artists necessarily regarded nature and her artistic embodiment 
with different views from their predecessors. A fresh and joyous love 
of nature seems to pervade the whole of this period. She not only 
afforded an unbounded field to the scientific, but artists also strove 
to approach her at first by a careful study of her various pheno- 
mena. Anatomy, geometry, perspective, and the study 
oftheEe- of dra P er y and colour are zealously pursued and practically 
naissance applied. External truth, fidelity to nature, and a correct 
Artists to rendering of real life in its minutest details are among the 

iiAT IIRF 1 • • 

' necessary qualities in a perfect work. The realism of the re- 
presentation is, however, only the basis for the expression of life- 
like character and present enjoyment. The earlier artists of the 
Renaissance rarely exhibit partiality for pathetic scenes, or events 
which awaken painful emotions and turbulent passions, and when 
such incidents are represented, they are apt to be somewhat exagger- 
ated. The preference of these masters obviously inclines to cheerful 
and joyous subjects. In the works of the 15th century strict faith- 
fulness, in an objective sense, must not be looked for. Whether the 
topic be derived from the Old or the New Testament, from history or 
fable, it is always transplanted to the immediate present, and adorn- 
ed with the colours of actual life. Thus Florentines of the genuine 
national type are represented as surrounding the patriarchs, visiting 
Elizabeth after the birth of her son, or witnessing the miracles of 
Christ. Tlris transference of remote events to the present bears a 


striking resemblance to the naive and not unpleasing tone of the 
chronicler. The development of Italian art, however, by no means 
terminates with mere fidelity to nature, a quality likewise displayed 
by the contemporaneous art of the North. A superficial glance at 
the works of the Italian Renaissance enables one to recognise the 
higher goal of imagination. The carefully selected groups of digni- 
fied men , beautiful women , and pleasing children , occasionally 
without internal necessity placed in the foreground , prove that at- 
tractiveness was pre-eminently aimed at. This is also evidenced by 
the early-awakened enthusiasm for the nude, by the skill in dispo- 
sition of drapery, and the care devoted to boldness of outline and 
accuracy of form. This aim is still more obvious from the keen 
sense of symmetry observable in all the better artists. The indi- 
vidual figures are not coldly and accurately drawn in conformity 
with systematic rules. They are executed with refined taste and 
feeling ; harshness of expression and unpleasing characteristics are 
sedulously avoided , while in the art of the North physiognomic 
fidelity is usually accompanied by extreme rigidity. A taste for 
symmetry does not prevail in the formation of the individual figure 
only ; obedience to rhythmical precepts is perceptible in the dispo- 
sition of the groups also, and in the composition of the entire work. 
The intimate connection between Italian painting (fresco) and 
architecture naturally leads to the transference of architectural rules 
to the province of pictorial art , whereby not only the invasion of a 
mere luxuriant naturalism was obviated , but the fullest scope was 
afforded to the artist for the execution of his task. For, to discover 
the most effective proportions , to inspire life into a scene by the 
very rhythm of the lineaments , are not accomplishments to be 
acquired by extraneous aid; precise measurement and calcu- 
lation are here of no avail; a discriminating eye, refined taste, 
and a creative imagination , which instinctively divines the appro- 
priate forms for its design , can alone excel in this sphere of art. 
This enthusiasm for external beauty and just and harmonious pro- 
portions is the essential characteristic of the art of the Renaissance. 
Its veneration for the antique is thus also accounted for. At first 
an ambitious thirst for fame caused the Italians of the 15th and 16th 
centuries to look back to classical antiquity as the era of illus- Study 
trious men, and ardently to desire its return. Subsequently, of the 
however, they regarded it simply as an excellent and appro- Antique 
priate resource, when the study of actual life did not suffice, and an 
admirable assistance in perfecting their sense of form and symmetry. 
They by no means viewed the art of the ancients as a perfect whole, 
or as the product of a definite historical epoch, which developed 
itself under peculiar conditions ; but their attention was arrested by 
the individual works of antiquity and their special beauties. Thus 
ancient ideas were re-admitted into the sphere of Renaissance art. 
A return to the religious spirit of the Romans and Greeks is not of 


course to be inferred from the veneration for the ancient gods shown 
during the humanistic period ; be ief in the Olympian gods was ex- 
tinct; but just because no devotional feeling was intermingled, 
because the forms could only receive life from creative imagination, 
did they exercise so powerful an influence on the Italian masters. 
The importance of mythological characters being wholly due to the 
perfect beauty of their forms , they could not fail on this account 
pre-eminently to recommend themselves to Renaissance artists. 
These remarks will, it is hoped, convey to the reader a general 
CHAEACTEK-idea of the character of the Renaissance. Those who ex- 
istics of amine the architectural works of the 15th or 16th century 
R sance" snou1 ^ refrain from marring their enjoyment by the not al- 
Akchi- together justifiable reflection, that in the Renaissance style 
tectdee. n o new system was invented, as the architects merely em- 
ployed the ancient elements, and adhered principally to tradition 
in their constructive principles and selection of component parts. 
Notwithstanding the apparent want of organisation, however, great 
beauty of form, the outcome of the most exuberant imagination, 
will be observed in all these structures. 

Throughout the diversified stages of development of the suc- 
ceeding styles of Renaissance architecture, felicity of proportion is 
invariably the aim of all the great masters. To appreciate their 
success in this aim should also be regarded as the principal task of 
the spectator, who with this object in view will do well to compare 
a Gothic with a Renaissance structure. This comparison will prove 
to him that harmony of proportion is not the only effective element 
in architecture ; for, especially in the cathedrals of Germany, the 
exclusively vertical tendency, the attention to form without regard 
to measure , the violation of precepts of rhythm , and a disregard 
of proportion and the proper ratio of the open to the closed cannot 
fail to strike the eye. Even the unskilled amateur will thus be 
convinced of the abrupt contrast between the mediaeval and the 
Renaissance styles. Thus prepared, he may, for example, proceed 
to inspect the Pitti Palace at Florence , which , undecorated and 
unorganised as it is, would scarcely be distinguishable from a rude 
pile of stones, if a judgment were formed from the mere descrip- 
tion. The artistic charm consists in the simplicity of the mass, 
the justness of proportion in the elevation of the stories , and the 
tasteful adjustment of the windows in the vast surface of the fa- 
cade. That the architects thoroughly understood the aesthetical 
effect of symmetrical proportions is proved by the mode of con- 
struction adopted in the somewhat more recent Florentine palaces, 
in which the roughly hewn blocks (rustica) in the successive stories 
recede in gradations, and by their careful experiments as to whether 
the cornice surmounting the structure should bear reference to the 
highest story , or to the entire facade. The same bias manifests 
itself in Bramante's imagination. The Cancelleria is justly 


considered a beautifully organised structure ; and when, after the 
example of Palladio in church-facades, a single series of columns 
was substituted for those resting above one another, symmetry of 
proportion was also the object in view. 

From the works of Brunelleschi (p. xliv), the greatest master of 
the Early Renaissance, down to those of Andrea Palladio of Vi- 
cenza (p. xlv), the last great architect of the Renaissance, the works 
of all the architects of that period will be found to possess many 
features in common. The style of the 15th century may, however, 
easily be distinguished from that of the 16th. The Flor- Early Re 
entine Pitti, Riccardi, and Strozzi palaces are still based on naissance 
the type of the mediaeval castle , but other contemporary creations 
show a closer affinity to the forms and articulation of antique art. 
A taste for beauty of detail , coeval with the realistic tendency of 
painting, produces in the architecture of the 15th century an exten- 
sive application of graceful and attractive ornaments, which entirely 
cover the surfaces, and throw the real organisation of the edifice into 
the background. For a time the true aim of Renaissance art appears 
to have been departed from ; anxious care is devoted to detail instead 
of to general effect ; the re-application of columns did not at first 
admit of spacious structures; the dome rose but timidly above the 
level of the roof. But this attention to minutiae, this disregard of 
effect on the part of these architects, was only, as it were, a re- 
straining of their power, in order the more completely to master, 
the more grandly to develop the art. 

There is no doubt that the Renaissance palaces (among which 
that of Urbino, mentioned in vol. ii. of this Handbook, has always 
been regarded as pre-eminently typical) are more attractive than the 
churches. These last, however , though destitute of the venerable 
associations connected with the mediaeval cathedrals , bear ample 
testimony to the ability of their builders. The churches of Northern 
Italy in particular are worthy of examination. The first early Re- 
naissance work constructed in this part of the country was the facade 
of the Certosa ofPavia, a superb example of decorative architecture. 
Besides the marble edifices of this period we also observe structures 
in brick, in which the vaulting and pillars form prominent features. 
The favourite form was either circular or that of the Greek cross 
(with equal arms), the edifice being usually crowned with a dome, 
and displaying in its interior an exuberant taste for lavish enrich- 
ment. Of this type are the church of the Madonna della Croce near 
Crema and several others at Piacenza and Parma (Madonna della 
Steccata). It was in this region that Bbamante prosecuted the studies 
of which Rome afterwards reaped the benefit. Among the secular 
buildings of N. Italy we may mention the Ospedale Maggiore at 
Milan, which shows the transition from Gothic to Renaissance. The 
best survey of the palatial edifices built of brick will be obtained 
by walking through the streets of Bologna (p. 281). 


The visitor to Venice will have an opportunity of tracing within 
a very limited space the progress of Renaissance architecture. The 
church of S. Zaccaria is an example of early Renaissance still in 
conflict with Gothic, while the richly coloured church of S. Maria 
dei Miracoli and the Scuola di S. Marco exhibit the style in its 
perfection. Foremost among the architects of Venice must he 
mentioned the Lombardi, to whom most of the Venetian buildings 
of the 15th cent, are attributed ; but we shall afterwards advert to 
the farther progress of Venetian architecture (p. xlv). One of the 
most famous architects of N. Italy was Fra Giocondo of Verona, a 
monk, philologist (the discoverer of the letters of the younger Pliny), 
a botanist, an engineer, and a thoroughly well trained architect, who 
at a very advanced age, after the death of Bramante, was summoned 
to Rome to superintend the building of St. Peter's. 

Examples of early Renaissance architecture abound in the towns 
of Tuscany. At Florence, the scene of Filippo Brunelleschi's 
labours (1379-1446), the attention is chiefly arrested by the church 
of S. Lorenzo (1425), with its two sacristies (the earlier by Brunel- 
leschi , the later by Michael Angelo , which it is interesting to 
compare), while the small Cappella dei Pazzi near S. Croce is also 
noticeable. The Palazzo Rucellai is also important as showing the 
combination of pilasters with 'rustica', the greatest advance achieved 
by the early Renaissance. Siena, with its numerous palaces, Pienza, 
the model of a Renaissance town, and Urbino also afford excellent 
examples of the art of the Quattrocentists, but are beyond the limits 
of the present volume. While all these different edifices possess 
many features in common , they may be classed in a number of 
groups, differing in material and various other characteristics, and 
entirely relieving them from any reproach of monotony. 

The early Renaissance is succeeded by Bramante's epoch (1444- 
1514), with which began the golden age of symmetrical construc- 
Zenith tion. With a wise economy the mere decorative portions 
of the Re- were circumscribed , while greater significance and more 
naissance. marked expression were imparted to the true constituents 
of the structure, the real exponents of the architectural design. 
The works of the Bramantine era are less graceful and attractive 
than those of their predecessors, but superior in their well defined, 
lofty simplicity and finished character. Had the Church of St. Peter 
been completed in the form originally designed by Bramante , we 
could have pronounced a more decided opinion as to the ideal of the 
church-architecture of the Renaissance. The circumstance that the 
grandest work of this style has been subjected to the most varied 
alterations (and vastness of dimensions was the principal aim of the 
architects) teaches us to refrain from the indiscriminate blame which 
so commonly falls to the lot of Renaissance churches. It must at 
least be admitted that the favourite form of a Greek cross with 
rounded extremities, crowned by a dome, possesses concentrated 


unity, and that the pillar-construction relieved by niches presents 
a most majestic appearance; nor can it be disputed that in the 
churches of the Renaissance the same artistic principles are applied 
as in the universally admired palaces and secular edifices. If the 
former therefore excite less interest, this is not due to the in- 
feriority of the architects, but to causes beyond their control. The 
great masters of this culminating period of the Renaissance were 
Raphael, Baldassare Peruzzi, the younger Antonio da Sangallo 
of Rome, Michele Sammicheli of Verona (p. 168), Jacopo Sanso- 
vino of Venice, and lastly Michael Angelo. The succeeding gene- 
ration of the 16th century did not adhere to the style introduced by 
Bramante, though not reduced by him to a finished system. They 
aim more sedulously at general effect, so that harmony among the 
individual members begins to be neglected ; they endeavour to arrest 
the eye by boldness of construction and striking contrasts ; or they 
borrow new modes of expression from antiquity, the precepts of 
which had hitherto been applied in an unsystematic manner only. 

The traveller will become acquainted with the works of Bramante 
and his contemporaries at Rome (see vol. ii. of this Hand- FAM0US j.,,. 
book), but there are other places also which possess important naissance 
examples of the 'High Renaissance' style. At Florence, for BuiLDINGS - 
example, are the Palazzo Pandolfini and the Palazzo Uguccioni, 
both of which are said to have been designed by Raphael ; the 
Court of the Pitti Palace by Bart. Ammanati ; the Palazzo Serristori 
and the Palazzo Bartolini by Baccio d'Agnolo. We must als 
mention Mantua as the scene of the architectural labours of Giulio 
Romano (p. 179), Verona with its numerous buildings by Sam- 
micheli (e.g. the Palazzo Bevilacqua) , and Padua, where Gio- 
vanni Maria Falconetto (1458-1534) and Andrea Riccio , or 
properly Briosco (S. Giustina) flourished. At Venice the Renais- 
sance culminated in the first half of the 16th cent, in the works of 
the Florentine Jacopo Sansovino (properly Tatti , 1477-1570), 
and at Genoa in those of Galeazzo Alessi (1500-72) of Perugia 
(e.g. S. Maria in Carignano). 

In the middle and latter half of the 16th cent, Venice, Genoa, 
and Vicenza were zealous patrons of art. To this period jVrchi- 
belongs Andrea Palladio of Vicenza (1518-80 ; p. 185), tecture at 
the last of the great Renaissance architects, whose Venetian Venice - 
churches (S. Giorgio Maggiore and Redentore) andVicentine palaces 
are equally celebrated. The fundamental type of domestic archi- 
tecture at Venice recurs with little variation. The nature of the 
ground afforded little scope for the caprice of the architect, 
while the conservative spirit of the inhabitants inclined them to 
adhere to the style established by custom. Nice distinctions of style 
are therefore the more observable, and that which emanated from 
a pure sense of form the more appreciable. Those who have been 
convinced by careful comparison of the great superiority of the 


Biblioteca of Sansovino (in the Piazzetta; p. 211) over the new 
Procurazie of Scamozzi (p. 207), although the two edifices exactly 
correspond in many respects, have made great progress towards an 
accurate insight into the architecture of the Renaissance. 

Much, however, would be lost by the traveller who devoted his 
Minor attention exclusively to the master-works which have been 

Works of extolled from time immemorial, or solely to the great mon- 
Art - umental structures. As even the insignificant vases (ma- 

jolicas , manufactured at Pesaro , Urbino , Gubbio , and Castel- 
Durante) testify to the taste of the Italians , their partiality 
for classical models, and their enthusiasm for purity of form, so 
also in inferior works, some of which fall within the province of a 
mere handicraft, the peculiar beauties of the Renaissance style are 
often detected , and charming specimens of architecture are some- 
times discovered in remote corners of Italian towns. Nor must the 
vast domain of decorative sculpture be disregarded, as such works, 
whether in metal, stone, or stucco, inlaid or carved wood (intarsia), 
often verge on the sphere of architecture in their designs, drawing, 
and style of enrichment. 

On the whole it may be asserted that the architecture of the Re- 
naissance , which in obedience to the requirements of modern life 

Sculpture manifests its greatest excellence in secular structures, cannot 

>t the Re- fail to gratify the taste of the most superficial observer. 

naissance. with the sculpture of the same period, however, the case is 
different. The Italian architecture of the 15th and 16th centuries 
still possesses a practical value and is frequently imitated at the 
present day ; and painting undoubtedly attained its highest con- 
summation at the same period; but the sculpture of the Renais- 
sance does not appear to us worthy of revival, and indeed cannot 
compete with that of antiquity. Yet the plastic art, far from 
enjoying a lower degree of favour, was rather viewed by the ar- 
tists of that age as the proper centre of their sphere of activity. 
Sculpture was the first art in Italy which was launched into the 
stream of the Renaissance, in its development it was ever a step 
in advance of the other arts, and in the popular opinion possessed 
the advantage of most clearly embodying the current ideas of the 
age, and of affording the most brilliant evidence of the re-awakened 
love of art. Owing probably to the closeness of the connection be- 
tween the plastic art of the Renaissance and the peculiar national 
culture, the former lost much of its value after the decline of the 
latter, and was less appreciated than pictorial and architectural 
works, in which adventitious historical origin is obviously less im- 
portant than general effect. In tracing the progress of the sculpture 
of the Renaissance, the enquirer at once encounters serious devia- 
tions from strict precepts, and numerous infringements of zestheti- 
cal rules. The execution of reliefs constitutes by far the widest 
sphere of action of the Italian sculptors of the 15th century. 


These , however , contrary to immemorial usage , are executed 
in a pictorial style. Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) , for ex- 
ample , in his celehrated (eastern) door of the Baptistery of Flo- 
rence , is not satisfied with grouping the figures as in a painting, 
and placing them in a rich landscape copied from nature. He 
treats the background in accordance with the rules of perspective ; 
the figures at a distance are smaller and less raised than those in 
the foreground. He oversteps the limits of the plastic art, and 
above all violates the laws of the relief-style, according to which 
the figures are always represented in an imaginary space , and the 
usual system of a mere design in profile seldom departed from. 
In like manner the painted reliefs in terracotta by Ltjca dell a 
Robbia (1400-82) are somewhat inconsistent with purity of plastic 
form. But if it be borne in mind that the sculptors of the Renais- 
sance did not derive their ideas from a previously defined system, 
or adhere to abstract rules, the fresh and life-like vigour of their 
works (especially those of the 15th century) will not be disputed, 
and prejudice will be dispelled by the great attractions of the 
reliefs themselves. The sculpture of the Renaissance adheres as 
strictly as the other arts to the fundamental principle of repre- 
sentation ; scrupulous care is bestowed on the faithful and at- 
tractive rendering of the individual objects; the taste is gratified 
by expressive heads, graceful female figures , and joyous children ; 
the sculptors have a keen appreciation of the beauty of the nude, 
and the importance of a calm and dignified flow of drapery. In 
their anxiety for fidelity of representation , however , they do not 
shrink from harshness of expression or rigidity of form. Their 
predilection for bronze-casting, an art which was less in vogue in 
the 16th cent. , accords with their love of individualising their 
characters. In this material , decision and pregnancy of form are 
expressed without restraint, and almost, as it were, spontaneously. 
Works in marble also occur, but these generally trench on the pro- 
vince of decoration, and seldom display the bold and unfettered 
aspirations which are apparent in the works in bronze. 

The churches have always afforded the most important field for 
the labours of the Italian sculptors, some of them, such as S. Croce 
at Florence , Frari and S. Giovanni e Paolo at Venice , and the 
Santo at Padua, forming very museums of Renaissance sculpture. 
At the same time many of the wealthier families (the Medici and 
others) embellished their mansions with statuary , and the art of 
the sculptor was frequently invoked with a view to erect a fitting 
tribute to the memory of some public benefactor (such as the 
equestrian statues at Venice and Padua). 

At Florence , the cradle of Renaissance sculpture , we become 
acquainted with Ghiberti and Delia Robbia, who have been sculptors 
already mentioned , and with the famous Donatello (pro- of the Re- 
perly Donato di Niccolo di Betti Bardi, 1386-1466), who naissance. 

xlviii ITALTAN ART. 

introduced a naturalistic style, which, though often harsh, is full 
of life and character. The Judith Group in the Loggia de' Lanzi 
is an exaggerated and unpleasing example of this style, the master 
having aimed at the utmost possible expressiveness, while the lines 
and contours are entirely destitute of ease. Among Donatello's 
most successful works on the other hand are his statue of St. George 
(in Or S. Michele, which also contains his Peter and Mark; p. 373) 
and his Victorious David in bronze in the MuseoNazionale (p. 384), 
a collection invaluable to the student of the early Renaissance. The 
reliefs on the two pulpits in S. Lorenzo and the sculptures in the 
sacristy of that church (pp. 401, 402) should also be inspected. Do- 
natello's finest works out of Florence are his numerous sculptures 
in S. Antonio at Padua. 

The next sculptor of note was Andrea Verrocchio (1435-88). 
Most of the other masters of this period (Antonio Rossellino, 
Mino da Fiesole, Desiderio da Settignano) were chiefly oc- 
cupied in the execution of tombstones , and do not occupy a 
position of much importance; but the life and sense of beauty which 
characterise the early Renaissance are admirably exemplified in the 
works of the comparatively unknown Matteo Civitali of Lucca 
(1435-1501; Altar of St. Regulus in the Cathedral, p. 330). 
Important Florentine masters of the first half of the 16th cent. 
wereGiov. Franc. Rustici (1474-1550?), who was perhaps inspir- 
ed by Leonardo, and particularly Andrea Sansovino (1460-1529), 
the author of the exquisite group of Christ and the Baptist in the 
Baptistery at Florence, of superb monuments at Rome (in the choir 
of S. Maria del Popolo), and of part of the sculptures which adorn 
the Santa Casa at Loreto. Northern Italy also contributed largely 
to the development of the plastic art. The Certosa at Pavia , for 
example, afforded occupation during several decades to numerous 
artists, among whom the most eminent were Giovanni Antonio 
Amadeo (sculptor of the huge monuments in the Cappella Colleoni 
at Bergamo), and, at a later period, Cristoforo Solari, surnamed 
II Gobbo ; Venice gave birth to the famous sculptor Alessandro 
Leopardi (d. 1521); Riccio or Briosco wrought at Padua; Agos- 
tino Busti, il Bambaja (p. 94) and the above-mentioned Cristo- 
foro Solari, were actively engaged at Milan; and Modena 
afforded employment to Mazzoni and Begarelli (p. 271), artist 
in terracotta , the latter of whom is sometimes compared with 

Of the various works executed by these masters , Monumental 
Tombs largely predominate. While these monuments are often of 
a somewhat bombastic character, they afford an excellent illus- 
tration of the high value attached to individuality and personal 
culture during the Renaissance period. We may perhaps also fre- 
quently take exception to the monotony of their style which 
remained almost unaltered for a whole century, but we cannot fail 


to derive genuine pleasure from the inexhaustible freshness of 
imagination and richness of detail displayed within so narrow 

As museums cannot convey an adequate idea of the sculpture 
of the 15th century, so the picture galleries will not afford an 
accurate insight into the painting of that period. Sculp- p AINTING 
tures are frequently removed from their original position, of the Cin- 
many of those belonging to the Florentine churches, for Quecento. 
example , having been of late transferred to museums ; but mural 
paintings are of course generally inseparable from the- walls which 
they adorn. Of the frescoes of the 15th century of which a record has 
been preserved, perhaps one-half have been destroyed or obliterated, 
but those still extant are the most instructive and attractive ex- 
amples of the art of this period. The mural paintings in the church 
del Carmine (Cappella Brancacci) at Florence are usually spoken of 
as the earliest specimens of the painting of the Renaissance. This 
is a chronological mistake , as some of these frescoes were not com- 
pleted before the second half of the 15th century; but on material 
grounds the classification is justifiable, as this cycle of pictures may 
be regarded as a programme of the earlier art of the Renaissance, 
the importance of which it served to maintain, even during the age 
of Raphael. Here the beauty of the nude was first revealed , and 
here a calm dignity was for the first time imparted to the individual 
figures, as well as to the general arrangement ; and the transform- 
ation of a group of indifferent spectators in the composition into a 
sympathising choir, forming as it were a frame to the principal act- 
ors in the scene , was first successfully effected. It is, therefore, 
natural that these frescoes should still be regarded as models for 
imitation, and that , when the attention of connoisseurs was again 
directed during the last century to the beauties of the pre-Raphaelite 
period, the works of Masaccio (1401-1428) and Filippino Lippi 
(1457-1504) should have been eagerly rescued from oblivion (comp. 
p. 353). 

A visit to the churches of Florence is well calculated to convey 
an idea of the subsequent rapid development of the art of painting. 
The most important and extensive works are those of Do- 
menico Ghirlandajo (1449-94) : viz. frescoes in S. Trinita, ^JSSce* 
and those in the choir of S. Maria Novella, which in spright- 
liness of conception are hardly surpassed by any other work of the 
same period. (The traveller will find it very instructive to compare 
the former of these works with the mural paintings of Giotto in S. 
Croce, which also represent the legend of St. Francis, and to draw 
a parallel between Ghirlandajo's Last Supper in the monasteries 
of S. Marco and Ognissanti, and the work of Leonardo.) In the 
Dominican monastery of S. Marco reigns the pious and peaceful 
genius of Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole (1387-1455), who, 
though inferior to his contemporaries in dramatic power, vies with 

Baedekek. Italy I. 9th Edit. d 


the best of them in his depth of sentiment and his sense of beauty, 
as expressed more particularly by his heads, and who in his old 
age displayed his well-matured art in the frescoes of the chapel of 
St. Nicholas in the Vatican. 

Although the Tuscan painters exhibit their art to its fullest 
extent in their mural paintings, their easel-pictures are also well 
worthy of most careful examination; for it was chiefly through 
these that they gradually attained to perfection in imparting beauty 
and dignity to the human form. Besides the two great Florentine 
galleries (Uffizi and Pitti), the collection of the Academy (p. 395) 
is also well calculated to afford a survey of the progress of Floren- 
tine painting. 

Beyond the precincts of Florence, Benozzo Gozzoli's charming 
scenes from the Old Testament on the northern wall of the Campo 
Painting in Santo of Pisa (p. 323), truly forming biblical genre-pictures, 
other Parts and his scenes from the life of St. Augustine in S. Gimi- 
of Tuscany. p ncm0j Filippo Lippi's frescoes at Prato (p. 341), Piero 
della Francesca's Finding of the Cross in S. Francesco at Arezzo, 
and lastly Luca Signorelli's representation of the Last Day in 
the Cathedral at Orvieto, afford a most admirable review of the 
character and development. of Renaissance painting in Central Italy. 
Arezzo and Orvieto should by no means be passed over, not only 
because the works they contain of Piero della Francesca and Luca 
Signorelli show how nearly the art even of the 15th century ap- 
proaches perfection, but because both of these towns afford an im- 
mediate and attractive insight into the artistic taste of the mediaeval 
towns of Italy. Those who cannot conveniently visit the provincial 
towns will find several of the principal masters of the 15th century 
united in the mural paintings of the Sistine Chapel at Rome, where 
Sandro Botticelli (see p. 353), a pupil of the elder Lippi, Cosmo 
Rosselli (p. 354), Dom. Ghirlandajo, Signorelli, andPerugino have 
executed a number of rich compositions from the life of Moses and 
that of Christ. 

But an acquaintance with the Tuscan schools alone can never 
suffice to enable one to form a judgment respecting the general 
Other progress of art in Italy. Chords which are here but slightly 
Schools, touched vibrate powerfully in Upper Italy. The works of 
Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506; at Padua and Mantua) derive 
much interest from having exercised a marked influence on the 
German masters Holbein andDiirer, and surpass all the other works 
of his time in fidelity to nature and excellence of perspective 
(p. 180). — The earlier masters of the Venetian School (Vivarini, 
Crivelli) were to some extent adherents of the Paduan school, to 
which Mantegna belonged, but the peculiar Venetian style, mainly 
founder! on local characteristics, and admirably successful in its rich 
portraiture of noble and dignified personages, was soon afterwards 
elaborated by Gentile Bellini (1421-1507) and his brother Gio- 


vanni (1426-1516), sons of Giacomo(corap. p. 205). — The Um- 
brian School also, which originated at Gubbio, and is admirably re- 
presented early in the 15th century by Ottaviano Nblli, blending 
with the Tuscan school in Gentile da Fabriano, and culminating 
in its last masters Pieteo Vannucci, surnamed Pertjgino (1446- 
1524), and Bernardino Pinturicchio (1454-1513), meritsattention, 
not only because Raphael was one of its adherents during his first 
period , but because it supplements the broader Florentine style, 
and notwithstanding its peculiar and limited bias is impressive in 
its character of lyric sentiment and religious devotion (e. g. Ma- 

The fact that the various points of excellence were distributed 
among different local schools showed the necessity of a loftier union. 
Transcendent talent was requisite in order harmoniously to union of 
combine what could hitherto be viewed separately only, diffebent 
The 15th century, notwithstanding all its attractiveness, Schools. 
shows that the climax of art was still unattained. The forms em- 
ployed, graceful and pleasing though they be, are not yet lofty and 
pure enough to be regarded as embodiments of the highest and 
noblest conceptions. The figures still present a local colouring, 
having been selected by the artists as physically attractive , rather 
than as characteristic and expressive of their ideas. A portrait style 
still predominates , the actual representation does not appear 
always wisely balanced with the internal significance of the event, 
and the dramatic element is insufficiently emphasised. The most 
abundant scope was therefore now afforded for the labours of the 
great triumvirate, Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angelo Buonar- 
roti, and Raphael Santi, by whom an entirely new era was in- 

Leonardo's (1452-1519) remarkable character can only be tho- 
roughly understood after prolonged study. His comprehensive 
genius was only partly devoted to art; he also directed Leonardo 
his attention to scientific and practical pursuits of an entirely d a Vinci. 
different nature. Refinement and versatility may be described as 
the goal of his aspirations ; a division of labour, a partition 
of individual tasks were principles unknown to him. He laid, 
as it were , his entire personality into the scale in all that he 
undertook. He regarded careful physical training as scarcely less 
important than comprehensive culture of the mind ; the vigour of 
his imagination served also to stimulate the exercise of his intellect ; 
and his minute bservation of nature developed his artistic taste and 
organ of form. One is frequently tempted to regard Leonardo's 
works as mere studies , in which he tested his powers, and which 
occupied his attention so far only as they gratified his love of 
investigation and experiment. At all events his personal impor- 
tance has exercised a greater influence than his productions as 
an artist , especially as his prejudiced age strenuously sought to 



obliterate all trace of the latter. Few of Leonardo's works 
have been preserved in Italy , and these sadly marred by neglect. 
A reminiscence of his earlier period, when he wrought under 
Andrea Verrocchio at Florence, and was a fellow-pupil of Lo- 
renzo di Credi, is the fresco (Madonna and Donor) in S. Onofrio 
at Rome. Several oil-paintings, portraits, Madonnas, and composed 
works are attributed to his Milan period, although careful research 
inclines us to attribute them to his pupils. The following are 
the most famous of his pictures in the Italian galleries : — in the 
Ambrosiana of Milan the Portrait of a Girl (p. 1 03) ; in the Palazzo 
Pitti the Goldsmith and the Portrait of a Lady (pp. 415, 417; 
both of doubtful authenticity); in the Uffizi the Portrait of Himself 
(certainly spurious) and the Adoration of the Magi, which last, though 
little more than a sketch , bears full testimony to the fertility of 
the artist's imagination (p. 364) ; and lastly, in the Vatican Gal- 
lery, the St. Jerome (in shades of brown). The traveller will also 
find Leonardo's drawings in the Ambrosiana exceedingly interesting. 
The best insight into Leonardo's style, and his reforms in the art of 
colouring, is obtained by an attentive examination of the works 
of the Milan school (Luini, Salaino ; p. 94), as these are far better 
preserved than the original works of the master , of which (his 
battle-cartoon having been unfortunately lost with the exception of 
a single equestrian group) the Last Supper in S. Maria delle Grazie 
at Milan is now the only worthy representative. Although now a 
total wreck, it is still well calculated to convey an idea of the new 
epoch of Leonardo. The spectator should first examine the delicate 
equilibrium of the composition , and observe how the individual 
groups are complete in themselves, and yet simultaneously point to 
a common centre and impart a monumental character to the work ; 
then the remarkable physiognomical fidelity which pervades every 
detail, the psychological distinctness of character, and the dramatic 
life, together with the calmness of the entire bearing of the 
picture. He will then comprehend that with Leonardo a new era 
in Italian painting was inaugurated , that the development of art 
had attained its perfection. 

The accuracy of this assertion will perhaps be doubted by the 
amateur when he turns from Leonardo to Michael Angelo (1475- 
Michael 1564). On the one hand he hears Michael Angelo extolled 
Angelo. as the most celebrated artist of the Renaissance, while 
on the other it is said that he exercised a prejudicial influence 
on Italian art , and was the precursor of the decline of sculpture 
and painting. Nor is an inspection of this illustrious master's 
works calculated to dispel the doubt. Unnatural and arbitrary 
features often appear in juxtaposition with what is perfect , pro- 
foundly significative, and faithfully conceived. As in the case of 
Leonardo, we shall find that it is only by studying the master's bio- 
graphy that we can obtain an explanation of these anomalies and 


reach a true appreciation of Michael Angelo's artistic greatness. 
Educated as a sculptor, he exhibits partiality to the nude , and 
treats the drapery in many respects differently from his professional 
brethren. But, like them, his aim is to inspire his figures with life, 
and he seeks to attain it by imparting to them an imposing and im- 
pressive character. At the same time he occupies an isolated position, 
at variance with many of the tendencies of his age. Naturally pre- 
disposed to melancholy, concealing a gentle and almost effeminate 
temperament beneath a mask of austerity, Michael Angelo was con- 
firmed in his peculiarities by the political and ecclesiastical circum- 
stances of his time, and wrapped himself up within the depths of 
his own absorbing thoughts. His sculpture most clearly manifests 
that profound sentiment to which however he often sacrificed sym- 
metry of form. His figures are therefore anomalous , exhibiting a 
grand conception, but no distinct or tangible thoughts, and least of 
all the traditional ideas. It is difficult now to fathom the hidden 
sentiments which the master intended to embody in his statues and 
pictures ; his imitators seem to have seen in them nothing but massive 
and clumsy forms, and soon degenerated into meaningless mannerism. 
The deceptive effect produced by Michael Angelo's style is best ex- 
emplified by some of his later works. His Moses in S. Pietro in Vincoli 
is of impossible proportions ; such a man can never have existed ; the 
small head, the huge arms, and the gigantic torso are utterly dis- 
proportionate ; the robe which falls over the celebrated knee could 
not be folded as it is represented. Nevertheless the work is grandly 
impressive ; and so also are the Monuments of the Medici in S. 
Lorenzo at Florence , in spite of the forced attitude and arbitrary 
moulding of some of the figures. Michael Angelo only sacrifices 
accuracy of detail in order to enhance the aggregate effect. Had 
so great and talented a master not presided over the whole , the 
danger of an inflated style would have been incurred , the forms 
selected would have been exaggerated, and a professional mannerism 
would have been the result. Michael Angelo's numerous pupils, in 
their anxiety to follow the example of his Last Judgment in the Sis- 
tine, succeeded only in representing complicated groups of unnat- 
urally foreshortened nude figures, while Baccio Bandinelli, think- 
ing even to surpass Michael Angelo , produced in his group of 
Hercules and Cacus (in the Piazza della Signoria at Florence) a 
mere caricature of his model. 

Michael Angelo lived and worked at Florence and Rome alter- 
nately. "We find him already in Rome at the age of 21 years (1496), 
as Florence, after the banishment of the Medici, offered no favour- 
able field for the practice of art. Here he chiselled the Pieta and 
the Bacchus. In the beginning of the 16th cent, he returned to his 
home, where he produced his David and worked on the Battle Car- 
toon (Florentines surprised while bathing by the Pisans), which has 
since disappeared. In 1505 the Pope recalled him to Rome, but 


the work entrusted to Mm there, the Tomb of Julius II., was at 
this time little more than begun. The Ceiling Paintings in the 
Sistine Chapel absorbed his whole attention from 1508 to 1512. 
After the death of Julius , his monument was resumed on a more 
extensive scale. The commands of the new pope, however, who 
wished to employ the artist for the glorification of his own family, 
soon brought the ambitiously designed memorial once more to a 
standstill. From 1516 onwards Michael Angelo dwelt at Carrara 
and Florence, occupied at first with the construction and embellish- 
ment of the Facade of 8. Lorenzo, which was never completed, and 
then with the Tombs of the Medici. This work also advanced very 
slowly towards maturity, and at last the artist, disgusted with the 
tyranny of the Medici, set up in their places those of the statues which 
were finished, and migrated to Rome (1539). His first work here 
was the Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, his next the erection 
of the scanty fragments of the tomb of Pope Julius. His last years 
were mainly devoted to architecture (St. Peters). 

Amateurs will best be enabled to render justice to Michael 
Angelo by first devoting their attention to his earlier works, 
among which in the province of sculpture the group of the Pieta 
in St. Peter's occupies the highest rank. The statues of Bacchus 
and David (at Florence) likewise do not transgress the customary 
precepts of the art of the Renaissance. Paintings of Michael 
Angelo's earlier period are rare; the finest, whether conceived 
in the midst of his youthful studies, or in his maturer years, is un- 
questionably the ceiling-painting in the Sistine. The architectural 
arrangement of the ceiling, and the composition of the several 
pictures are equally masterly ; the taste and discrimination of the 
painter and sculptor are admirably combined. In God the Father, 
Michael Angelo produced a perfect type of its kind ; he under- 
stood how to inspire with dramatic life the abstract idea of the 
act of creation, which he conceived as motion in the prophets 
and sibyls. Notwithstanding the apparent monotony of the 
fundamental intention (foreshadowing of the Redemption), a great 
variety of psychological incidents are displayed and embodied in 
distinct characters. Lastly, in the so-called Ancestors of Christ, 
the forms represented are the genuine emanations of Michael 
Angelo's genius, pervaded by his profound and sombre senti- 
ments, and yet by no means destitute of gracefulness and beauty. 
The decorative figures also which he designed to give life to his 
architectural framework are wonderfully beautiful and spirited. 
The Last Judgment, which was executed nearly thirty years later 
(in 1541 according to Vasari) , is not nearly so striking as the 
ceiling-paintings, owing in a great measure to its damaged condi- 
tion. — Among Michael Angelo's pupils were Sebastian del 
Piombo (the "Venetian) , Marcello Ventjsti , and Daniele da 



"Whether the palm he due to Michael Angelo or to Raphael (1483- 
1520) among the artists of Italy is a question which formerly gave 
rise to -vehement discussion among artists and amateurs. r aphael 
The admirer of Michael Angelo need, however, by no means 
be precluded from enjoying the works of Raphael. "We now know 
that it is far more advantageous to form an acquaintance with 
each master in his peculiar province , than anxiously to weigh 
their respective merits ; and the more minutely we examine their 
works, the more firmly we are persuaded that neither in any way 
obstructed the progress of the other , and that a so-called higher 
combination of the two styles was impossible. Michael Angelo's 
unique position among his contemporaries was such, that no one, 
Raphael not excepted , was entirely exempt from his influence ; 
but the result of preceding development was turned to the best 
account , not by him , but by Raphael , whose susceptible and 
discriminating character enabled him at once to combine different 
tendencies within himself, and to avoid the faults of his pre- 
decessors. Raphael's pictures are replete with indications of pro- 
found sentiment, but his imagination was so constituted that 
he did not distort the ideas which he had to embody in order 
to accommodate them to his own views, but rather strove to iden- 
tify himself with them , and to reproduce them with the utmost 
fidelity. In the case of Raphael , therefore, a knowledge of his 
works and the enjoyment of them are almost inseparable , and 
it is difficult to point out any single sphere with which he was 
especially familiar. He presents to us with equal enthusiasm 
pictures of the Madonna , and the myth of Cupid and Psyche ; in 
great cyclic compositions he is as brilliant as in the limited sphere 
of portrait-painting ; at one time he appears to attach paramount 
importance to strictness of style , architectural arrangement, sym- 
metry of groups, etc. ; at other times one is tempted to believe that 
he regarded colour as his most effective auxiliary. His excellence 
consists in his rendering equal justice to the most varied subjects, 
and in each case as unhesitatingly pursuing the right course , both 
in his apprehension of the idea and selection of form , as if he had 
never followed any other. 

Little is known of Raphael's private life , nor is it known by 
what master he was trained after his father's death (1494). In 
1500 he entered the studio of Perugino (p. li), and probably soon 
assisted in the execution of some of the works of his prolific master. 
That he rendered some assistance to Pinturicchio in the execution 
of the frescoes at Siena (in 1503, or perhaps as late as 1504) ap- 
pears certain from their points of resemblance with some of his 
drawings. Of Raphael's early, or Umbrian period there are examples 
in the Vatican Gallery (Coronation of Mary) and the Brera at Milan 
{Sposalizio of the Madonna, 1504). On settling at Florence (about 
1504) Raphael did not at first abandon the style he had learned at 


Perugia , and which he had carried to greater perfection than any 
of the other Umbrian masters. Many of the pictures he painted 
there show that he still followed the precepts of his first master ; 
but he soon yielded to the influence of his Florentine training. 
After the storm raised by Savonarola had passed over, glorious days 
were in store for Florence. Leonardo, after his return from Milan, 
and Michael Angelo were engaged here on their cartoons for the 
decoration of the great hall in the Palazzo Vecchio ; and it was their 
example, and more particularly the stimulating influence of Leo- 
nardo , that awakened the genius and called forth the highest 
energies of all their younger contemporaries. 

The fame of the Florentine school was at this period chiefly 
Raphael's ma i nta i ne d ^Y Fra Bartolommeo (1475-1517) and Andrea 
Florentine del Sarto (1487-1531). The only works of Bartolommeo 
Contempo- which we know are somewhat spiritless altar-pieces, but they 
karies. exhibit in a high degree the dignity of character, the tran- 
quillity of expression, and the architectural symmetry of grouping 
in which he excelled. His finest pictures are the Christ with the four 
Saints, the Descent from the Cross (or Pieta), the St. Mark in the Pitti 
Gallery, and the Madonna in the cathedral at Lucca. The traveller 
would not do justice to Andrea del Sarto, a master of rich colouring, 
were he to confine his attention to that artist's works in the two 
great Florentine galleries. Sarto's Frescoes in the Annunziata 
(court and cloisters) and in the Scalzo (History of John the Baptist, 
p. 399) are among the finest creations of the cinquecento. Such, 
too, was the stimulus given to the artists of this period by their 
great contemporaries at Florence that even those of subordinate 
merit have occasionally produced works of the highest excellence, 
as, for instance, the Salutation of Albertinelli and the Zenobius 
pictures of Ridolfo Ghirlandajo in the Uffizi. The last masters of 
the local Florentine school were Pontormo and Angelo Bronzino. 
Raphael's style was more particularly influenced by his relations 
to Fra Bartolommeo, and the traveller will find it most interesting 
to compare their works and to determine to what extent each derived 
suggestions from the other. The best authenticated works in 
Italy of Raphael's Florentine period are the Madonna del Granduca 
(Pitti). the Madonna del Cardinello (Uffizi), the Entombment (Gal. 
Borghese in Rome), the Predelle in the Vatican, the portraits of 
Angelo and Maddalena Doni (Pitti) , and the Portrait of himself 
(Uffizi). The Portrait of a Lady in the Pitti gallery is of doubtful 
origin , and the Madonna del Baldacchino in the same gallery was 
only begun by Raphael. 

When Raphael went to Rome in 1508 he found a large circle 

Raphael's of notable artists alfeady congregated there. Some of these 

Roman were deprived of their employment by his arrival including 

Period. t h e Sienese master Giov. Antonio Bazzi, surnamed II So- 

■doma, whose frescoes in the Farnesina (unfortunately not now ac- 


cessible) vie with Raphael's works in tenderness and grace. A still 
more numerous circle of pupils , however , soon assembled around 
Raphael himself, such as Giulio Romano, Perino del Vaga, An- 
drea da Salerno, Polidoro da Caravaggio , Timoteo della 
Vite, Garofalo, Franc. Penni, and Giovanni da Udine. Attend- 
ed by this distinguished retinue , Raphael enjoyed all the honours 
of a prince, although, in the Roman art world, Bramante (p. xliv) 
and Michael Angelo occupied an equally high rank. The latter did 
not, however, trench on Raphael's province as a painter so much as 
was formerly supposed, and the jealousy -of each- other which they 
are said to have entertained was probably chiefly confined to their re- 
spective followers. Raphael had doubtless examined the ceiling of 
the Sistine with the utmost care, and was indebted to Michael Angelo 
for much instruction ; but it is very important to note that he neither 
followed in the footsteps, nor suffered his native genius to be biassed 
in the slightest degree by the example of his great rival. A signal 
proof of this independence is afforded by the Sibyls which he painted 
in the church of S. Maria della Pace in 1514, and which, though 
conceived in a very different spirit from the imposing figures in the 
Sistine, are not the less admirable. In order duly to appreciate the 
works produced by Raphael during his Roman period, the traveller 
should chiefly direct his attention to the master's frescoes. The 
Stanze in the Vatican, the programme for which was obviously 
changed repeatedly during the progress of the work , the Tapestry, 
the Loggie, the finest work of decorative art in existence, the Dome 
Mosaics in S. Maria del Popolo (Capp. Chigi), and the Oalatea and 
Myth of Psyche in the Farnesina together constitute the treasure be- 
queathed to Rome by the genius of the prince of painters. (Farther 
particulars as to these works will be found in the second vol. of 
this Handbook.) 

Many, and some of the best , of Raphael's easel-pictures of his 
Roman period are now beyond the Alps. Italy, however, still pos- 
sesses the Madonna della Sedia , the most mundane , but most 
charming of his Madonnas (Pitti), the Madonna delV Impannata 
(Pitti), the Madonna col Divino Amore (Naples), the Madonna di 
Foligno and the Transfiguration (in the Vatican), St. Cecilia (Bo- 
logna), and the Young St. John (Uffizi). The finest of his portraits 
are those of Pope Julius II. (Pitti; a replica in the Uffizi) and 
Leo X. with two Cardinals (Pitti ; a copy by Andrea del Sarto at 
Naples). Besides these works we must also mention his Cardinal 
Bibbiena (Pitti), the Violin-player (in the Pal. Sciarra at Rome), 
the Fornarina, Raphael's mistress (in the Pal. Barberini at Rome), 
and the Portrait of a Lady (Pitti, No. 245), which recalls the 
Sistine Madonna. 

After Raphael's death the progress of art did not merely come 
to a standstill, but a period of rapid Decline set in. The conquest 
and plundering of Rome in 1527 entirely paralysed all artistic effort 


for a time. At first this misfortune proved a boon to other parts of 

Italy. Raphael's pupils migrated from Rome to various pro- 
'dJcuhb* ""ncia 1 towns. Gitjlio Romano , for example, entered the 

service of the Duke of Mantua, embellished his palace with 
paintings, and designed the Palazzo del Te (p. 182), while Perino 
del Vaga settled at Genoa (Pal. Doria). These offshoots of Raphael's 
school, however, soon languished, and ere long ceased to exist. 

The Northern Schools of Italy , on the other hand , retained 
their vitality and independence for a somewhat longer period. At 

Bologna the local style , modified by the influence of Ra- 
'n H It1lt° F P nael > was successfully practised by Bart. Ramenghi, sur- 

named Bagnacavallo (1484-1542). Ferrara boasted of 
Lodovico Mazzolino (1481-1530), a master of some importance, 
and Dosso Dossi ; and at Verona the reputation of the school was 
maintained by Gianeranc. Oaroto 

The most important works produced in Northern Italy were those 

of Antonio Allegri, surnamed Correggio (14947-1534), and of 

Correggio *^ e Venetian masters. Those who visit Parma after Rome 

and Florence will certainly be disappointed with the pic- 
tures of Correggio. They will discover a naturalistic tendency in 
his works , and they will observe, not only that his treatment of 
space (as in the perspective painting of domes) is unrefined , but 
that his individual figures possess little attraction beyond mere 
natural charms, and that their want of repose is apt to displease and 
fatigue the eye. The fact is, that Correggio was not a painter of all- 
embracing genius and far-reaching culture, but merely an adept in 
chiaroscuro, who left all the other resources of his art undeveloped. 
In examining the principal works of the Venetian School, how- 
ever, the traveller will experience no such dissatisfaction. From the 

school of Giovanni Bellini (p. 1) emanated the greatest re- 
ScifooL N P r esentatives of Venetian painting — Giorgione , properly 

Barbarella (1477-1511), whose works have unfortunately 
not yet been sufficiently well identified , the elder Palma (1480- 
1528), and Tiziano Vecellio (1477-1576), who for nearly three 
quarters of a century maintained his native style at its culminating 
point. These masters are far from being mere colorists; nor do they 
owe their peculiar attraction to local inspiration alone. The enjoy- 
ment of life and pleasure which they so happily pourtray is a theme 
dictated by the culture of the Renaissance (a culture possessed in 
an eminent degree by Titian, as indicated by his intimacy with the 
'divine' Aretino). Their serene and joyous characters often recall 
some of the ancient gods, showing the manner in which the artists 
of tne Renaissance had profited by the revived study of the antique. 
Properly to appreciate Titian it is of importance to remember how 
much of his activity was displayed in the service of the different 
courts. His connection with the family of Este began at an early 
period ; he carried on an active intercourse with the Gonzagas at 


Mantua, and executed numerous pictures for them. Later he basked 
in the favour of Charles V. and Philip II. of Spain. The natural 
result of this was that the painting of portraits and of a somewhat 
limited cycle of mythological subjects engrossed the greater part of 
his time and talents. That Titian's genius, however, was by no 
means alien to religion and deep feeling in art, and that his imagi- 
nation was as rich and powerful in this field as in pourtraying 
realistic and sensually attractive forms of existence, is proved by 
his numerous ecclesiastical paintings , of which the finest are the 
Pesaro Madonna (p. 243), the Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (p. 233), 
the Presentation in the Temple (p. 221) , and the Assumption 
(p. 224) at Venice. The St. Peter Martyr, another masterpiece, 
unfortunately fell a prey to the flames. 

Owing to the soundness of the principles on which the Venetian 
school was based, there is no wide gulf between its masters of the 
highest and those of secondary rank , as is so often the case in the 
other Italian schools ; and we accordingly find that works by Lo- 
renzo Lotto, Sebastian del Piombo, the Bonifacio's, Porde- 
none, Paris Bordone , and Tintoretto frequently vie in beauty 
with those of the more renowned chiefs of their school. Even 
Paolo Caliari , surnamed Veronese (1528-88), the last great 
master of his school, shows as yet no trace of the approaching 
period of decline , but continues to delight the beholder with his 
delicate silvery tints and the spirit and richness of his compositions 
(comp. p. 206). 

Correggio, as well as subsequent Venetian masters, were fre- 
quently taken as models by the Italian painters of the 17th century, 
and the influence they exercised could not fail to be de- 
tected even by the amateur, if the entire post-Raphaelite P dec°°ne P 
period were not usually overlooked. Those, however, who 
make the great cinquecentists their principal study will doubtless 
be loth to examine the works of their successors. Magnificent de- 
corative works are occasionally encountered, but the taste is 
offended by the undisguised love of pomp and superficial man- 
nerism which they generally display. Artists no longer ear- 
nestly identify themselves with the ideas they embody; they 
mechanically reproduce the customary themes, they lose the desire, 
and finally the ability to compose independently. They are, more- 
over, deficient in taste for beauty of form, which, as is well known, 
is most attractive when most simple and natural. Their technical 
skill is not the result of mature experience, slowly acquired and 
justly valued : they came into easy possession of great resources of 
art, which they frivolously and unworthily squander. The quaint, 
the extravagant, the piquant alone stimulates their taste ; rapidity, 
not excellence of workmanship, is their aim. Abundant specimens 
of this mannerism, exemplified in the works of Zttccaro, d'Arpino, 
Tbmpesta, and others, are encountered at Rome and Florence 


(cupola of the cathedral). The fact that several works of this 
class produce a less unfavourable impression does not alter their 
general position , as it is not want of talent so much as of con- 
scientiousness which is attributed to these artists. 

The condition of Italian art, that of painting at least, improved 
to some extent towards the close of the 16th century, when there 

was a kind of second efflorescence, known in the schools as 
SE vivai?*" tne <revival of g° 0( i taste', which is said to have chiefly 

manifested itself in two directions , the eclectic and the na- 
turalistic. But these are terms of little or no moment in the study 
of art, and the amateur had better disregard them. This period of art 
also should be studied historically. The principal architectural mon- 
uments of the 17th century are the churches of the Jesuits, which 
unquestionably produce a most imposing effect; but the historical 
enquirer will not easily be dazzled by their meretricious magni- 
ficence. He will perceive the absence of organic forms and the 
impropriety of combining totally different styles, and he will steel 
himself against the gorgeous, but monotonous attractions of the 
paintings and other works of the same period. The bright Renais- 
sance is extinct , simple pleasure in the natural and human is ob- 
literated. A gradual change in the views of the Italian public and 
in the position of the church did not fail to influence the tendencies 
of art, and in the 17th century artists again devoted their energies 
more immediately to the service of the church. Devotional pictures 
now became more frequent, but at the same time a sensual, natural- 
istic element gained ground. At one time it veils itself in beauty 
of form, at another it is manifested in the representation of volup- 
tuous and passionate emotions ; classic dignity and noble symmetry 
are never attained. Crist. Allori's Judith (p. 417) should be 
compared with the beauties of Titian, and the frescoes of Annibabe 
Carracci in the Palazzo Farnese with Raphael's ceiling-paintings in 
the Farnesina, in order that the difference between the 16th and 
17th centuries may be clearly understood ; and the enquirer will he 
still farther aided by consulting the coeval Italian poetry , and ob- 
serving the development of the lyric drama or opera. The poetry of 
the period thus furnishes a key to the mythological representations 
of the School of the Carracci. Gems of art, however, were not un- 
frequently produced during the 17th century, and many of the frescoes 
of this period are admirable, such as those by Guido Reni and 
Domenichino at Rome. Beautiful oil-paintings by various masters 
are also preserved in the Italian galleries. Besides the public col- 
lections of Bologna , Naples , and the Yatican and Capitol , the 
private galleries of Rome are of great importance. The so-called 
gallery-pieces, figures and scenes designated by imposing titles, and 
painted in the prevailing taste of the 17th century, were readily re- 
ceived, and indeed most appropriately placed in the palaces of the 
Roman nobles, most of which owe their origin and decoration to that 


age. This retreat of art to the privacy of the apartments of the great 
may he regarded as a symptom of the universal withdrawal of the 
Italians from public life. Artists, too, henceforth occupy an isolated 
position, unchecked by public opinion, exposed to the caprices of 
amateurs , and themselves inclined to an arbitrary deportment. 
Several qualities, however , still exist of which Italian artists are 
never entirely divested ; they retain a certain address in the 
arrangement of figures, they preserve their reputation as ingenious 
decorators, and understand the art of occasionally imparting an 
ideal impress to their pictures ; even down to a late period in the 
18th century they excel in effects of colour, and by devoting 
attention to the province of genre and landscape-painting they may 
boast of having extended the sphere of their native art. At the 
same time they cannot conceal the fact that they have lost all 
faith in the ancient ideals , that they are incapable of new and 
earnest tasks. They breathe a close, academic atmosphere, they 
no longer labour like their predecessors in an independent and 
healthy sphere, and their productions are therefore devoid of ab- 
sorbing and permanent interest. 

This slight outline of the decline of Italian art brings us to 
the close of our brief and imperfect historical sketch, which, be 
it again observed, is designed merely to guide the eye of the 
enlightened traveller, and to aid the uninitiated in independent 
discrimination and research. 

Contents of Article oil Italian Art : 


Art of Antiquity: the Greeks and Romans xxvii 

The Middle Ages : Early Christian Art xxxi 

Byzantine style xxxii 

Romanesque style . . xxxiv 

Gothic style xxxvi 

Niccolo Pisano, Giotto xxxvii 

The Renaissance xxxix 

Architecture xlii 

Early Renaissance xliii 

High Renaissance xliv 

Sculpture xlvi 

Painting : 

["Tuscan Schools xlix 

XV. Cent. < Upper Italian Schools. The Venetians . 1 

(Umbrian School li 



(Leonardo da Vinci .... . . li 

Michael Angelo and his pupils ... lii 

"■-• \ Raphael, his contemporaries, and pupils lv 

ICorreggio lviii 

(Venetian masters lviii 

End of the XVI., and XVII. Cent. : Mannerists, Naturalists, 

Eclectics lix 

Among the best works on Italian art are Crowe fy Cavalcaselle's 
History of Painting in Italy and History of Painting in North Italy; 
Kugler's Handbook of Painting (new edit, by Sir H. Layard) ; Mrs. 
Jameson's Lives of the Italian Painters ; and the works of Mr. C. C. 
Perkins on Italian Sculpture. A convenient and trustworthy manual 
for the traveller in Italy is Burckhardfs Cicerone (translated by Mrs. 
A. H. dough). 

I. Routes to Italy. 1 

1. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis .... 1 

1. From Geneva to Culoz 1 

2. From Bussoleno to Susa 2 

2. From Brig over the Simplon to Novara or to Lago 

Maggiore 3 

From Gravelloria to Pallanza and to Stresa 4 

3. From Lucerne to Lugano, Chiasso, and Como (Milan) 5 

4. From Coire to Colico over the Splugen 14 

5. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner 16 

1. From Trent to Bassano by the Val Sugana 18 

2. From Mori to Riva 19 

6. From Vienna to Venice via, Pontebba 20 

1. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis. 

496 M. Railway in 22-30i/ 2 hrs. (fares 98 fr. 80, 73 fr. 55, 53 fr. 30c). 

From Paris to (348 M.) Culoz (Hotel Folliet; Rail. Restaurant), 
the junction of the Geneva line, see Baedeker's Northern France 
and Baedeker's Southern France. 

From Geneva to Cdloz, 4i'/2 M., railway in l 3 /4-2y3 hrs. (fares 8fr. 10, 
6fr., 4fr. 45c). The line follows the right bank of the Rhone, on the 
slopes of the Jura Mts. Beyond (14 M.) Collonges, the Rhone flows through 
a narrow rocky valley, confined between the Jura and Mont Vouache, 
and commanded by the Fort de VEcluse , which rises far above on the 
right. The line quits the defile by the long Tunnel du Crido (273 M.), 
crosses the grand Valserine Viaduct (275 yds. long and 170 ft. high), and 
reaches (20^2 31.) Bellegarde (Poste), at the influx of the Valserine into the 
Rhone (French custom-house examination). — 41^2 M. Culoz. 

The train crosses the Rhone, and at stat. Chindrieux reaches the 
N. end of the Lac du Bourget, 10 M. in length, 3 M. in breadth, 
the E. bank of which it follows. On the opposite bank is the 
Cistercian monastery of Hautecombe. 

363 M. Aix-les -Bains (850 ft.; Grand Hotel d'Aix; Hotel 
Venat ; Hotel de V Europe; Hotel Guilland et de la Poste, less expen- 
sive ; and many others), the Aquae Allobrogum or Aquae Gratianae 
of the Romans, is a celebrated watering-place with 4700 inhab., 
possessing sulphur-springs (113° Fahr.). In the place in front of 
the Etablissement Thermal rises the Arch of Campanus, a Roman 
tomb of the 3rd or 4th cent., built in the shape of a triumphal arch. 

370 M. Chambery (880 ft. ; Hotel de France; Hotel de V Europe; 
Hotel des Princes'), beautifully situated on the Leisse, with 19,600 
inhab., is the capital of the Department of Savoy, and an archi- 
episcopal see. 

377 M. Chignin-les- Marches. — 380 M. Montmelian (Buffet). 

t Approaches to Italy through France, see Baedeker 1 ': Southern France, 

Baedek— t *~'~ t ""-■"'•' 1 

2 Route 1. MONT CENIS. 

The ancient castle was long the bulwark of Savoy against France 
until its destruction in 1705 by Louis XIV. The train continues to 
ascend the valley of the Isere. 382'/ 2 M. Cruet. — 385 M. St. Pierre 
d'Albigny (Buffet); the town lies opposite on the right bank, com- 
manded by the ruins of a chateau. Near (388 M.) Chamousset 
the line turns to the right , and traverses the valley of the Arc 
(Vallee de Maurienne), which here joins the Isere. 393 M. Aiguebelle. 
— 413 M. St. Jean de Maurienne. — 421 M. St. Michel (2330 ft.). 
The train crosses the Arc several times. Numerous tunnels. — 
427 M. La Praz (3135 ft.). 

431 M. Modane (3495 ft. ; Bail. Restaurant, dej. with wine 
4y 2 fr. ; Hotel International) is the seat of the French and Italian 
custom-house authorities (change carriages). 

The train (view to the right) describes a wide curve round the 
village, and passing through two short tunnels, enters the great 
Mont Cenis Tunnel, by which the. Co I de Frejus (8285 ft.) is pene- 
trated in a S.E. direction, though the name is derived from the old 
Mont Cenis road, which crosses the Mont Cenis Pass, 17 M. to theE. 

The tunnel (7 3 /4 M. in length; N. entrance 3800 ft., S. entrance 4160 ft. 
above the sea-level; height in the centre 4245 ft., depth below the sur- 
face of the mountain 4090 ft.) was completed in 1861-1870 under the 
superintendence of the engineers Sommeiller, Grandis, and Grattoni at a 
total cost of 75,000,000 fr. The tunnel is 26 ft. wide, 19 ft. high, and has 
two lines of rails. It is lighted by lanterns placed at intervals of 500 
metres, and the distances are given in kilometres. The transit occupies 
30 minutes. Travellers are warned not to protrude their heads or arms 
from the carriage-windows during the transit, and are also recommended 
to keep the windows shut. 

At the S. end of the tunnel is (443 M.") stat. Bardonnecchia 
(4125 ft.). Two tunnels. Stat. Beaulard. Near stat. Oulx (3505 ft.), 
the Roman Villa Martis , the line enters the picturesque valley 
of the Dora Riparia. Beyond a bridge and two tunnels is (446 M.) 
Salbertrand (3380 ft.). The river is again crossed. Before the 
next station, nine tunnels are traversed. To the left, between 
the second and third , a glimpse is obtained of the small town 
of Exilles with the frontier fortress of that name ; farther on, 
a fine waterfall. — 453 M. Chiomonte , or Chaumont (2525 ft.). 
Then several tunnels and aqueducts. The valley contracts and 
forms a wild gorge (Le Gorgie), of which beautiful views are 
obtained , with the Mont Cenis road winding up the hill on the 
farther side , and the Roche-Melon (11,605 ft.) towering above it. 
When the valley expands , Susa with the arch of Augustus comes 
in sight on the left (see below). — 456 7 2 M. Meana (1950 ft.), 
1 M. from Susa, lies 325 ft. higher than the latter. Three tunnels. 
The train then descends through beautiful chestnut woods , and 
crosses the Dora. — 462 M. Bussoleno (1425 ft.). 

A short branch-line (472 M. in 17 min.) runs hence to Susa (1625 ft. ; 
Hdtel de France; Soleil), a small and ancient town, the Roman Segusio, 
situated on the right bank of the Dora. A garden on the W. side of 
the town contains a Triumphal Arch, 44 ft. in height, 39 ft. in width, 

SIMPLON. 2. Route. 3 

and 23 ft. in depth, with projecting Corinthian columns at the corners 
and sacrificial scenes on the frieze, erected according to the inscription in 
A.D. 8. There are also a few other Roman relics. The church of S. Giuslo 
dates from the 11th century. On the opposite bank of the Dora rises the 
fort La Brunette, which was destroyed- by the French in 1798. 

Next stations Borgone (where the Dora is crossed) , S. Anto- 
nino , Condove, and S. Ambrogio (1160 ft.), high above which, on 
a rocky eminence to the right, rises the abbey of La Sagra di 
S. Michele (3155 ft.), remarkable for its tombs "which convert dead 
bodies into natural mummies. At (481 M.) Avigliana the valley 
expands into a broad plain. — 496 M. Turin, see p. 25. 

2. From Brig over the Siiuplon to No vara or to 
Lago Maggiore. 

97 M. Diligence from Brig over the Simplon to Domo d'Ossola (41 M.) 
twice daily in summer in 8 3 /4-972 hrs. (fare 16 fr. 5, coupe 19 fr. 40 c). 
Private carriage, with one horse 45, two horses 90 fr. Railway from 
Domo d'Ossola to (55 M.) Novara in 3V2 hrs. (fares 10 fr. 30, 7 fr. 15, 
4 fr. 60 c). Diligence from Gravellona (20 M. from Domo d'Ossola; train 
in l 1 /* hr.) to (6 M.) Pallanzafour times daily in 55-60 min. (fare 1 fr., coupe 
or banquette IV2 fr.); twice daily to (4 J /2 M.) Baveno in 40 min. (fares 
80 c, 1 fr. 20 c.) and to (l^h M.) Stresa in 1 hr. (fares 1 fr. 20, 1 fr. 80 c). 

Brig, French Brigue (2245 ft. ; Hotel des Couronnes et Poste; 
Angleterre; Railway Restaurant, with beds), a well-built little 
town, with a turreted chateau , is the terminus of the railway (see 
Baedeker's Switzerland^), and the beginning of the Simplon Route, 
constructed by order of Napoleon in 1800-1806, which here quits 
the valley of the Rhone, and ascends in numerous windings. 

9 M. Berisal (5006 ft.), the Third Refuge (Hotel de la Poste). 
Above the Fourth Refuge (5645 ft.) a retrospect is obtained in 
clear weather of the Bernese Alps to the N., from which the Aletsch 
Glacier descends. The part of the road between the Fifth Refuge 
(6345 ft.) and the culminating point is the most dangerous during 
the period of avalanches and storms, and is protected by several 
galleries. From the Sixth Refuge (6540 ft.) a splendid final view is 
enjoyed of the Bernese Alps ; far below in the Rhone Yalley lies Brig. 

Beyond the summit of the Simplon Pass (6590 ft.) is the Hos- 
pice, a spacious building 6y 4 M. from Berisal. A broad valley, 
bounded by snow-capped heights and glaciers , forms the highest 
portion of the pass. The Raut Glacier is a conspicuous object on 
the mountains to the S.; to theE. rises the Monte Leone (11,660 ft.). 

21 M. Simplon, Ger. Simpeln, Ital. Sempione (4855ft.; Poste; 
Hotel Fletschhorn). The road now describes a long curve to the S., 
which pedestrians may cut off by a rough path regaining the road at 
the Algaby Gallery, where the wild and grand *Ravine ]of Gondo 
begins. At the end of the last and longest of the cuttings by which 
the road penetrates the rocks the Fressinone (or AlpienbacK) forms 
a fine waterfall, which is crossed by a slender bridge ; on both sides 
the rocks tower to a dizzy height, presenting a most imposing 

^ * 

4 Route 2. DOMO D'OSSOLA. 

picture. Gondo (2820 ft.) is the last Swiss village; 1/2 M - beyond 
it is tlie Italian boundary-column. 

30 M. Iselle (2155 ft.; Postal) is the seat of the Italian 
custom-house. The valley, although now less wild, continues to he 
extremely picturesque. It unites with the broad and fertile valley 
of the Tosa (Val Antigorio) at the bridge of Crevola , 100 ft. in 
height, below which it is called the Val d'Ossola. 

41 M. Domo d'Ossola (905 ft. ; Hotel de la Ville et Poste, R v 
L., & A. 472-5, D- 5 fr.; Hotel d'Espagne), the ancient Oscela, a 
small town with 3300inhab., beautifully situated. The Palazzo 
Silva (16th cent.) contains a small museum. The Calvary Hill, 
72 hr. to the S., commands a superb view. 

The Railway to Novara skirts the base of the mountains 
bounding the broad Val d'Ossola on the W. At (372 M.) Villa 
d'Ossola, the Antrona Valley opens on the right; Antronapiana, 
the chief village in the valley, has a parish church containing a finely 
carved altar of the 17th century. — 5 M. Pallanzeno ; 7 M. Piedi- 
mulera, opposite which opens the Anzasca Valley, leading up to Ma- 
cugnaga at the foot of Monte Rosa (see Baedeker's Switzerland). The 
Anza and the Tosa are crossed before we reach (8 M.) Rumianca. 

9 M. Vogogna (240 ft. ; Corona), a small town at the base of 
precipitous rocks. IOI/2 M. Premosello. Beyond (13 M.) Cuzzago 
the Tosa is crossed by a bridge, 515 yds. long. 

16 M. Ornavasso (Italia; Croce Bianca). The marble-quarries 
in the vicinity belong to the chapter of the cathedral of Milan. 

At (20 M.) Gravellona-Toce (Rail. Restaurant), a place with 
large cotton-mills, the Strona falls into the Tosa. The roads to 
Stresa and Pallanza diverge here. 

The Road to Pallanza (diligence, see pp. 3, 135) crosses the Tosa and 
leads past the base of the Montorfano, near the picturesque Lago di Mer- 
gozzo , to Fondo Toce , at the influx of the Tosa into the Lago Maggiore 
(p. 132). To the S. in the distance are the Borromean Islands (p. 136); 
on the right rises the Monte Motterone (p. 138). We now follow the hank 
of the lake, passing Cavendone on the hill to the left, with its pilgrimage 
church, to Suna and (6 M.) Pallanza (p. 135). 

The Road to Stkesa (Vh M- ; diligence see pp. 3, 137) passes large 
granite quarries, in which beautiful crystals of felspar are found, and 
reaches the Lago Maggiore at (2 M.) Feriolo (p. 136) ; in the distance are 
seen Pallanza and the Isola Madre (p. 137), and farther off, the fine outline 
of the Sasso del Ferro. 3 M. Brtveno (p. 136)-, the mad continues to skirt 
the lake, in view of the Borromean Islands, and next reaches (2'/2 M.) 
Stresa (p. 137). 

The Railway to Orta and Novara runs to the S. through the 
fertile valley of the Strona. Beyond (2172M.) Crusinallo it crosses 
the river and immediately afterwards the Nigulia Canal , which 
drains the Lake of Orta. At the picturesquely situated station of 
(2372 M.) Ornegna the line reaches the lake, which it then skirts, 
commanding beautiful views. Beyond (27 72 M.) Pettenasco, we 
cross the Pescone , and then the imposing Sassina Viaduct to — 

2972 M. Orta-Miasino, 1 M. to the E. of Orta (p. 139). 

LUCERNE. 3. Route. 5 

Beautiful views of the lake as we proceed. In the centre lies 
the island of S. Giulio (p. 139), and on the steep cliffs of the W. 
bank is the church of Madonna del Sasso (p. 139). Beyond (30 M.) 
Corconio the train traverses a cutting on the W. side of the Castello 
di Buccione (p. 139) and quits the Lake of Orta. 32 ^o M. Bolzano. 
33Y2 M. Gozzano is the junction for a branch-line to Alzo (with 
large granite-quarries). We now traverse the fertile Val d'Agogna. 
36!/2 M. Borgomanero (Alb. del Ramo Secco), 71/2 M. to the S.W. 
of Arona (p. 130). — 41 M. Cressa- Fovtaneto ; 42 '/ 2 M. Suno ; 
46 M. Momo; 50 M. Caltignaga; 53 M. Vignale. 

56 M. Novara. From No vara to Milan, railway in l 1 ^ hr., see 
p. 50; to Laveno in ll/. 2 hr., see p. 129. 

3. From Lucerne to Lugano, Chiasso, and Conio 
(Milan). St. Gotthard Railway. 

Railway to (144 M.) Chiasso in 6-9V4 hrs. (fares 32 fr., 22 fr. 40 c, 
16 fr.; through-fares to Milan, 176 M. , 36 fr. 65, 25 fr. 65, 18 fr. 5 c.-, 
sleeping compartment 11 fr. 80 c extra). — A table-d'hote dinner (3V2 fr. 
inelud. wine) for passengers by the day-express is provided at Goeschenen, 
where the traveller should be careful to avoid an involuntary change of 
carriages, or even of trains. Finest views from Lucerne to Fliielen to 
the right, from Fliielen to Goeschenen to the left, and from Airolo to 
Bellinzona to the right. These are seen most comfortably from the open 
galleries of the new saloon-carriages (1st & 2nd chiss). 

The *St. Gotthard Railway, constructed in 1872-82, is one of the most 
stupendous engineering enterprises of modern times The highest point 
of the railway is in the middle of the great tunnel and is 37S7 ft. above 
the level of the sea. The maximum gradient is 1:4, the shortest curve- 
radius 330 yds. The inclines have partly been surmounted by large spiral 
tunnels, of which there are three on the N. side of the St. Gotthard and 
four on the S. In all the railway has 56 tunnels (with an aggregate length 
of 25 M.), 32 large bridges, 24 minor bridges, and 10 viaducts. The great 
tunnel alone cost nearly 57 million francs. Louis Favre, the engineer, died 
of apoplexy in the tunnel on July 19th, 1879. — The "Steamboat Voyage 
on the Lake of Lucerne from Lucerne to Fliielen is much pleasanter than 
the railway journey, and is recommended to those who are not pressed 
for time. Those who wish to examine the most interesting structure of 
the line itself should drive in an open carriage or walk from Amsteg to 
Goeschenen (12 M.) and from Airolo to Giornico (15 M.). Coinp. Baedeker's 

Lucerne. — *Schweizerhof & *Luzerner Hof; 'Hotel National; 
Beaurivage; Europe; Angleterre; Ctgne-, Hotel du Rigi, all on the 
lake; the first-named are on a large scale. Hotel dd Lac and St. Gotthard, 
both near the station. Balances, on the Reuss. — Engel, Adler, Rosssli, 
Poste, Mohr, all unpretending. 

Lucerne (1437 ft.) , the capital of the canton of that name , is 
beautifully situated at the efflux of the Reuss from the Lake of 
Lucerne. The celebrated *Lion of Lucerne , designed by Thor- 
valdsen, y 4 M. to the N. of the Schweizerhof - Quai, is the prin- 
cipal attraction in the town. The best views are obtained from the 
Oiitsch, at the N.W. end of the town, 3/ 4 M. from the station (wire- 
rope railway in 3 min.), and from the Drei Linden, to the N.E., 
about 20min. from the Schweizerhof-Quai. 

The railway leads via (11 M.) Rothkreuz, junction of the line to 

6 Route 3. GCESCHENEN. From Lucerne 

Zurich, skirts the Lake of Zug, and beyond (25 M.) Brunnen reaches 
the *Urner See or E. arm of the Lake of Lucerne, along the hanks of 
which it runs through a succession of tunnels, some of great length. 
Beyond (36 M.) Fliielen (1435 ft. ; Kreuz, Adler, etc.) the train as- 
cends the broad valley of the Reuss, via (38 M.) Altdorf axil (41 1/ 2 M.) 
Erstfeld, where a heavier locomotive is attached to the train. 

The most interesting part of the railway begins at (45 M.) Am- 
steg. Immediately beyond the station the train pierces a projecting 
rock by means of the Windgelle Tunnel, crosses the Kerstelenbach 
by an imposing bridge, and is then carried through the slope of the 
Bristenstock by means of two tunnels, and across the Reuss by an 
iron bridge 256 ft. high. "We now follow the left bank of the pictur- 
esque Reuss valley, traversing the Inschi Tunnel and crossing the 
Inschialpbach, cross the Zraggenthal by means of a viaduct, and 
skirt the mountain through three tunnels and a long cutting, aud 
over a viaduct. 

Beyond (50 M.) Gurtnellen (2300 ft.) the train crosses the Gor- 
neren-Bach and the Haegrigen-Bach and enters the Pfaffensprung 
Loop Tunnel (1635 yds.). On emerging from the upper end of the 
tunnel, which is 115 ft. above the lower, the train proceeds through 
three shorter tunnels and over several bridges , and beyond the 
Wattinger Loop Tunnel (1199 yds. long; 76 ft. of ascent) again 
crosses the Reuss and penetrates another tunnel to — 

55 M. Wasen (3055 ft.), a considerable village with a loftily 
situated church, commanding an admirable survey of the bold struc- 
ture of the railway. The imposing * Middle Meienreuss Bridge 
(260 ft. high), a short tunnel, and the Leggistein Loop Tunnel 
(1204 yds. long, 82 ft. of ascent) now carry us to the third or Upper 
Meienreuss Bridge (148 ft. high) , - grandly situated. We then 
pass through the short Meienkreuz Tunnel and obtain a view of the 
windings just traversed. Opposite rises the Rienzer Stock (9785 ft.). 
We then cross two fine bridges, penetrate the Naxberg Tunnel (1 M. 
long ; ascent of 118 ft.), and span the deep gorge of the Gceschenen- 
Reuss by a bridge 161 ft. high (view of the Gceschenen-Thal to the 
right, with the beautiful Dammafirn in the background). 

60 M. Goesclienen (3640 ft.; *Rail. Restaurant, comp. p. 5). 

Immediately beyond the station the train crosses the Gotthard 
Reuss and enters the great *St. Gotthard Tunnel, which runs nearly 
due S., 5-6000 ft. below the highest point of the mountain. The 
tunnel is 16,309 yds. or about 9 ] / 4 M. in length, 28 ft. wide, and 
21 ft. high. It is laid with a double line of rails, and is lined with 
masonry throughout. Express trains take 16 min. to pass through 
the tunnel, slow trains 25 min. ; lanterns are placed on each side 
of the tunnel at intervals of 1000 metres, numbered i to xv, the 
even numbers being on the right side and the uneven on the left. — 
At the S. end of the tunnel, to the right, are some new fortifications. 

70 M. Airolo (3755 ft. ; *Posta; *H6tel Lombardi; Hotel Airold), 

to Como. FAIDO. 3. Route. 7 

in the upper Ticino Valley (Valle Leventina). The scenery here 
still retains quite an Alpine character, but as we proceed the in- 
fluence of the Italian climate soon makes itself evident. 

Beyond Airolo the train crosses the Ticino, which descends from 
the Val Bedretto opening to the right, passes through the Stalvedro 
Tunnel, and enters the Stretto di Stalvedro. On the left bank of 
the Ticino the high-road runs through four rock-cuttings. The 
valley expands near (73 M.) Ambri-Piotta. To the left lies Quinto. 
Beyond (76 M.) Rodi-Fiesso (3100 ft.) the- Monte Piottino projects 
into the valley on the N. The Ticino has worn a course for itself 
through the mountain, and descends the gloomy gorge in a series 
of waterfalls. The railway crosses the Ticino , passes through two 
short tunnels, and enters the Freggio Loop Tunnel (1 M. in length ; 
118 ft. of descent). Beyond another short tunnel we enjoy a view 
of the beautiful valley of Faido. Crossing the Ticino and going 
through another tunnel, we reach — 

82 M. Faido (2352 ft. ; Hotel- Pension Suisse and Hotel Faido, 
at the station; Angelo ; Hotel- Pension Fransioli), the capital of 
the Leventina, thoroughly Italian in character. On the right the 
Piumogna descends in a fine waterfall. 

The train now follows the left bank of the Ticino , traversing 
a beautiful district, richly wooded with walnut and chestnut trees. 
To the right lies Chiggiogna, with an old church. Near (86 M.) 
Lavorgo the Cribiasca forms a fine waterfall on the right. Farther 
on the Ticino forces its way through the picturesque Biaschina Ra- 
vine to a lower region of the valley. The railway descends about 
300 ft. on the left bank by means of two loop-tunnels , one below 
the other in corkscrew fashion: viz. the Pianotondo Loop Tunnel 
(nearly 1 M. long; 115 ft. of descent), beyond a short tunnel and 
a viaduct, and the Travi Loop Tunnel (nearly 1 M. long ; 118 ft. of 
descent), beyond another short tunnel and viaduct. The train has 
now reached the lower zone of the Valle Leventina, and crosses and 
recrosses the Ticino on either side of (90 M.) Oiornico (1480 ft.) 

On the right is the pretty fall of the Cramosina. 94 M. Bodio 
(1090 ft.). Beyond Polleggio, the Brenno descends from the Val 
Blenio on the left, and is crossed by a double bridge. The valley 
of the Ticino now expands'and takes the name of Riviera. Luxuriant 
vines , chestnuts , walnuts , mulberries , and fig-trees remind the 
traveller of his proximity to 'the garden of the earth, fair Italy'. 

97 M. Biasca (970 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant), with an old Romanesque 
church on a hill. From the station a series of oratories ascends to the 
Petronilla Chapel, near which is a pretty waterfall. 

The train proceeds in the valley of the Ticino, here divided 
into many arms. It passes through two tunnels. 101 M. Osogna 
(870 ft.). — 105 M. Claro (830 ft.), at the foot of the Pizzo di 
Claro (8920 ft.), with the monastery of S. Maria on the hillside. 
Beyond (107 M.) Castione the train passes the mouth of the Val 

8 Route 3. BELLINZONA. From Lucerne 

Mesocco and crosses the Moesa. The train then passes through a 
tunnel, beyond which we obtain a magnificent view of Bellinzona. 
109 M. Bellinzona (760 ft. ; Railway Restaurant; *H6t.-Pens. 
Suisse; Hot. Bellinzona; Angelo), the capital of the canton of Ticino, 
with 3320 inbab., is the junction for Locarno (p. 132) and Luino 
(p. 131). Above it rise three picturesque castles, the Castello 
Grande, on an isolated hill to the W., the Castello di Mezzo, 
and the Castello Corbario to the E. 

The railway to Lugano and Milan passes through a tunnel 
(300 yds.) below the Castello di Mezzo. At (111 M.) Giubiasco 
the railway to Locarno and Luino (see p. 132) diverges to the 
right. Our line approaches the foot of the mountains near Camo- 
rino , and ascends the slopes of Monte Cenere through walnut and 
chestnut trees. S. Antonio lies below on the right; then Cadenazzo 
(p. 50). Two tunnels. *Yiew of the Ticino Valley and the influx 
of the Ticino into the Lago Maggiore, improving as we ascend. The 
train then penetrates the Monte Cenere by means of a curved 
tunnel (1 M. long), 1435 ft. above the sea-level and about 370 ft. 
below the summit of the pass. At the S. end of the tunnel, in a 
sequestered valley, lies (II8V2 M Rivera-Bironico (1420 ft). The 
train then skirts the Leguana, which soon unites with the Vedeggio, 
a stream descending from Mte. Camoghe (p. 12), to form the Agno. 
Beyond a short tunnel is (124 M.) Taverne (1130 ft.). At La- 
mone (1033 ft.) the train quits the Agno and beyond a final tunnel 
it reaches — 

128 M. Lugano. — The Railway Station (1255ft.; PI. C, 2; "Restau- 
rant) lies on the hill above the town, of which as well as of the lake it 
commands a fine view. Besides the road there are a shorter footpath and 
a Cable Tramway (Funicolare; comp. PI. C, 2, 3), to the right of the exit 
from the station (fares up 30 or 20 c, down 20 or 10 c), but travellers 
with heavy luggage will find a cab or a hotel omnibus more convenient. — 
The Steamboat (p. 127) has three piers: Lugano Citta . at the Piazza 
Bandoria (PI. D, 3), Lugano-Parco near the Hotel du Pare (PI. C, 4), and 
Lugano-Paradiso (PI. B, 6), for Paradiso and the Mte. S. Salvatore. 

Hotels (the chief of which send omnibuses to meet the trains and 
steamers). On the lake: 'Hotel du Paec (PI. a; B, C, 4), in an old mon- 
astery at the S. end of the town , with shady garden (band thrice a day) 
and the dependances of Belvedere, Villa Ceresio, and Beau- Si, jour (PI. b; 
B, 4; the last, with fine garden, alone open in winter), R., L., & A. 5-6, 
B. I1/2, D. 5, omnibus H/2, pens. 9-11 fr. ; *H6tel Splendide (PI. c; B, 5), 
5 min. farther to the W., on the Paradiso road (see below), R. from 3, 
L. 1, A. 1, board 5 fr. — 'Hot. -Pens. Lugano (PI. E; C, 3), with a small 
garden, 2nd cl.; Hot. -Restaurant Americana (PI. f ; D, 3), Piazza Bandoria, 
pens. 6 fr. — In the town: Hotel-Restaurant Suisse (PI. g; D, 3), near the 
Piazza Bandoria, R., L., & A. 21/2-4, B. I1/4, dej. 21/2, D. 31/2 fr. ; Pension 
Zweifel, 4-5 fr. ; Pens. Borella, Molino Nuova, pens. incl. wine 4 J /2 fr. — 
Near the station: "Hot. -Pens. Beauregard (PI. i; B, 3), to the S. of the 
station, on the hill, R., L., & A. 2V2-4, B. H/4, dej. 2 ] /2, D. 3V2, pens. 
7-10 fr.; Hotel St. Gotthard (PI. k; C, 3), well spoken of; Hotel Washing- 
ton (PI. d; C, 1), in a lofty and open situation to the N., R., L., & A. 
3-3V2, B. 1V4, dej. 2V2, D. incl. wine 4, excl. wine 3V2, pens. 6-8 fr. Below 
the station: "Hotel Erica (PI. 1; C, 2), R., L., & A. 3, dej. 21/2, D. 
3V2 fr. ; Pens. Bon-Aiu, 5-7 fr. ; Pens. Induni, moderate. — At Paradiso 

t0 Como. LUGANO. 3. Route. 9 

(p. 10), s/ 4 M- to ihe g . * H 5 T ..p ENS . r E ichmann (PI. n; B, 6), on thelake, 
K-, L., & A. 21/2-4, B. I1/4, D. 3>/2- pens. 7-9 fr. ; *Bellevue (PL A, 6), near 
the Mte. Salvatore station, R. 2V 2 , L. 1/2, B. 1, I). 3, pens. 6-8 fr. — At 
Cassarate (p. 11), 1 m. from the Piazza Bandoria, in a sheltered position, 
with a S. aspect, '-Pens. Villa Castagnola (PL G, 3), with pretty garden, 
R., L., & A. 21/2-3, B. I1/4, dej. 21/2, D. 31/2, pens. 6V2-8V2 fr.; 'Pens. Villa 
du Midi (PL G, 5), 1/3 M. farther on, R , L., & A 2, B. 1, dej. I1/2, D. 2, 
pens. 41/2-5 fr.; *Pens. Villa Moeitz, on the mountain-slope. 

Restaurants. At the hotels; Trattoria Biaggi to the W. of the Piazza 
della Riforma, on the way to the cable-tramway, thoroughly Italian. — Beer 
at the Brasserie Bdle, at the N.E. corner of the Piazza Bandoria; Walter; 
Straub, on the quay, next the Hotel Lugano (concerts). — Gafi Jacchini, 
Piazza della Riforma. — Confectioner : Meister, near the Piazza della Riforma. 

Lake Baths on the Paradiso road (20 c, box 40 c, towels 20-40 c.) ; 
Warm Baths at Anastasi's, near the Hot. du Pare. 

Post & Telegraph Office (PL D, 3), Via Canova. — Physicians, Br. Cor- 
nils , Dr. Zbinden, Br. Albrizzi, Dr. Buzzi , Dr. Fraschiroli , Dr. Reali. 
Dentist (American), Drossel, Via Massagno 8. — Bookseller, Dalp, Piazza 

Carriage from the Railway Station to the town and vice versa, with 
one horse, 1 pers. l fe, 2 pers. 1, 3 pers. I1/2, with two horses, 1-2 pers. 2, 
3-5 pers. 3 fr. ; same fares from the station to Paradiso, and from the town 
to Cassarate. To Castagnola I1/2, I1/2, 272, 3, or 4 fr., return 21/4, 21/4, 
3 3 /4, 41/2, or 6 fr. ; to Paradiso Funicolare (Monte S. Salvatore station) 80 c, 
1, I1/2, 2, or 3 fr. ; to Luino. one-horse carr. 10, two-horse 20 fr. ; to Capo- 
lago 6 or 10 fr.; to Varese 15 or 30 fr.; driver's fee 10% of the fare Drive 
round the Mte. Salvatore via Pambio, Figino, Morcote, and Melide (21/2 hrs., 
one-horse carr. 7, two-horse 14 fr.). 

Boat to Porlezza (p. 126) with one rower 7fr., two 12 fr., three 16'/2fr. ; 
to Osteno 6, 10, or 12 fr., incl. fee. At the hotels, one rower 2 fr., two rowers 
3 fr. for the first hour, each additional hour IV2 and 2 fr. respectively. 

English Chapel adjoining the Belvedere du Pare (PL C, 4; see p. 8; 
English chaplain resident from May to the end of Oct.). 

Lugano (932 ft. J , the largest and busiest town in the Swiss 
canton of Ticino , with 8000 inhab., is charmingly situated on 
the lake of trie same name, and enjoys quite an Italian climate (the 
agave blooming here in the open air). It is a very pleasant place 
for a lengthened stay. The winter temperature is somewhat higher 
than that of Montreux or Meran, from which Lugano is also distin- 
guished by its comparatively low elevation above the sea. The 
climate is therefore less stimulating, and for susceptible constitu- 
tions forms a suitable transition-stage on the way farther south. 
The heat of summer is seldom excessive. The environs possess 
all the charms of Italian mountain scenery; numerous villages, 
churches, chapels, and country-seats are scattered along the banks 
of the lake, and the lower hills are covered with vineyards and 
gardens, contrasting beautifully with the dark foliage of the chest- 
nuts and walnuts in the background. To the S., immediately above 
the town , rises the Monte S. Salvatore , wooded to its summit ; to 
the E. , across the lake, is the Monte Caprino , to the left the 
Monte Bre and the beautiful Monte Boglia. On the N. opens 
the broad valley of the Cassarate, backed by a group of moun- 
tains among which the double peak of Monte Camoghe (p. 12) is 

A broad Quay, planted with trees, and frequented as an evening 

10 Route 3. LUGANO. From Lucerne 

promenade , stretches along the hank of the lake. Opposite the 
steamboat pier is the imposing Palazzo Civico (PLC , 3), with a 
beautiful colonnaded court. It is adjoined on the E. by the Theatre, 
beyond -which is the spacious Piazza Bandoria, at the harbour, 
with gardens. The Piazza della Eiforma lies farther back. At the 
S. end of the quay rises a small Fountain Statue of Tell by Vela. 

— The church of 8. Maria degli Angioli (opposite , adjoining the 
Hotel du Pare), contains celebrated *Frescoes by Bernardino Luini. 

The painting on the wall of the screen, one of the largest and finest 
ever executed by Luini , represents the ''Passion of Christ , and contains 
several hundred figures , arranged according to the antiquated style fin 
two rows. In the foreground, occupying the upper part of the wall, 
stand three huge crosses, at the foot of which we perceive Roman war- 
riors, the groups of the holy women, and St. John, and the executioners 
casting lots for the garments. Above, on a diminished scale, from left to 
right, are Christ on the Mount of Olives, Christ taken prisoner, the 
Mocking of Christ, the Bearing of the Cross, the Entombment, Thomas's Un- 
belief, and the Ascension, all immediately adjacent. Although the style of 
the composition strikes one as old-fashioned, especially after seeing Leon- 
ardo's works, the eye cannot fail to be gratified by the numerous beau- 
tiful details. The St. Sebastian and St. Rochus, below, between the 
arches , are particularly fine. To the left, on the wall of the church, is 
the Last Supper, a picture in three sections, formerly in the Lyceum, and 
in the 1st Chapel on the right is a fine Madonna, two paintings on panel 
by Luini. The sacristan expects a small fee. 

The interior of the town, with its arcades, workshops in the 
open air , and granite-paved streets , is also quite Italian in its 
character. — S. Lorenzo (PI. 0, 2), the principal church, on a 
height below the station , probably erected by Tommaso Rodari at 
the close of the 15th cent. , has a tastefully enriched marble facade. 

— The terrace in front of the station commands an extensive *View. 

There are various pleasant Walks, well-provided with guide- 
posts and benches. To the S., on the high-road past the Hotel du 
Pare and Hotel Splendide, through the surburb of Paradiso (PL A, 
B, 6) and by the foot of Mte. Salvatore, to the (iy 4 M.) headland of 
S. Martino, a charming point of view. To Melide, see p. 12. — From 
Paradiso a footpath leads to the right to (5 min.) the Belvedere, 
which commands another fine view. — To the W. by the winding 
Ponte Tresa road (PL A, B, 4, 5), which diverges to the S. at 
the Villa Beausejour (short-cuts for walkers), to the (li/ 2 M.) hill 
on which lies the frequented Restaurant du Jardin. The village 
of Sorengo is situated on a hill to the right (fine view from the 
church ; to the W. is the Lake of Muzzano). A carriage-road leads 
from the Restaurant du Jardin, to the left, via Gentilino, to (1^2 M.) 
the conspicuous church of S. Abbondio, in the graveyard of which 
are several monuments by Vela. — To the E., from the Piazza 
Castello (PL D, 3), we may follow the Via al Campo Marzio, which 
crosses the (l/ 4 M.) Cassarate, to (3/ 4 M.) Cassarate (PL G, 3), and 
thence proceed by the sunny high-road skirting the foot of the 
Mte. Bre to (1 M.) Castaynola, where we obtain a fine view of the 
Mte. S. Salvatore. At No. 227 in the Piazza Castello is the entrance 

to Como. LUGANO. 3. Route. 11 

to the shady grounds of the Villa Qabrini (formerly Ciani, PI. D, 
E, 3), with a beautiful figure of a mourning woman ('La Desola- 
zione') by Vine. Vela (gardener 1 fr.). — From Castagnola a pictur- 
esque footpath (best in the evening) leads to Gandria (p. 126), 
where the steamers touch. — Comp. the Map, p. 116. 

The most interesting excursion is the * Ascent of the Monte S. Sal- 
vatore, by cable-railway from Paradiso in x /z hr. (return-fare 2 fr.). 
The station (PL A, 6; 1245 ft.; Buffet) lies 3 /i M. from the steamboat pier 
Lugano- Paradiso (steamboat from Lugano-Citta in 10 min.), and 3 /i M. from 
the Hotel du Pare (one-horse carr., 1 pers. 80 c, 2 pers. 1, 3 pers. l 1 /^ fr., 
two-horse 1-2 pers. 2, 3-5 pers. 3 fr.). The railway, built by Messrs. 
Bucher and Durrer of Kagiswyl, is about 1 M. in length; the two 
carriages, each seated for 32 persons, are drawn up by a wire-rope i A jb inch 
thick, while between the rails, which are 3 ft. 3 in. (1 metre) apart, runs 
also a double toothed rail, on Abt's system. — The line, with an initial 
gradient of 17: 100, crosses the St. Gotthard Railway, with charming views 
of Lugano and its lake, to the hamlet of Pazzallo, and traversing a via- 
duct (110 yds. long; gradient 38: 1C0) supported by iron pillars, reaches 
the halfway station of Pazzallo (1600 ft.), where carriages are changed. 
Here are the machine-house for the electric motor and the steam-engine. 
The line now ascends over granite rock, at an increasing gradient (finally 
60:100), to the terminus (2900 ft.; two Restaurants). Thence we ascend 
on foot to the (5 min.) summit of the Monte S. Salvatore (2980 ft.), on 
which there is a pilgrimage-chapel. The *View embraces all the arms of 
the Lake of Lugano , the mountains and their wooded slopes , especially 
those above Lugano , sprinkled with numerous villas. To the E. above 
Porlezza is Monte Legnone (p. 123); N. above Lugano the double peak of 
Monte Camoghe (p. 12) , to the left of this the distant Rheinwald moun- 
tains; W. the chain of Monte Rosa, with the Matterhorn and other Alps 
of the Valais. This view is seen to best advantage in the morning, when 
Monte Rosa gleams in the sunshine. — The descent on the S. side of the 
mountain, via Carona and Melide, is fatiguing and not recommended. 

The ascent of *Monte Bre (3050 ft.), to the E. of Lugano, is another easy 
excursion (2V2-3 hrs.) , scarcely less interesting than that to Mte. S. Sal- 
vatore (guide needless ; mule 10 fr.). From the Piazza Castello to the iron 
bridge over the Cassarate, see above. Beyond the bridge we turn to the 
left, then after about 130 paces to the right, and ascend the winding road 
between low walls to a large mill, Molinazzo (PI. G, 2), where mules 
may be hired. Thence the same road to (1 M.) Viganello, and below the 
hill crowned by the church of Pazzolino turn to the right to (IV4 M.) 
Bonago. Thence the road again ascends, partly between walls, and among 
chestnuts, figs, and vines, to ( 3 /4 hr.) Desago, on the mountain-slope, the 
highest village visible from Lugano. Desago may also be reached in 
3 /4-l hr. from Castagnola (p. 10), via Ruvigliano. Above Desago the path 
divides : both branches lead round to the (V2- 3 A hr.) village of Bre (2630 ft. ; 
2 hrs. from Lugano ; Restaurant <fc Pension Forni), at the back of the hill. 
From the church of Bre a narrow forest-path ascends to the summit of 
the mountain. This path also divides; the branch to the right traverses 
the highest crest of the hill, that to the left leads to a spur of the moun- 
tain in the direction of Lugano. The summit may be attained in V2 hr. 
by either. The view of the several arms of the Lake of Lugano, especially 
in the direction of Porlezza, and the surrounding mountains, is remarkably 
fine. Lugano itself is not visible from the summit, but from the above- 
mentioned spur a good view of it may be obtained. 

Monte Caprino, opposite Lugano, on the E. bank of the lake, is much 
frequented on holidays by the townspeople, who possess wine-cellars (can- 
tine) in the numerous cool grottoes by which the side of the mountain is 
honeycombed. These cellars are closed at sunset. Good wine of icy cool- 
ness may be obtained here ('Asti' recommended), and there is also a birreria. 
Small boat there and back in 2 l fe hrs., including stay (fares, see p. 9); 
steamboat on Sun. and holidays. 

12 Route 3. LUGANO. From Lucerne 

A pleasant walk may be taken on the high-road from Campione 
(steamboat station), past the Madonna deW Annunziata with 16th cent, 
frescoes, to O/4 hr.) Bissone (steamboat station) and by the railway- 
embankment to (20 min.) Melide (steamboat and railway station; see 
below). Thence in V2 hr. to S. Marlino (p. 10). 

Longer Excursions: — -Monte Boglia (4900 ft.; 4-4 V2 hrs.; guide 
desirable). Ascent by Soragno and the Alp Bolla, or from Bre (p. 11 ; steep). 
View scarcely inferior to that from Mte. Generoso. Descent on the E. side 
through the grassy Val Solda to Castella and S. Mamette (steamboat-station; 
p. 126). —The church of S. Bernardo (2310 ft.), with a picturesque view, 
3 /4 hr. above Canobbio. Thence (at first following the top of the hill to the 
N. ; no path) to Vaglio and Sala and the (I1/4 hr.) monastery of Bigorio 
(2360 ft. ; refreshments), charmingly situated on the wooded hill of that 
name (the church contains a Madonna attributed to Guercino or Perino 
del Vaga) Back by (1 M.) Ponte Capriasca (1425ft.), with a church containing 
a good old copy of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper, to (l'/z M.) the railway- 
station of Taverne (p. 8). This expedition takes in all 5-6 hrs. from 
Lugano. — Monte Tamaro (6430 ft. ; 4 hrs. ; guide) from Taverne (p. 8) or 
Bironico (p. 8) , not difficult. Splendid view of Lago Maggiore, etc. — 
Monte Camoghe (7300 ft. ; 7-8 hrs. from Lugano ; guide from Colla), a 
famous point of view , fatiguing. Road via Canobbio and Tesserete, and 
then to the right, through the Val Colla, to (12 M. ; carr. in 2'/2 hrs.) Sca- 
reglia or Lower Colla (3205 ft. ; "Osteria Garzirola). Thence (with guide) 
by Colla and the Alp Pietrarossa, leaving the Mte. Garzirola (see below) 
to the right, to the (3 hrs.) Alp Sertena (5920 ft.) and the (U/2 hr.) top, 
where we enjoy a striking panorama of the Alps from Bite. Rosa to the 
Ortler. The descent may be made to the N., to (5 hrs.) Bellinzona (p. 8). 
— Val Magliasina. Beautiful drive by the Ponte Trca road to Agno 
(comp. p. 127), then N.W. in 3 hrs. via Vernate and Cademario to Breno 
(2105 ft.; Osteria Ferrajo). Pleasant walk from Breno over Monte Lemo 
(5312 ft.; splendid view) to (5-6 hrs.) Luino (p. 133); or back to Lugano 
via 8. Bernardo (see above). 

Fkom Lugano to Capolago, steamboat several times daily in 3 /* hr., 
in connection with the Generoso Railway, see below. Stations: Campione, 
Bissone, Maroggia, Melano, and Capolago. 

Steamboat on the Lake of Lugano, in connection with the rail- 
ways to the Lago Maggiore and the Lake of Como, see p. 125. 

From Lugano to Chiasso and Como (Milan). The train crosses 
the Tassino Valley, by means of a viaduct, 120 ft. high (charming 
view to the left), and passes through a tunnel (833 yds.) under the 
N.E. spur of Monte S. Salvatore (p. 11). It then skirts the lake, 
with views (to the left) of the wooded slopes of the E. hank and 
the villages upon it. Beyond (132 M.) Melide (De Micheli's Inn, 
good wine) the train and the road cross the lake to Bissone by 
a stone viaduct ] /. 2 M. long, which sadly mars the scenery. At each 
end there is an arch for the passage of boats. To the right a pleasant 
view of the lake, which branches into two bays (p. 126). Two tun- 
nels. Then (134 M.) Maroggia (Elvezia), at the W. base of the Mte. 
Generoso ; continuous view of the lake on the right. 

1367-2 M. Capolago (Bufftt), at the top of the S.E. arm of the 
lake , is the station for the Generoso Railway (steamboat from 
Lugano, see above). 

The *Monte Generoso (55G0 ft.), owing to its isolated situation, opposite 
the principal chain of the Swiss Alps, and to its elevation above the 
Italian lakes and the plains of Lombardy, commands perhaps the most 
magnificent view on the S. side of the Alps, and may justly be compared 
with the Rigi. In 1890 a Rack-and-Pinion Railway was opened from 

to Como. MONTE GENEROSO. 3. Route. ■ 13 

Capolago to the summit. The line, on Abt's System (with a central 
toothed rail into which toothed wheels work on both sides) , is 5 J /2 M. 
long and has a maximum gradient of 22 : 100 (Bigi Railway 25:100). Four 
trains, each with seats for 60 passengers , in connection with the steam- 
boats and railway-trains , ascend daily to the summit (Vetta) in l J /4 hr., 
to Bellavista (Hotel Generoso) in 56 min. •, fare to Bellavista 5 fr. 85, to 
Vetta 7 fr. 50 c, from Vetta to Capolago 5 fr. ; return-fare to the top 10 fr. 

— The trains start from the steamboat pier at Capolago and halt at (2 min.) 
the St. Gotthard Railway station, where the toothed rail begins. The train 
crosses the mad and the St. Gotthard railway and ascends the slope of the 
Generoso (gradient 20:10 r >, afterwards 22:100), with a continuous open 
view, on the right, of ttie fertile Val di Laveggio, girt with wooded hills, 
the little town of Mendrisio, and behind, of the Lake of Lugano with S. Vi- 
tale on the W. bank, and Mte. Salvatore to the N. Then it skirts abrupt 
cliffs and enters a curved tunnel (150 yds. long), immediately before which 
the summit of Monte Eosa is visible. — 1 3 /4 M. S. Nicolao (2820 ft. ; Restau- 
rant), a station in the finely wooded Val Gereda. The line next describes 
a wide curve, enters the Val delta Giazza by a tunnel 50 yds. long, and 
proceeds high up on the mountain-slope, with fine views of the plain 
of Lombardy as far as Milan and Varese, and of the valleys of the Ge- 
neroso (to the right appears Monte Bisbino, with its pilgrimage-church). 

— 3 a /2 M. Bellavista (4010 ft.; Restaurant). A path leads from the station 
along the mountain-ridge (fine views; benches) to the (5 min.) "'Bellavista, 
a platform provided with railings , immediately above Capolago , with 
a beautiful view (best in the morning) of the Lake of Lugano and the 
surrounding heights, backed by the line of snow-peaks stretching from 
the Gran Paradiso to the St. Gotthard. About 1 /z M. to the E. of the 
station (hotel porter meets the trains) is the *H6tel du Generoso (3965 ft. ; 
E., L., & A. 4-5, B. I1/2, lunch 31/2, D. 41/2, pens. 12 fr.; Eng. Church 
Service), the property of Dr. Pa^ta, situated on a mountain-terrace com- 
manding a view towards the plain of Lombardy. A bridle-pith leads 
hence to the summit in P/4 hr. — Beyond Bellavista the railway ascends 
through another tunnel (90 yds. long), and closely skirts the barren ridge, 
affording occasional views to the left of the lake and town of Lugano, 
and to the right, below, of the villages of Muggio and Cabbio. Beyond 
two short tunnels we reach the station of (5i/2 M.) Vetta (5355 ft. ; Rail. 
Hotel & Restaurant, with view terraces). A new paih provided with railings 
leads hence in 10 min. to the summit. The 'View, no less striking than 
picturesque, embraces the lakes of Lugano, Como, Varese, and Lago 
Maggiore, the entire Alpine chain from the Monte Viso to the Pizzo dei 
Tre Signori, and to the S. the plain of Lombardy, watered by the Po and 
backed by the Apennines, with the towns of Milan, Lodi, Crema, and 
Cremona. — From the station of Vetta we may descend on foot to the 
Hotel du Generoso or to Bellavista station in 3/4 hr. 

Monte Generoso may also be ascended from Mendrisio (see below), from 
Maroggia (p. 12) by Rovio (Hot. -Pens. Mte. Genero o, pens. 4!/2-6fr.), or from 
Balerna (see below) by Muggio in 4-472 hr.=<. (roads to Eovio and Muggio, 
beyond which the ascent is fatiguing). — From Lanzo d'Intelvi (bridle- 
path, 5 J /2 hrs.), see p. 126; recommended for the return. 

The train now ascends the fertile valley of the Laveggio. 

139 M. Mendrisio (1190 ft. ; pop. 2870; "Hotel Mendrisio, with 
garden, R., L. , & A. S 1 /^, D. 4 1 / 2 fr. ; *Angelo, Italian, R. & A. 
2 l /2 fr.), a small town 1/2 M. from the station, lies at the beginning 
of the bridle-path to the Monte Generoso (to the Hot. du Generoso 
3 hrs., mule 6 fr.). — The short Coldrerio Tunnel carries us through 
the watershed between the Laveggio and the Breggia. 142M. Balerna. 

144 M. CMasso (765 ft.; *Rail. Restaurant; Alb. S. Michele, 
near the station), the last Swiss village (custom-house; usually a 
long halt). The line pierces the Monte Olimpino by means of a 

14 Routed. SPLUGEN. 

tunnel 3190 yds. long, and passes Borgo Vico , a suburb of Como, 
on the left. 

147 M. Como (Stazione Mediterranean p. 113); thence to Milan, 
see R. 18. 

4. From Coire to Colico over the Spliigen. 

74 M. Diligence from Coire to Chiavenna twice daily in summer in 
13 hrs. (coupe 26 fr. 60 c, interior 21 fr. 95 c). Extra Post from Coire to 
Chiavenna with two horses 130 fr. 40 c, with three horses 181 fr. — 
Railway from Chiavenna to Colico, 17 M., in 1 hr. (fares 3fr. 10, 2 fr. 15, 
1 fr. 40c), corresponding with the steamboats to Como. 

Coire, Ger. Chur, Ital. Coira (1935 ft. ; *Steiribock; Lukmanier; 
Weisses Kreuz ; Stern; Rother Lazwe), on the Plessur , l 1 /^ M. from 
its confluence with the Rhine , with 9380 inhab., is the capital of 
the Canton of the Grisons , and the Curia Rhaetorum of the Ro- 
mans. The ancient cathedral of St. Lucius contains an interesting 

The Spliigen road ascends the broad valley of the Rhine. 

6 M. Reichenau (1935 ft. ; Adler), a hamlet at the confluence 
of the Vorder-Rhein and Hinter-Rhein. We continue to ascend the 
valley of the Yorder-Rhein, on either side of which tower snow- 
clad mountains. — 16 M. Thusis (2450 ft.) lies at the confluence 
of the Rhine and the Nolla. — Thence the road leads through the 
gorge of the *Via Mala, crossing the foaming river several times. 
Finest *View at the second bridge. 

23!/ 2 M. Andeer (3212 ft.). — Then we follow the wooded Rofna 
Ravine and the picturesque Rheinwaldthal (Vol Rhein) to — 

32i/ 2 M. Spliigen, Roman. Spluga (4757 ft. ; *H6tel Bodenhaus, 
R. 3, D. 3*/2 fr. ; Hotel Spliigen, well spoken of), the capital of the 
Rheinwald-Thal, at the junction of the Spliigen and Bernardino 
routes. The latter here runs to the W. The Spliigen route turns 
to the left, crosses the Rhine, and ascends in windings to the 
(63/ 4 M.) Spliigen Pass [Colmo delV Orso ; 6945 ft.), the boundary 
between Switzerland and Italy. About 3 / 4 M. beyond the pass is 
the Dogana (6245 ft.), the Italian custom-house, at the head of a 
bleak valley surrounded by lofty mountains. 

The road now descends by numerous zigzags along the E. 
slope , being protected against avalanches by long galleries. Be- 
yond the second gallery a beautiful view is obtained of Jsola and 
the old road, destroyed by an inundation in 1834. The new road 
avoids the dangerous Liro Gorge between Isola and Campo Dolcino. 
Beyond Pianazzo, near the entrance to a short gallery, the Made- 
simo forms a magnificent waterfall, 650 ft. in height, which is best 
surveyed from a small platform by the road-side. 

From Pianazzo a road ascends to (H/4 M.) Madesimo (4920 ft.), a pret- 
tily situated village with a chalybeate spring and a 'Hydropathic (pens. 
8V2 fr.), recommended as a health-resort. 

50 M. Campo Dolcino (3455 ft.; Croced'Oro; Posta~) consists 
of four large groups of houses. The second contains the church and 

CHIAVENNA. 4. Route. 1 5 

the 'Campo Santo'. The Liro Valley, or Valle S. Giacomo, is strewn 
with fragments of rock, but the wildness of the scene is softened 
by the luxuriant foliage of the chestnuts lower down, from which 
rises the slender white campanile of the church of Madonna di 
Qallivaggio. Beyond 8. Giacomo the rich luxuriance of Italian 
vegetation unfolds itself to the view. 

h&l<2. M. Chiavenna. — Hotels. 'Hotel Conkadi, in the middle of 
the town, with railway-ticket and luggage office, K,., L., & A. 3-5, B. li/ 4 , 
dej. 2 l /v, D. 4 ! /2 fr. ; "Albergo Specola, at the station, R., L., & A. li/ 2 , 
B. 1 fr. ; Albergo Crimea, on the Promenade. 

The Station (*Cafe-Restaurant ; beer) lies outside of and below the 
town. Through-tickets are here issued to the steamboat-stations on the 
Lago di Como, with coupon for the omnibus-journey between the railway- 
station and the quay at Colico. 

Chiavenna (1090 ft.), the Roman Clavenna, an ancient town 
with 4086 inhab., is charmingly situated on the Mera, at the mouth 
of the Val Bregaglia, through which the road to the Maloja Pass and 
the Engadine leads. Opposite the Hotel Conradi are the ruins of 
an unfinished castle of De Salis, the last governor appointed by the 
Grisons. Picturesque view from the castle-garden or '■Paradiso' (fee 
50 c). — S. Lorenzo, the principal church, has a slender clock- 
tower or campanile, rising from an arcaded enclosure which was 
formerly the burial-ground. The Battisterio contains an ancient 
font adorned with reliefs. 

The Railway to Colico (fares, see p. 14) traverses three tun- 
nels soon after starting, beyond which we enjoy a fine retrospect of 
Chiavenna. The line runs through a rich vine-bearing country, the 
lower parts of which, however, are exposed to the inundations of 
the Liro and Mera. The valley (Piano di Chiavenna) is enclosed on 
both sides by lofty mountains. On the right bank of the Mera lies 
Gordona, at the mouth of the Val delta Forcola, beyond which 
the Boggia forms a pretty waterfall in its precipitous descent 
from the narrow Val Bodengo. — 6 M. 8am6laco is the station for 
the large village of that name on the opposite (right) bank of the 
Mera, at the mouth of the Val Mengasia. Before (8Y2 M.) Novate, 
the railway reaches the Lago di Mezzola. This lake was originally 
the N. bay of the Lake of Como, from which it has been almost 
separated by the deposits of the Adda; but the shallow channel 
which connects the lakes has again been rendered navigable. To 
the S. appears the pyramidal Mte. Legnone (p. 123). The railway, 
supported by masonry and traversing tunnels, crosses the Adda 
beyond (12^2 M.) Dubino. The Valtellina railway (p. 124) joins 
ours from the left ; we observe on a hill to the right the ruined 
castle of Fuentes, once the key of the Valtellina, erected by the 
Spaniards in 1603, and destroyed by the French in 1796. 

17 M. Colico (720 ft.), at the N. extremity of the Lake of Como, 
see p. 124. — The station is nearly l/ 2 M. from the quay. The om- 
nibus-coupons are collected at the exit from the station. There is 

16 Route 5. INNSBRUCK. 

abundant time to permit of passengers walking to the quay, instead 
of taking the omnibus. 

5. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner. 

166 M. Railway in 71/2-12 hrs. ; express fares 39 fr. 45, 29 fr. 15 c. \ ordi- 
nary 33 fr. 50, 24 fr. 85, 16 fr. 50 c. Views on the right as far as the 
summit of the Brenner. Information as to through-tickets, which are 
paid for in Italian money, see Introd. vii. 

The Brenner, the lowest pass over the principal chain of the Alps, is 
traversed by the oldest of the Alpine routes, which was used as early as 
the Roman period , and rendered practicable for carriages in 1772. The 
railway, opened in 1867, is carried through 22 tunnels, and over 60 large 
and a number of smaller bridges within a distance of 78 M. The greatest 
incline, 1 : 40, is between Innsbruck and the culminating point. 

Innsbruck (1870 ft.; *Tiroler Hof, *Hot. de V Europe, *Goldene 
Sonne, all near the station ; Stadt Munchen, Habsburger Hof, 
Hotel Kreid , Ooldener Adler , in the town, second-class), see 
Baedeker s Eastern Alps. — The railway ascends the valley of the 
Sill, traversing seven tunnels and crossing the stream several times. 
Beyond (5i/ 2 M.) Patsch (2550 ft.) are four more tunnels. — 11 M. 
Matrei (3240 ft.), with the chateau of Trautson , is charmingly 
situated. — 14y 2 M. Steinach (3430 ft. ). — The train now ascends 
a steep incline, crosses the valleys of Schmirn and Vals in a wide 
curve above the village of Stafflach (two tunnels) , and runs high 
above the Sill to (19 y 2 M &'"«* (4100 ft.). It then passes the 
small green Brennersee, and reaches — 

231/2 M. Stat. Brenner (4470 ft. ; Buffet), on the summit of the 
pass, the watershed between the Black Sea and the Adriatic. From 
the hillside to the right descends the Eisak , which the train now 
follows. — 27 M. Brennerbad (4350 ft.), a popular bath- establish- 
ment. It then descends rapidly through two tunnels to (29 M.) 
Schelleberg (4065 ft.), where it turns into the Pflersch-Thal, return- 
ing , however , to the Eisak valley by a curved tunnel , 800 yds. 
long. 33 M. Gossensass (3480 ft.) is visited as a summer resort. — 
The train now runs through wild rocky scenery. 38 M. Sterzing 
(3110 ft.). On the left rises the castle of Sprechenstein, and on the 
right the ruins of Thumburg and Reifenstein. — 40l/ 2 M. Freien- 
feld. — Beyond (45 M.) Grasstein the train enters the narrow de- 
file of Mittewald, where the French were defeated in 1809. The 
lower end of the defile, called the Brixener Klause, near Unterau 
(2460 ft.), is closed by the (47*/ 2 M.) Franzensfeste , a strong 
fortress constructed in 1833. The station (*Rail. Restaurant, D. 
1 fl. 20 kr., R. in.) is the junction of the Pusterthal line (for 
Carinthia). The vegetation now assumes a more southern character, 
vineyards and chestnuts gradually appearing. 

56i/ 2 M. Brixen (1870 ft. ; *Elephani) was the capital of an 
ecclesiastical principality, dissolved in 1803, and is still an episco- 
pal residence. — 6iy 2 M. Klausen (1695 ft.), consisting of a single 
narrow street. The Benedictine monastery of Seben, on a steep rock 

BOTZEN. 5. Route. 17 

above the village , was once a Rhaetian stronghold , then a Roman 
fort under the name of Sabiona. — Below Klausen the valley con- 
tracts. The line skirts precipitous porphyry cliffs. — 66!/ 2 M. 
Waidbruck (1520 ft.), at the mouth of the Grcedener Thai. On the 
left, high above, rises the Trostburg. 

The train crosses the Grcedenerbach , and then the Eisak both 
before and after (71 M.) Atzwang (1240 ft.). Several tunnels. — 
76 M. Blumau. On the right bank are the vine-clad slopes of the 
Botzener Leitach; another tunnel is passed through, and the Eisak is 
crossed at the opening of the Eggenihal. The train now enters the 
wide basin of Botzen, a district of luxuriant fertility. 

80 M. Botzen, Ital. Bolzano (880 ft. ; *Kaiserkrone, Muster- 
platz ; * Victoria , opposite the station ; *Qreif; Mondschein , etc), 
with 10,640 inhab., the most important commercial town in Tyrol, 
is beautifully situated at the confluence of the Eisak and the Talfer, 
which descends from the Sarnthal on the N. The background towards 
the E. is formed by the strikingly picturesque dolomite mountains 
of the Val di Fassa; to the "W. rises the long porphyry ridge of the 
Mendel. The Gothic Parish Church of the 14th and 15th cent, has 
a portal with two lions of red marble, in the Lombard style. Beauti- 
ful open tower, completed in 1519. — The Calvarienberg (25 min. 
walk ; beyond the Eisak bridge cross the railway to the right) com- 
mands a fine view of the town and environs. 

From Botzen a branch-line diverges to (20 M.) Merart (1V2-2 hrs. ; 
1st cl., 1 fl. 64 kr. ; 3rd cl., 98 kr.). See Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

Beyond Botzen the train crosses the Eisak, which falls into the 
Etsch (or Adige) 4 M. below the town. The latter becomes navigable 
at (87 M.) BranzolL In the distance, to the right, rises the dilapi- 
dated castle of Sigmundskron, and the wooded range of the Mittel- 
berg. Beyond (89 M) Auer the train crosses the river. — 94 M. 
Neumarkt. — 99 M. Salurn, commanded by a ruined castle on an 
apparently inaccessible rock. — 104 M. S. Michele , with a hand- 
some old Augustinian monastery, is the station for the Val di Non. 
The train again crosses the Adige. — IO8Y2 M. Lavis , on the 
Avisio, which here descends from the Val Cembra. This impetuous 
torrent with its different ramifications is crossed above its junction 
with the Adige by a bridge 1000 yds. in length. 

115 M. Trent. — *H6tel Teento (PL a), near the station, K,., L., & 
A. 11/2-2 fl. In the town: *Eueopa (PI. b). Of the second class: Aquila 
Bianua, near the castle ; Agnello d'Oeo. 

Trent (635 ft.), or Trento, Lat. Tridentum, with 19,500 in- 
hab., formerly the wealthiest and most important town in Tyrol, 
and not insignificant under the Romans, possesses numerous towers, 
palaces, and broad streets, and bears the impress of an important 
Italian town. Above the town is the castle of Buon-Consiglio 
(now a barrack), formerly the property of the prince-bishop. 

The *Cathedral , begun in its present form in 1212 , and com- 
pleted at the beginning of the 15th cent., is a Romanesque church 

Baedeker. Italy I. 9th Edit. 2 

1 8 Route 5 . 


From Innsbruck 

surmounted by a dome. The N. portal, as at Botzen, is adorned 
"with a pair of lions. In the Piazza of the cathedral, which is 
embellished with a Fountain, rises the old Torre di Piazza. 

S. Maria Maggore, where the celebrated Council of Trent sat 
in 1545-63 , contains a picture , on the N. wall of the choir, with 
portraits of the members of the council, and an excellent organ 
dating from 1534. Outside the church, adjoining the S. side of 
the choir, is a column dedicated to the Virgin, erected in 1845. 

The Museum, in the Via Larga, to the N. of the cathedral, con- 
tains a collection of natural history specimens, antiquities, etc. 


The rocky hill of Dos Trento (950 ft.) , on the right bank of 
the Adige , and the terrace of the Capuchin Church on the E. side 
of the town afford fine views. Near the (3/ 4 hr.) Ponte Alto, on 
the height to the E. of Trent, below the road to the Val Sugana 
(see below), is a beautiful Fall of the Fersina in a rocky gorge (ac- 
cessible from the garden of the Osteria 'Alia Grande Cascata' ; 30 kr.). 

From Trent to Bassano through the Venetian Mountains, 57 M., 
diligence daily in 12 hrs. (fare 4 fl.). — The road (railway under con- 
struction) ascends the narrow valley of the Fersina. 

to Verona. MORI. 5. Route. 19 

71/2 M. Pergine (1580 ft. ; H6tel Voltolini) , a considerable market- 
town, commanded by the handsome castle of that name. The road now 
descends to the small Lago di Levico, separated by a narrow chain of hills 
from the larger and more beautiful Lake of Caldonazzo. At Levico ("Alb. 
Germania), a frequented watering-place, begins the Val Sugana, watered 
by the Brenta, its capital being — 

21 M. Borgo (1230 ft. 5 Hdtel Val Sugana), on the N. side of which rises 
the ruined castle of Telvana, with the remains of a second castle (S. Pietro) 
high above it. Below the town is the beautiful chateau of Ivano, be- 
longing to Count Wolkenstein-Trostburg. 

Near (10 M.) Grigno the valley of Tesino opens to the N., watered by 
the Grigno. Beyond Grigno the valley is confined between lofty cliffs which 
barely leave room for the road. The Austrian custom-house is at (3 M.) 
Tezze, the Italian % M. beyond it. In a rocky cavity beyond (2 l /i M.) — 

38 M. Primolano (Posta, poor) is situated the ruined castle of Covelo, 
a mediseval stronghold. About 1 M. farther the Cismone descends from the 
Val Primiero. 7 M. Valstagna is inhabited chiefly by straw-hat makers. 

Near (5 M.) Solagna the ravine of the Brenta expands. About IV2 M. 
farther the road turns a corner, and a view is obtained of a broad plain 
with large olive-plantations in which lies the picturesque town of — 

57 M. Bassano, see p. 197. 

Beyond Trent, on the right bank of the Adige, is the village of 
Sardagna, with a considerable waterfall. 117 M. Matarello. On 
a hill near (123 M.) Calliano rises the extensive castle of Beseno, 
the property of Count Trapp. — 129 M. Rovereto (680 ft. ; *H6t. 
Glira; Agnello), a town with 8900 inhah., is noted for its silk- 
culture. The principal building is the old Castello in the Piazza 
del Podesta. — Road to Torre and Schio, see p. 188. 

The lower part of the valley of the Adige, down to the Italian 
frontier, is called the Val Lagarina. On the right bank lies Isera, 
with numerous villas, and a waterfall. On the left hank, to the E. 
of the railway, near Lizzana, is a castle, which about the year 1302 
was visited by Dante when banished from Florence. 

132 M. Mori {Railway Hotel, R., L., & A. 1 fi.30 kr.). 

From Mori to Riva on the Lago di Garda via Arco, 15V2 M., steam- 
tramway in I1/2 hr. (fares 1st cl. 1 fl. 23, 3rd cl. 62 kr.). The line crosses 
the Adige to (2 M.) Mori Borgata. It then traverses the broad green 
valley to (4^2 M.) Loppio, passes the little Lago di Loppio (665 ft.) with 
its rocky island, and ascends among rocky debris to the (IV4 M.) culmi- 
nating point of the route (1050 ft.). We now descend to (8 M.) Nago, a 
village situated on the brink of a ravine, with the ruins of the castle of 
Penegala on a barren rock to the left. The line descends to the right 
into the Sarca valley, following the road to Arco. Presently, to the left, 
we enjoy an exquisite *View of the blue Lago di Garda, with the Sarca 
at our feet, and the long Monte Brione opposite. The next stations are 
Oltresarca, (12 J /2 M.) Arco (p. 162), and S. Tommaso. lb l /i M. Riva (p. 160; 
steamers on the Lago di Garda, see p. 158). 

Near S. Marco the line intersects the traces of a vast landslip, 
which is said to have buried a town here in 833, and is described 
by Dante {Inferno xii. 4-9). At (136 M.) Serravalle , a fort which 
once guarded the defile, the valley contracts. 

141 M. Ala (415 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant,- Corona), with 3800 in- 
hah., is the seat of the Italian and Austrian custom-house authori- 
ties. Those who have forwarded luggage by this route to or from 
Italy should enquire for it at the custom-house here. 


20 Route 6. SEMMERING. 

148 M. Peri is the first Italian station. The Monte Baldo (7210 ft. ; 
comp. p. 161) on the W. separates the valley of the Adige from 
the Lago di Garda. 149 M. Ceraino. The train now enters the 
Chiusa di Verona, a rocky defile celebrated in mediaeval warfare. 
To the left is a new fort, and farther on are the works of Incanale, 
commanding the pass. On an eminence on the right bank lies Rivoli, 
which was stormed several times by the French in 1796 and 1797 
under Massena, and afterwards gave him his ducal title. 

The train passes (152 M.) Domegliara, also a station on the 
Verona and Caprino line (comp. pp. 162, 167), then (155y 2 M.) 
Pescantina, and (159 ! / 2 M.) Parona, crosses the Adige, and reaches 
the Verona and Milan line at S. Lucia. 

At Verona (see p. 167) it first stops at (164y 2 M.) the Stazione 
Porta Nuova and then at the (166 M.) Stazione Porta Vescovo. 

6. From Vienna to Venice via Pontebba. 

398 M. Railway in 15-24 hrs. (fares 76 fr. 30, 52 fr. 60, 34 fr. 75 c; ex- 
press 89 fr. 30, 63 fr. 65 c. in gold). 50 lbs. of luggage free, provided it is 
at the station at least V2 ^ r - before the train starts, otherwise the whole 
of it is liable to be charged for. 

Vienna, see Baedeker's Southern Germany fy Austria. The ex- 
press trains take l 3 /4 hr. from Vienna to (47 M.) Qloggnitz via 
Baden and Wiener - Neustadt. — At Gloggnitz (1430 ft.) begins 
the *Semmering Railway, the oldest of the great continental moun- 
tain-railways, constructed in 1848-1853 (best views on the left). 
In the valley flows the green Schwarzau. On the left is the three- 
peaked Sonnwendstein ; to the ~W. in the background the Raxalp. 
At (55 M.) Payerbach (1510 ft.) the train crosses the Valley of 
Reichenau by a viaduct 60 ft. high and ascends rapidly on the 
S. slope of the valley (gradient 1 : 40). Beyond four tunnels it 
reaches (61 y 2 M.) Klamm (2255 ft.), with a half-ruined castle of 
Prince Liechtenstein, on an abrupt rocky pinnacle. Far below runs 
the old Semmering road. The train now skirts the Weinzettelwand 
by a long gallery and reaches (66 M.) Breitenstein (2540 ft.). Two 
more tunnels are traversed, and the ravines of the Kalte Rinne and 
the Untere Adlitzgraben crossed by lofty viaducts. 

After three more tunnels the train reaches (71 M.) Semmering 
(2840 ft. ; *E6tel Semmering , a large establishment 1 M. to the 
N. E.), and passes from Austria into Styria by means of the 
Semmering Tunnel, nearly 1 M. long. It then descends rapidly on 
the N. slope of the Frceschnitz to (78 M.) Spital and (82y 2 M.) Murz- 
zuschlag (2200 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant). — The line now follows the 
picturesque valley of the Miirz, containing numerous forges. 87y 2 M. 
Langenwang; 90 M. Krieglach ; 92 M. Mitterdorf. On the right 
rises the chateau of Piichl, and beyond, the ruins of Lichtenegg. 
The train makes a wide sweep round the Wartberg-Kogel, crossing 
the Miirz twice, and reaches (97 M.) Kindberg , with a castle of 
Count Attems. — 102 M. Marein; 106 M. Kapfenberg. 

VILLACH. 6. Route. 21 

108 M. Bruck (1590 ft. ; Post), a small town at the confluence 
of the Miirz and Mur, with an old castle, is the junction of the 
line to Gratz and Trieste (see Baedeker 's Southern Germany). On a 
rocky height to the N. of the station is the ruined castle ofLandskron. 

The 'Kronprinz Rudolf Line', which we now follow, diverges 
to the right from the South Railway, crosses the Mur, and ascends 
the narrow valley of that river. Beyond (116 M.) Niklasdorf we 
again cross the Mur and reach (118y2 M.) Leoben (1745 ft.), 
the capital of Upper Styria and the seat of the government mining 
authorities. The train describes a wide circuit round the town, and 
stops at the (11972 M.) suburban station of Waasen. It then 
follows the Mur, passing the chateau of Goss on the left. 

126 M. St. Michael (1950 ft. ; *Rail. Restaurant,- Hot. Kronprinz 
Rudolph, at the station), at the mouth of the Liesing-Thal, is the 
junction for St. Valentin and Linz. Several unimportant stations. 

— 140 M. Knittelfeld (2110 ft.). — 149V 2 M. Judenburg (2380 ft.), 
an ancient town at the base of the Seethal Alps , with extensive 
foundries. — 153 M. Thalheim ; 158 M. St. Georgen; 161 M. Unz- 
markt. On the right rises the ruin of Frauenburg , once the seat 
of the minnesinger Ulrich von Liechtenstein. Beyond (16572 M.) 
Scheifling, with the chateau of Schrattenberg , the train quits the 
Mur, and ascends to (170y 2 M.) St. Lambrecht (2900 ft.), on the 
watershed between the Mur and the Drave. It then descends the valley 
of the Olsa, passing (173 M.) Neumarkt and (17772 M.) Einced. 

183Y2 M. Friesach (2090 ft.) , an ancient town, commanded by 
several ruined castles. ■ — The train now enters the Krappfeld, the 
fertile plain of the Gurk ; to the E. is the Sau-Alpe, to the S. rise 
the Karawanken. 187 M. Hirt; 190 M. Treibach; 199 M. Launsdorf 
(Rail. Restaurant). The most interesting of the numerous castles 
of the Carinthian nobles which abound in this district is *Hohen- 
Osterwitz, the property of the Khevenhiiller family, situated 2 M. 
to the S.W., on a rock 500 ft. high. 

From (203 M.) Glandorf (*Rail. Restaurant) a branch -line 
diverges to Klagenfurt. — 20372 M. St. Veit (1560 ft.), an ancient 
town with 3000 inhab., was the capital of Carinthia down to 1519. 

— The line continues to ascend the pretty valley of the Glan. 
2087 2 M. Feistritz-Pulst ; 213 M. Glanegg. Beyond (219 M.) Feld- 
kirchen the valley becomes broad and marshy. The train then 
approaches the Ossiacher See (1600 ft.). 224 M. Ossiach. Opposite 
(228 M.) Sattendorf is the Kurhaus Annenheim. At the S.W. end 
of the lake is the ruin of Landskron. 

2327 2 M. Villach (1665 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant; *Mosser; Tar- 
mann; Post), an old town on the Drave, with 5400 inhab., the 
junction of the lines to Marburg and Franzensfeste, picturesquely 
situated in a fertile basin at the base of the Dobratsch (7110 ft.). 

The train skirts the town towards the S., and crosses the Drave. 

— 235 M. Bad Villach, with warm sulphur springs. The train now 

22 Route 6. PONTEBBA. 

crosses the Gail ; 237 Y2 M. Firnitz; 243 M. Amoldstein ; 246V 2 M. 
Thcerl-Maglem. The line then runs along the left side of the 
Gailitz Valley and passes through two tunnels. 

250 M. Tarvis (2410 ft. ; *Rail. Hotel $ Restaurant), where the 
railway from Laibach joins ours on the left, the chief place in the 
Kanal Valley, consists of TJnter- Tarvis, in the floor of the valley, 
Y2 M. from the the station, and Ober-Tarvis, 3 / 4 M. farther on, 
with a station of its own, at which the slow trains stop. 

Beyond Ober-Tarvis the line gradually ascends. To the left 
rises the Luschariberg (5880 ft.), with a much - frequented pil- 
grimage-church. — 255 M. Saifnitz (2615 ft.), on the watershed 
between the Black Sea and the Adriatic. The train then descends 
along the Fella. — 258 Y2 M. Vggowitz. Near the picturesque Fort 
Malborget the Fella is crossed. Beyond (261 M.) Malborget the 
train runs through a rocky ravine, at the end of which lies (265 M.) 
Lussnitz, and passes Leopoldskirchen on the left 

270 Y2M. Pontafel (1870 ft. ; Railway Restaurant), the Austrian 
frontier-station, where the luggage of passengers arriving from Italy 
is examined. Pontafel is separated by the rushing Pontebbana from — 

271 M. Pontebba (Railway Restaurant), the first village in 
Italy, with the Italian custom-house (luggage examined). The next 
part of the railway, traversing the wild ravine of the Fella (*Valle 
del Ferro), is remarkable both for the grandeur of the scenery and 
for the boldness displayed in the construction of the line. The train 
crosses the turbulent Fella several times, and passes through numer- 
ous tunnels (24 between Pontebba and Stazione per la Oarnia) and 
across numerous viaducts. — 278 M. Dogna, at the mouth of the val- 
ley of that name, at the head of which rises the grand pyramid of the 
Montasio (9030 ft.). — 279 M. Chiusaforte, at the entrance of the 
picturesque Raccolana Valley. At (284 M.) Resiuttathe train crosses 
the Resia. Below (286 M.) Moggio the valley of the Fella expands. 
The bottom of the valley is covered with rubble. A little below 
(289 M.) Stazione per la Carnia the Fella flows into the Tagliamento, 
which here waters an extensive plain. 

292 M. Venzone. The train traverses the marshy valley of the 
Tagliamento by an imposing viaduct, Y2 M. in length, and then 
quits the basin of that river, which flows towards the S.W. into 
the Adriatic Sea. — 296M. Gemona-Ospedaletto ; 300 M. Magnano- 
Artegna; 302 1/ 2 M. Tarcento ; 305 M. Tricesimo ; 309 M. Reana 
del Rojale. — 315 M. Udine, see p. 253. 

From Udine to (398 M.) Venice, see pp. 253-251. 

II. Piedmont. 

7. Turin 25 

From the Piazza Castello, with the Royal Palace, to the 
Academy (gallery of paintings) and the Piazze S. Carlo 
and Carlo Emanuele, 27. — From the Piazza Castello to 
the Cathedral and the Piazza Emanuele Filiberto, 32. — 
From the Piazza Castello to the Piazza dello Statuto; 
Giardino della Cittadella; Central Station, 34. — From 
the Piazza Castello by the Via di Po, with its side streets, 
to the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, and thence to the 
Nuovo Giardino Pubbico, 35. — Right bank of the Po ; 
Capuchin monastery, 37. 

Excursions: The Superga, 37. — Moncalieri. The 
Valleys of the Waldenses, 38. — From Turin to Lanzo ; 
to Ceresole Reale; and to Torre Pellice, 38. 

8. From Turin to Aosta and Courmayeur 39 

Excursion to the Graian Alps 43 

9. From Turin to Milan via Novara 47 

From Santhia to Biella, 47. — From Vercelli to Alessan- 
dria, 48. — From Novara to Varallo and to Busto-Arsizio 
and Seregno, 50. 

10. From Bellinzona to Genoa 50 

From Milan to Vigevano and Mortara (Genoa), 51. 

11. From Turin to Piacenza via, Alessandria 52 

From Tortona to Novi, 52. 

12. From Turin to Genoa 52 

a. Via, Alessandria 52 

From Asti to Mortara (Milan), 53. — From Alessandria 

to Savona, 54. 

b. Via Bra and Savona 54 

Carignano, 54. — From Carmagnola to Cuneo. Saluzzo, 

55. — From Bra to Alessandria, 55. — From Carru to 
Cuneo via Mondovi, 55. 

This district 'at the foot of the mountains'", enclosed on three sides 
by the Alps and Apennines, and separated from Lombardy by the Ticino, 
embraces, according to the present division, the provinces of Turin, No- 
vara, Cuneo, and Alessandria, with 3,233,000 inhab., and an area of about 
11,400 sq. M. It consists of lowlands flanking the banks of the Po and 
its tributaries, which yield rice and maize, and of highlands where ex- 
cellent wine and silk are produced, and lastly of a bleaker mountain 
region of forests and pastures. The earliest Inhabitants were Celtic and 
Ligurian tribes, who were but slowly influenced by Roman culture; and 
it was not till the reign of Augustus that the subjugation of the higher 
valleys was completed. The Dialect of the people still retains traces of 
their ancient affinity with the French ; thus, pieuve, instead of the Italian 
piovere, om for uomo, coeur for cuore, sita for citta, rason for ragione, 
plassa for piazza. This patois is universally spoken , even by the upper 
classes, but is unintelligible to strangers. Throughout Piedmont, however, 
French is very generally spoken. 

The History of the country is closely interwoven with that of its 
dynasty. The House of Savoy (or Casa Saoauda) , a family of German 
origin, professing even to trace their descent from the Saxon Duke 


Wittekind, the opponent of Charlemagne, first became conspicuous among 
the nobles of Upper Burgundy about the year 1000. Humbert I. (d. 
1056) is generally regarded as the founder of the dynasty. In 1101 his 
descendants were created imperial counts of Savoy by Henry IV., and by 
judiciously espousing the cause of the pope and the emperor alternately, 
they gradually succeeded in extending their supremacy over Turin, Aosta, 
Susa, Ivrea, and Nice. In consequence of a law passed by Amadeus V., 
the Great, in 1367, which settled the succession on the male line in the order 
of primogeniture, and constituted ChamMry the seat of government, the 
subdivisions of the country were at length united. In 1416, during the 
reign of Amadeus VIII., the counts became Ddkes of Savoy. Situated 
between the two great mediseval powers of France on one side, and 
Austria and Spain on the other, the princes of Savoy frequently changed 
sides, and although sometimes overtaken by terrible disasters , they con- 
trived to maintain, and even to extend their territory. At one period 
the greater part of the Duchy was annexed to France, but Emmanuel 
Philibert ('Testa di Ferro\ 1553-80) restored it to its original extent, being, 
as regards internal organisation also , its second founder. Under his son 
Charles Emmanuel I. (1580-1630) the Duchy again became dependent on 
France. From the sons of this prince are descended the elder branch of 
the family, which became extinct in 1831, and the younger Carignano 
line, which succeeded to the throne in the person of Carlo Alberto. The 
following dukes were Vittorio Amadeo I. (1630-37), Francesco Oiacinto 
(1637-38) , Carlo Emanuele II. (1638-75) , and Vittorio Amadeo II. (1675- 
1730). The last of these , having boldly allied himself with Austria dur- 
ing the Spanish War of Succession, managed to throw off the French 
suzerainty (1703) ; he obtained Sicily as his reward, which island, however, 
he was afterwards obliged to exchange for Sardinia (1720), and in 1713 
assumed the title of King, which was subsequently coupled with the 
name of the latter island. His successors were Carlo Emanuele III. 
(1730-73), and Vittorio Amadeo III. (1773-96). After the battle of Turin the 
Piedmontese princes directed their attention to Prussia , which served as 
a model for the organisation of their kingdom. In both countries the 
military and feudal element preponderated, and both were obliged to 
succumb to the new powers evolved by the French revolution. Carlo 
Emanuele IV. (1796-1802) was deprived of all his continental possessions 
by the French in 1798, and restricted to the island of Sardinia, which 
was protected by the English fleet: Vittorio Emanuele I. (1802-21) was at 
length reinstated in his dominions, with the addition of Genoa, by the 
Congress of Vienna. The Napoleonic period had swept away the feudal 
institutions of Piedmont, and had bequeathed in their stead many of the 
benefits of modern legislation, and high military renown. It is therefore 
intelligible that the clerical reaction, which set in with the king's return, 
gave rise to an insurrection which caused the king to abdicate, and 
which had to be quelled by Austrian troops. His brother Carlo Felice 
(1821-31) adhered faithfully to Jesuitical principles, and lived on the 
whole in accordance with his motto, 'Non sono re per essere seccato'. 
The older line of the House of Savoy became extinct with this prince, and 
was succeeded by the collateral line of Carignano (p. 54; 27th April, 1831). 
Carlo Alberto (b. 1798), who had been educated at a French military 
school, and had headed the insurrection of 1821, was protected by France 
and Russia against the attempts of Austria to deprive him of his claims 
to the throne. His own experiences , and the force of circumstances, 
rendered him an implacable enemy of Austria. With him began the 
national development of Piedmont, although his efforts were not always 
consistent. The liberals called him the 'Re Tentenna 1 (the vacillating), 
while in 1843 he himself described his position as being 'between the 
daggers of the Carbonari and the chocolate of the Jesuits'. On 6th 
Jan. 1848 Count Cavour made the first public demand for the establish- 
ment of a constitution , and on the 7th Feb. the king , half in despair, 
yielded to the popular desires. The insurrection in Lombardy at length 
induced him to become the champion of national independence , and to 
give vent to his old enmity against Austria (23rd March), but one year 


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TURIN. 7. Route. 25 

later his career terminated with his defeat at Novara (23rd March, 1849). 
He then abdicated and retired to Oporto, where he died in a few months 
(26th July). It was reserved for his son Vittorio Emanuele II. (b. 1820, 
d. 9th Jan. 1878) finally to give effect to the national wishes of Italy. 

7. Turin, Ital. Torino. 

Arrival. The principal railway-station at Turin is the Stazione Gen- 
Irale , or di Porta Nuova (PI. E, 4, 5), a handsome edifice with waiting- 
rooms adorned with frescoes , and the terminus of all the lines (*Rail. 
Restaurant). — Travellers to Milan may take the train at the Stazione di 
Porta Susa (PI. C, 3, 4), the first stopping-place of all the trains of the 
Novara-Milan line (omnibuses and cabs meet every train), or at the Stazione 
Succursale, on the left bank of the Dora. — Station of the steam-tramway 
to Rivoli in the Piazza dello Statuto (PI. C, 2); of that to Cirie-Lanzo 
near the Ponte Mosca (PI. E, 1). 

Hotels. *Europa (PI. a; E, 2), Piazza Castello 19; *Grand Hotel de 
Turin (PI. b; E, 4, 5), opposite the central station; 'Hotel Feder (PI. d; 
F, 3),Via S. Francesco di Paola 8; Hotel d'Angleterre & Trombetta (PI. e ; 
E, 3, 4), Via Roma 31, and Via Cavour 2. All these are of the first class, with 
similar charges: at the first three, R., L., & A. from 3-5, B. IV2, de'j. 
3V2, D. 5., pens, from 10 fr. ; at the last dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 10 fr. — The 
following are second-class and more in the Italian style : Albergo Cent- 
rale (PI. g; E, 2), Via delle Finanze, R. 2-2V2, L. 1/2, A. s/ 4 , B. IV4, dej. 
incl. wine 3, D. incl. wine 4, pens. 9 fr. •, Metropole. & Bonne Femme 
(PL h; E, 2), Via Pietro Micca 3, R. 2 fr., L. 60 c, A. s/ 4 , b. 11/4, dej. 
incl. wine 3, D. incl. wine 4V2, omn. 1 fr., these two well spoken of. 
Hotel Sui sse (P I. i; E, 4), Via Sacchi 2, near the central station, R., L., 
# ATS^BTrB. I 1 /*, dej. 2 l /2, D. 4, pens. 8-10 fr., well spoken of; Londra & 
Caccia Reale (PI. k ; E, 2), Piazza Castello 18, commended ; Hotel de 
France et de la Concorde (PI. 1 ; F, 2, 3), Via di Po 20 ; Tee Corone 
(PL m; E, 2), Via S. Tommaso 13; Dogana Vecchia (PL n; E, 2), Via 
Corte d'Appello 4, adjoining the Palazzo di Citta, R., L., & A. 2V2, B. 1 fr., 
omn. 60 c, well spoken of. — The Grissini, a kind of bread in long, 
thin, and crisp sticks, are a speciality of the place. The Piedmontese wines 
have, 1 a high repute (comp. p. xix). 

Restaurants. *Cambio, Piazza Carignano 2, much frequented in the 
morning, best Italian wines; *Caffe-Rist. di Parigi, Via di Po 21; Antica 
Verna, Via Roma 13 ; Trattoria delta Posta, Piazza Carlo Alberto ; Meri- 
diana, Galleria Geisser, Via S. Teresa 6 (Vienna beer); Due Indie, Via Vasco 

4. — Vermouth di Torino (famous), best at Carpono's, Piazza Castello 18. 

Cafes. Parigi (see above); Londra, Via di Po (well supplied with 
newspapers); Nazionale, Via di Po 20; Madera, Via Lagrange 10; '-Ro- 
mano, by the Galleria dell 1 Industria Subalpina, in the Piazza Castello 
(cafe-chantant in the evening); Borsa, Via Roma 25 (newspapers); "Svizzero, 
Piazza Castello; *Liguria, Corso Vitt. Em. II., near the station (concerts). 
— Confectioners. Bass, Baratti & Milano, both in the Piazza Castello, S. 
side; Stratta, Piazza S. Carlo 7. Chocolate: Moriondo & Qariglio, Piazza 

5. Carlo 6. — Beer. In the restaurant of the H6t. cf ' Angleterre (see above) 
and at the above-mentioned Caffe Romano; Dreher, Piazza Carignano; in 
the Birreria delta Borsa, Via dell 1 Accademia delle Scienze; in the Birreria, 
Via Garibaldi 5; in the Galleria delV Industria Subalpina (p. 27); Lumpp, 
Via Alfieri ; Voigt, corner of the Via Bertola and Piazza Solferino. 

Cabs (Cittadine): per drive (corsa) 1 fr., at night (12-6 a. m.) 1 fr. 20 c. ; 
first 72 hr. 1 fr., first hour (ora) 1 fr. 50 c, each following 1/2 hr. 75 c, 
at night H/2, 2, and 1 fr.; each trunk 20 c. — Two-horse carriage 50 c. 
more in each case. 

Horse - Tramways (fare 10 c.) traverse the ftreets in many different 
directions (see Plan). The chief centres are Piazza Castello (PL E, F, 2), 
Piazza Emanuele Umberto (PL D, E, 1) , Piazza dello Statuto (PL C, 2), 
Piazza S. Martino (PL C, 3), and Piazza Solferino (PL D, E, 3). 

26 Route 7. TURIN. Theatres. 

Steam Tramways ply to various points in the more or less immediate 
neighbourhood; comp. the Italian time-tables. 

General Post Office (PI. 48 •, F, 3 ; for poste restante letters, etc.), Via 
Principe Amedeo 10. Telegraph Office, same street, 8. 

Booksellers. Loescher, Via di Po 19; Rosenberg & Sellier, Via Bogino 3; 
Casanova, Via Accademia delle Scienze; L. Roux & Co., in the Galleria 
Subalpina (p. 27). — Newspapebs: Qazzetta Piemontese, Oazzetta di Torino. 

Goods-Agents, Fratelli Oirard, Via Cernaia 14 (PI. C, D, 3). 

Physician. Dr. J. Conti, Corso Valdocco 1 (speaks English). — Chemist, 
A. Torre, Via di Po 14. 

Military Music in the Piazza Castello every afternoon ; on Sundays 12-2, 
in summer in the Giardino Reale, in winter in the Piazza Vittorio Ema- 
nuele ; in the old Piazza d'Armi in summer during the Corso. — The favourite 
promenade of the Turinese is in the avenues of the Piazza d'Armi. 

Baths. Via Provvidenza 40; Bagni di S. Carlo, Via Roma 22; Bagni 
di S. Giuseppe, Via S. Teresa 21; Bagni Cavour, Via Lagrange 22. Bath 
lV4-lV2fr., with fee of 20c. — Swimming Bath (scuola di nuoto) above the 
old bridge over the Po (PI. G, 3; 60 c). 

Theatres. Teatro Regio (PI. 52; F 2), Piazza Castello, for operas and 
ballets, with seats for 2500, generally open during Lent and the Carnival 
only (admission 3 fr., reserved seats 6 fr.); Vittorio Emanuele (PI. 59; F 2), 
Via Rossini 13, for operas, ballets, and equestrian performances, the largest 
in the city; Alfieri (PI. 56; D 3), Piazza Solferino, for operettas; Carignano 
(PL 53 ; E 3), in the Piazza of that name, for Italian comedies and (in autumn) 
operas; Rossini (PL. 57; F 3), Via di Po 24, for plays in the Piedmontese 
dialect; Balbo (PL 60; F. 4), Via Andria Doria, for farces, etc. 

British Vice-Consul, Mr. O. Cassinis, Via Bogino 25. — United States 
Vice-Consul, Mr. Montu, Via Bogino 12. 

English Church Service in the Grand Hotel de Turin at 11 a.m. 
Chaplain, Rev. John Beaufort Berkeley Barter, Corso Oporto 23. — Pro- 
testant Service in the Tempio Valdese (PL 18; F 4) on Sundays, in French 
at 11, in Italian at 3 o'clock. — Free Italian Church (Rev. Sign. Bracchetto), 
Via Maria Vittoria 27, first floor. 

Principal Attractions : Armoury (p. 28), Picture Gallery (p. 30) and 
Museum of Antiquities (p. 29), Museo Civico (p. 36), monuments in the 
Cathedral (p. 32), view from the Capuchin monastery (p. 37). 

Turin (785 ft.) , Ital. Torino, the ancient Taurasia, capital of 
the Taurini , a Ligurian-Celtic tribe , destroyed by Hannibal B.C. 
218, afterwards the Roman Augusta Taurinorum , was the capital 
of the County of Piedmont in the middle ages, and in 1418 became 
subject to the Dukes of Savoy, who frequently resided here. From 
1859 to 1865 it was the capital of Italy and residence of the king. 
The seat of a university and of a military academy, and head- 
quarters of the 1st Italian Corps d'Arme'e, this great city lies in an 
extensive plain on the Po , which receives the waters of the Dora 
Ttiparia below the city. The plain of the Po is bounded on the 
W. by the Qraian and Cottian Alps , and on the E. by a range 
of hills rising on the right bank, opposite the city (hill of the Ca- 
puchins , p. 37; Superga, p. 37). Turin was the chief centre of 
those national struggles which led to the unification of Italy. The 
removal of the seat of government to Florence seriously impaired 
the prosperity of the citizens for a time , but they have long since 
recovered their losses. The rapidly increasing population now 
numbers upwards of 300,000, including suburbs. 

Turin is conspicuous among the cities of Italy for the regularity of 
its construction. Its plan presents rectangular blocks of houses (Jsole), long, 
broad, straight streets (Vie), spacious squares, and numerous gardens. 

Palazzo Madama. TURIN. 7. Route. 27 

Its history explains this. The plan of the old town, with slight varia- 
tions , is ascertained to be the same as that of the colony founded by the 
Emperor Augustus. It formed a rectangle of 2210 ft. in length, and 
1370 ft. in breadth, and is now intersected by the Via Garibaldi, which 
runs between the Piazza Castello and the Via della Consolata. It had 
four principal gates, of which the Porta Palatina, to the N. (in the Pa- 
lazzo delle Torri, p. 33), still exists. The whole town was comprised 
within this circumference until in the 17th cent, a systematic extension 
of the city was begun in accordance with the original plan. The forti- 
fications constructed by Francis I. in 1536, and finally the siege of 1706 
cleared away most of the old buildings, and gave the town its present 
appearance. The fortifications were demolished by the French in 1801, 
and the citadel had to give place to the railway in 1857. 

The spacious Piazza Castello (PL E, F, 2) forms the centre 
of the town. From this point the busiest streets diverge : Via Roma, 
Via Garibaldi, Via delf Accademia delle Scienze, and the broad and 
handsome Via di Po, leading to the bridge over the Po, and flanked 
by arcades (Portici), containing shops, the handsomest of which are 
near the Piazza Castello. The University in the Via di Po, see p. 35. 
— In the S.E. angle of the Piazza Castello is the Galleria dell' In- 
dustria Subalpina (PI. 20; F 2), containing cafes, a birreria, and 
concert-rooms. The other end of this arcade is in the Piazza Carlo 
Alberto (p. 29). 

The Palazzo Madama (PI. 42 ; E, 2), the ancient castle, a lofty 
and cumbrous pile in the centre of the Piazza Castello , is the only 
mediaeval structure of which Turin boasts, and was erected by 
William of Monferrat, when master of the town towards the end of 
the 13th century. It owes its present name to Maria, mother of King 
Victor Amadeus II. , who as Dowager Duchess ('Madama ReaW) 
occupied the building , and embellished it in 1718 by the addition 
of a handsome double flight of steps and the facade with marble 
columns on the W. side, from a design by Juvara. The two original 
towers on the E. side are still standing ; two others on the W. side, 
one of which contains an observatory, are concealed by the facade. 
Down to 1865 the Palazzo Madama was the seat of the Italian sen- 
ate, and it now contains several institutions. — In front of the 
Palace stands a Monument to the Sardinian Army (PI. 24) by Vine. 
Vela, erected by the Milanese in 1859. 

At the N.W. corner of this piazza is the church of 8. Lorenzo, 
with a peculiar dome , and destitute of facade , by Quarini , com- 
pleted in \ 687. 

On the N. side of the Piazza Castello rises the Palazzo Reale, 
or Royal Palace (PI. 45 ; E, 2), begun in 1660, a plain brick edifice. 
The palace-yard is separated from the Piazza by a gate, the pillars 
of which are adorned with two groups in bronze of Castor and Pollux, 
designed by Abbondio Sangiorgio in 1842. To the left in the hall 
of the palace (admission free), in a niche near the staircase, is an 
equestrian statue of Duke Victor Amadeus I. (d. 1637); the statue 
is of bronze, the horse in marble ; below the latter are two slaves. 
The handsome staircase is embellished with statues of Emmanuel 

28 Route 7. TURIN. Palazzo Reale. 

PMlibert by Varni, and Carlo Alberto by Vela. The royal apartments 
are shown, in the absence of the king, on Sun. and Thurs., 12-4, 
by permesso, obtained at No. 1 Piazza S. Giovanni (PI. 10; E, 2). 

The S.E. wing (Galleria Beaumont) contains the *Royal Ar- 
moury {Armeria Reale; PI. 4; E, 2), entered from the arcade of 
the Prefettura (PI. 49; E, F, 2, last door to the left); admission 
(11-3) by tickets obtained (gratis) on the landing of the first stair- 
case. The collection, which, is on the second story, is very choice. 

In the centre of Room I. are a bronze statuette of Napoleon I., the 
sword he wore at the battle of Marengo , a quadrant he used when a 
young officer, two French regimental eagles , and two kettle-drums cap- 
tured at the battle of Turin in 1706. Numerous models of modern 
weapons ; in a cabinet near the window, Prussian helmets ; then Japanese 
and Indian weapons and armour. A cabinet on the right contains gifts 
presented to Victor Emmanuel by Italian towns, a sword presented by Rome 
in 1859, a gilded wreath of laurel by Turin 1860, and a sword in 1865, 
on the occasion of the Dante Festival; in the centre, the favourite horse 
of Charles Albert; Piedmontese flags from the wars of 1848-49 over the 
cabinets. In a cabinet to the left of the entrance is a tiny MS. of the Koran, 
in tolerable preservation. — The long Hall contains, on the right, a gigantic 
suit of armour worn at the Battle of Pavia by an equerry of Francis I. of 
France ; beyond it, in front of the chimney-piece, a choice and very valuable 
collection of 32 battle-axes, a sword executed by Benvenuto Cellini (?), and 
some finely ornamented helmets of the 15th and 16th centuries. Under glass, 
a *Shield by Benvenuto Cellini (?), embossed, and inlaid with gilding, re- 
presenting scenes from the war of Marius against Jugurtha. The finest 
suits of armour are those of the Brescian family Martinengo, three on 
the left and one on the right. Adjacent is an ancient rostrum in the form 
of a boar's head, found in the harbour at Genoa. At the end of the hall 
are the armour of Prince Eugene, the saddle of Emp. Charles V. in red 
velvet, and the beautiful armour of Duke Emmanuel Philibert. On the 
right , under glass , the sword of St. Maurice , the scimitar of Tippoo 
Sahib, etc. In the cabinet A are Roman weapons, helmets, and the eagle 
of a legion. In the cabinet F, at the top, the sword of the Imperial 
General Johann v. Werth (d. 1652), bearing a German inscription in verse. 

On the floor below is the Royal Library of 60,000 vols, and 3000 MSS. 
(shown only on application to the librarian), containing valuable geo- 
graphical, historical, and genealogical works, miniatures of the 15th and 
16th cent., drawings by Leonardo da Vinci (''Portrait of himself), Fra 
Bartolommeo, etc. — A staircase ascends hence to the valuable Collection 
of Coins, trinkets, enamels, carved ivory, etc., in a small room adjoining 
the Armoury. 

The Palace Garden [Oiardino Reale; Pl.E, F,2), entered from 
the arcade opposite the Palazzo Madama, is open, during the absence 
of the king, on Sundays and festivals, between 1st May and 1st Oct., 
11-2 o'clock (military music). Fine view of the Superga. — The 
Cathedral adjoins the palace on the W. (see p. 32). 

In the Piazza Carignano, a little to the S. of the Piazza 
Castello, rises the Palazzo Carignano (PI. 39 ; F, 3), with a curious 
brick facade, erected by Guarini in 1680. An inscription informs 
us that King Victor Emmanuel II. was born here in 1820. The Sar- 
dinian Chamber of Deputies met here from 1848 to 1860, and the 
Italian Parliament from 1860 to 1865. The handsome facade at 
the back, in the Piazza Carlo Alberto, was added in 1871 by 
Bollati and Ferri. 

Academy. TURIN. 7. Route. 29 

The rooms used by the parliament are now devoted to the Natural 
History Collections formerly in the Academy (open to the public every 
week-day 1-4, in winter 1-3). The collection is divided into the Zoolo- 
gical and Comparative Anatomy Section and the Palaeontological, Geological, 
and Mineralogical Section. The former contains a fine array of birds 
and insects , and a collection of the vertebrates of Italy arranged in a 
separate gallery. The palaeontological division contains a fine collection 
of fossil mollusca from the tertiary formations , and the skeletons of a 
gigantic armadillo (Olyptodon Clavipes) from Rio de la Plata, a Tetra- 
lophodon Avemensis, a Megatherium Cuvieri, and other antediluvian animals. 

In the Piazza Carignano , in front of the palace , stands the 
finely-executed marble *Statue of the philosopher and patriot Vin- 
cenzo Gioberti (PI. 32 ; d. 1852), by Albertoni, erected in 1859. 

The Piazza Carlo Alberto (E. side of Palazzo Carignano) 
contains a bronze monument of King Charles Albert (PI. 27), 
designed by Marocchetti. The pedestal stands on four steps of 
Scottish granite ; at the corners are four colossal statues of Sardin- 
ian soldiers ; above are four female figures, representing Martyr- 
dom, Freedom, Justice, and Independence. The Galleria Sub- 
alpina (p. 27) runs off this piazza. 

In the vicinity, at the corner of the Piazza Carignano and the 
Via dell' Accademia No. 4 , is the Palazzo dell' Accademia delle 
Scienze (PI. 3 ; E, 3) , containing a picture-gallery and museums 
of natural history and antiquities. The building, formerly the 
Jesuit College, was erected by Guarini in 1674. On the Ground- 
Floor, to the right, are Egyptian, Roman , and Greek sculptures ; 
on the First Floor smaller antiquities ; on the Second Floor 
(98 steps) the picture-gallery. These collections are open daily 
9-4 (in winter 10-4), adm. to each 1 fr. ; on Sundays and holidays 
12-4, gratis. 

Museum of Antiquities (Museo Egizio e di Antichita Greco-Romane). — 
Halls I. & II. : Egyptian statues and late Greek works found in Egypt ; 
in the centre of the room *Mosaics found at Stampacci in Sardinia , re- 
presenting Orpheus with his lyre, and a lion, goat, and ass, probably the 
animals listening to him; large Egyptian sphinxes, figures of idols and 
kings, sarcophagi, reliefs. The finest figures are the colossal statue of 
Seti II., in red sandstone; the red granite statue of Amenophis II.; a 
smaller statue of the same monarch in black granite; a small white figure 
of Amasis; and the black *Statue of Ramses II., above which is an in- 
scription in honour of the celebrated French Egyptologist Champollion. — 
We now enter the I. Gallery to the left. Statues of Jupiter, Marsyas, 
and Olympus, Youth (restored as Mercury), Hercules killing the snakes, 
good torso, on the left four figures placed round a column, bearing the 
name of Protys the sculptor. Minerva, over life-size. Amazon (in green 
basalt; freely restored). Inscriptions. 

The Small Antiquities are on the First Floor. In the 1st Room are 
mummies, papyrus writings, scarabeei, trinkets, vases, and porcelain 
statuettes and terracottas, many of which are Grseco -Roman. The 
2nd Room on the right contains a papyrus with fragments of the annals 
of Manetho (a list of the kings of Egypt down to the 19th dynasty), dis- 
covered by Champollion; the 'Book of the Dead 1 , edited by Lepsius; the 
Tabula Isiaca found in the pontificate of Paul III., etc. — A passage to 
the left of the 1st room contains inscriptions and statuettes. — We now 
turn to the left into a room containing Cyprian antiquities, several inter- 

30 Route 7- TURIN. Picture Gallery. 

esting Etruscan cinerary urns with traces of painting, and (at the door) 
two Assyrian reliefs, the heads of a king and a eunuch. 

Beyond, on the left, is a room devoted to Roman Sculptures: in 
the middle, heads of poets and philosophers; along the longer wall, 
busts of emperors ; in the corner to the left , colossal head of a goddess, 
fine *Head of Venus (bust modern), head of Antinous, fragments of a fine 
relief of a youth in a chariot with four horses, probably a Greek work, etc. 

— A room on the right contains the Grseco-Etruscan Vases; by the window- 
wall are two complete tombs found between Turin and Milan, and early 
Italian vessels. In the next room are Bronzes and a few reliefs in silver. 
In front of the wall-presses are a tripod and a *Silenus, found near Turin, 
head of Caligula, and *Minerva, found in the Versa near Stradella in 1828. 

— The room in the middle contains terracottas and *Glass. 

The *Picture Gallery ( Pinacoteca) , on the second floor, is 
important for the study of Macrino a" Alba (1460-1510) and Ms 
pupil Deferrari da Chivasso, and of Gaudenzio Ferrari (1471?- 
1546), who was inspired by Leonardo and influenced by theUmbrian 
school (Nos. 49 and 54). Sodoma (1480-1549), who originally be- 
longed to the Lombard school, is well represented by three pictures. 
Lorenzo di Credits (1459-1 537) Madonna, No. 356, of his best period, 
shows that he was influenced by Leonardo. Among numerous and 
important works of the old Netherlandish school are : 359. Petrus 
Cristus; 358. Memling ; 340. Sketch by Rubens; 338, 351, 363, 
384. by Van Dyck. (Catalogue li/ 4 fr.) 

I. Room. Princes of the House of Savoy and battle-pieces. Beginning 
on the right : ten of the battles fought by Prince Eugene , by Hughten- 
burg; thirteen portraits of members of the House of Savoy; 28. Horace 
Vernet, King Charles Albert; 29, 31. French School; 26, 30. Dutch School; 
4. Van Schuppen, Prince Eugene on horseback. 

II. Room. 42. Defendente Deferrari, Madonna with SS. George and 
Barbara and Charles III. of Savoy (ancient frame) ; *49. Gaud. Ferrari, St. 
Peter and donor; 50 bis. Macrino d^Alba, Madonna and saints (1498); Gau- 
denzio Ferrari, 52. Visitation, 53. God the Father, *54. Descent from the 
Cross, 57. Joachim driven from the Temple, 58. Madonna and St. Eliza- 
beth; 56. Bern. Lanini, Descent from the Cross; 50. Sodoma, Holy Family. 
On an easel : 784. Barnaba da Modena, Madonna (1370). 

III. Room. *55. Sodoma, Madonna and SS. Jerome, John, Lucia, and 
Catharine. — IV. Room : 90. Landscape by Massimo d^Azeglio. 

V. Room. 93. School of Fra Angelico, Madonna; 94, 96. Fra Angelica 
da Fiesole, Adoring angels; 97. School of VerroccMo, Tobias and the 
angel; 98. School of Sandro Botticelli, Same subject, 99. Madonna; *101. 
Fr. Francia, Entombment (1515) ; 106. Bugiardini, Holy Family; 108. Garo- 
falo, The boy Jesus in the Temple ; 108 bis. After Raphael, Portrait of Pope 
Julius II. in the Palazzo Pitti at Florence ; 114. Giov. Pedrini. SS. Catharine 
and Peter Martyr; 118. Girolamo Savoldo, Holy Family; 121. Franciabigio, 
Annunciation ; 122. Franc. Penni, Good copy (1518) of Raphael's Entomb- 
ment in the Palazzo Borghese at Rome; 127 bis. Clovio, 'II Santissimo 
Sudario' (comp. p. 32) ; 127, 128. Bronzino, Portraits of Eleonora da Toledo 
and her husband Cosimo I. de 1 Medici; 129. After Titian, an old copy, 
Pope Paul III. In the middle are four Madonnas: 779. Giov. Bellini 
(ruined by retouching) ; 780. Bart. Vivarini (1481) ; 828. Timoteo Viti (more 
probably School of Perugino ; forged signature); 824. Gregorio Schiavone. 

VI. Room. Above the door: 132. Bonifazio II., Holy Family; 137, 
138, 142, 143. Andrea Schiavone, Mythological scenes ; 140. Ant. Badile 
(master of P. Veronese) , Presentation in the temple ; opposite, 157. 
P. Veronese, The Queen of Sheba before Solomon; 160. Agostino Carracci, 
Landscape; *161. Caravaggio, Musician. 

VII. Room. 163. Guido Reni, John the Baptist; 167. Jacopo Bassano, 
Cupid at the forge; 170. Giulio Cetare Procaccini, SS. Francis and Carlo 

Picture Gallery. TURIN. 7. Route. 31 

Borromeo adoring the Madonna; 174. Spagnolelto, St. Jerome; 182. 
P. Veronese, Finding of Moses. 

VIII. Room. Porcelain-paintings by Conslantin of Geneva, copied from 
celebrated originals; Luca delict Rohbia, Adoration of the Infant Saviour. 

IX. Room. Fruit and flower-pieces; 220. by Snyders, 225. by Fyt, 228. 
by De Heem. — Then a corridor with inferior works. 

X. Room. 234. P. Veronese, Mary Magdalene washing the Saviour's 
feet; Guercino, 242. Ecce Homo, "239. St. Francesca Romana; 828. P. 
Veronese, Danae; 241. Elisabetta Sirani, Cain and Abel; 237, 238. Poussin, 
Waterfall, Cascades of Tivoli; 244. Orazio Gentileschi, Annunciation; 251. 
Strozzi (or Ribera), Homer. 

XI. Room. 257, 258. Sassoferrato , Madonnas, the first called 'della 
Rosa 1 ; 263. Fr. Albani, Salmacis ; *260, *264, *271, *274. Albani, The four 
Elements ; 287. Gius. Crespi, St. Nepomuk in the confessional ; 276. Carlo 
Bold, Madonna; 283, 288. Bernardino Bellotto, Views of Turin; 295. Ma- 
ratta, Madonna; 299, 300. Angelica Eaufmann, Sibyls. 

XII. Room. Netherlands and German school : 306. Engelbrechtsen, 
Passion; 309. Adoration of the Magi in the style of Hieron. Bosch (15th 
cent.); 313. Van Eyck (?), St. Francis receiving the stigmata; *312, 320. 
Rogier van der Weyden, Madonna and St. Elizabeth, with portrait of the 
donor ; 319. Bruyn, Portrait of Calvin (?) ; 322. Paul Bril, Landscape ; 325. 
Goltz, Warriors; *338.—Fa« Byck, Children of Charles I. of England; *340. 
Rubens, Sketch of his apotheosis of Henry IV. in the Uffizi; *351. Van 
Byck, Princess Clara Eugenia of Spain. 

XIII. Room: Gems of the collection. 355. Mantegna, Madonna and 
saints (much retouched) ; *356. Lorenzo di Gredi, Madonna*; *357. Guercino, 
Madonna; *358. Hans Memling, Seven Sorrows of Mary, the counterpart 
of the Seven Joys of Mary at Munich, a chronological composition of a 
kind much in vogue among northern artists ; 359. Petrus Oristus, Madonna ; 
*361. Saenredam, Interior of a church, the figures by A. van Ostade; *363. 

Van Byck, Prince Thomas of Savoy, a fine portrait; 366. Wouwerman, 
Cavalry attacking a bridge ; 368. B. Teniers, Musician ; 369. Sandro Botti- 
celli, Triumph of Chastity; '371. Gaud. Ferrari, Crucifixion (an early 
work in distemper) ; -373. Raphael, Madonna della Tenda (a very fine picture, 
but the original is at Munich); 374. School of S. Botticelli, Madonna; 
' :: 375. Besiderio da Settignano, Madonna (relief in marble); *376. Sodoma, 
Lucretia; *377. Paul Potter (1649), Cattle grazing; 377 bis. Rembrandt, Old 
man asleep (an early work); 378. Jan Brueghel, Landscape-, 379. Frans 
van Mieris, Portrait of himself; 382. G. Flinck, Portrait; *384. Van Byck, 
Holy Family, the finest work of this master in Italy, painted under the 
influence of Titian ; 386. H. Holbein, Portrait of Erasmus (perhaps a copy?) ; 
389. J. Ruysdael, Landscape; 391. Gerard Bou, Girl plucking grapes; *392. 

Velazquez, Philip IV. of Spain ; 393. Rubens (?), Holy Family ; 394. C. Netscher, 

XIV. Room. 398. Sallaert, Procession ; 410. Floris, Adoration of the 
Magi; 417. School of Rubens, Soldier and girl; 420. Wouwerman, Horse- 
market; 435. Gerard Bou, Portrait; *428. B. Teniers, Card-players; 441. 
B. Fdbritius, Domestic scene; 458. Schalcken, Old woman; 434 bis. J. 
Ruysdael, Landscape. 

XV. Room. 478, 483. Claude Lorrain, Landscapes; 481. Bourguignon, 
Battle ; 494. P. Mignard, Louis XIV. 

Opposite the Academy, to the E., is the large church of 8. 
Filippo (PI. 16; F 3), erected by Guarini in 1679, and restored by 
Juvarain 1714. The portico in front is a later addition. The church 
contains pictures by Guercino, Solimena, and others. 

The neighbouring Piazza S. Carlo (PI. E, 3), 587 ft. long, 
and 264 ft. wide , is embellished with an equestrian *Statue of 
Duke Emmanuel Philibert (PI. 28), in bronze, designed by Maroc- 
chetti (1838). The relief on the W. side represents the Battle of 

32 Route 7. TURIN. Cathedral- 

St. Quentin ; that on the E. side the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis 
(1559), by which the duchy was restored to the House of Savoy; 
the duke as 'pacem redditurus 1 is in the act of sheathing his sword. 
■ — The two churches on the S. side of the piazza are S. Caelo 
(PI. 9) and S. Ceistina (PI. 9b), both founded at the beginning of 
the 17th cent., with facades of later date: that of S. Cristina by 
Juvara (1718); that of S. Carlo, in Baveno granite, an imitation of 
Juvara's, added in 1836. S. Carlo contains a monument of the 
condottiere Francesco Maria Broglia, ancestor of the French family 
of Broglie. The high-altarpiece is by Morazzone. 

The Yia Roma leads from Piazza S. Carlo to (N.) Piazza Castello 
(p. 27), and (S.) to Piazza Carlo Felice (p. 34) and the railway- 
station ; to the E. the Via Maria Vittoria, with the Pal. della Cistema 
(PI. 46, F 3; at the corner of the Yia Carlo Alberto) , residence of 
the late Prince Amedeo of Savoy (d. 1890), leads to Piazza Carlo 
Emanuele. — In the Via dell' Ospedale is the Exchange (PL 6; 
F, 3), and adjoining it, a Museo Industriale Italiano (PI. 63 ; adm. 
on Sun. 12 1 /2-^ } gratis ; on other days, 9-11 and 2-4, on application 
at the secretary's office). Farther on is the large Ospedale 8. Gio- 
vanni Battista (PI. 38 ; F, 3). 

In the centre of the Piazza Caelo Emanuele II. (PI. F, 3), 
commonly called the 'Piazza Carlina', rises the imposing *Montiment 
of Cavour (PI. 26), 46 ft. high, by Dupre, erected in 1873. Grateful 
Italy presents the civic crown to the creator of Italian unity, who 
holds a scroll in his left hand with the famous words 'libera chiesa 
in libero stato'. The pedestal is adorned with allegorical figures of 
Justice, Duty, Policy, and Independence ; the reliefs represent the 
return of the Sardinian troops from the Crimea, and the Paris 
Congress. For this fine work the sculptor was paid upwards of 
30,000£.' — A memorial tablet in Via Cavour, No. 8, at the corner 
of the Via Lagrange, marks the house (PL 44 ; F 4) in which Count 
Camillo Cavour was born in 1810 (d. 1861). 

Adjoining the Pal. Reale (p. 27) on the W. is the Cathedral 
(S. Giovanni Battista; PL 10; E, 2), erected on the site of three 
earlier churches in 1492-98 by Meo del Caprino of Florence in the 
Renaissance style, with marble facade. 

The Interior consists of nave , aisles , and transept , with octagonal 
dome. Over the W. Portal is a copy of Leonardo's Last Supper (p. 105). 
Over the second altar on the right are small pictures, blackened with 
age, by Deferrari (not Durer). Frescoes on the ceiling modern. The seats 
of the royal family are to the left of the high-altar. 

Behind the high-altar is the *Gappella del Santissimo Sudario (open 
during morning mass till 9 o'clock; reached by 37 steps to the right of 
the high-altar) , constructed in the 17th cent, by the Theatine monk 
Guarini. It is a lofty circular chapel of dark brown marble, contrasting 
strongly with the white monuments, separated from the choir by a glass 
partition, and covered with a curiously shaped dome. This is the burial- 
chapel of the Dukes of Savoy, and was embellished by King Charles 
Albert in 1842 with statues in white marble and symbolical figures to the 

Palazzo di Citta. TURIN. 7. Route. 33 

memory of illustrious members of his family : (r.) Emmanuel Philibert 
(d. 1580), 'restitutor imperii 1 , by Marchesi; Prince Thomas (d. 1656J, 
'qui magno animo italicam libertatem armis adseruit nee prius dimi- 
care destitit quam vivere 1 , by Gaggini; Charles Emmanuel II. (d. 1675), 
by Fraccaroli; Amadeus VIII. (d. 1451), by Cacciatori. The peculiar 
light from above enhances the effect. In a kind of urn over the altar is 
preserved the Santissimo Sudario, or part of the linen cloth in which the 
body of the Saviour is said to have been wrapped. 

From the Piazza S. Giovanni we pass through the Via della 
Basilica to the Via Porta Palatina , which leads to the Palazzo 
delle Torri (PI. 47 ; E, 2) , a Roman gateway with two mediaeval 
towers (or, according to others, a Lombard building of the 8th cent.), 
now fitted up as a drawing-school. In the street, not far from the 
cathedral, is the church of Corpus Domini (PI. 12; E, 2), erected 
in 1607 by Vitozzi, on the site of, and named after, a chapel built 
in 1543 to commemorate a miracle of the Host (1521). — In 
the adjacent church of S. Spirito , dating from 1610, Rousseau, 
an exile from Geneva, at the age of 16 , became a Roman Catholic 
in 1728, but he again professed Calvinism at Geneva in 1754. 

The Palazzo di Citta (PI. 40 ; E, 2) , or town-hall, containing 
a library, was erected in 1659. The Piazza in front is adorned 
with a monument to Amadeus VI. (PI. 25), the l conte verde 1 , con- 
queror of the Turks and restorer of the imperial throne of Greece 
(d. 1383), a bronze group designed by Palagi in 1853. The marble 
statues in front of the Palazzo of (1.) Prince Eugene (d. 1736) 
and (r.) Prince Ferdinand (d. 1855), Duke of Genoa and brother 
of Victor Emmanuel II., were erected in 1858 ; that of King Charles 
Albert (d. 1849) , by Cauda , in the colonnade to the left , was 
erected in 1859 ; that of King Victor Emmanuel II. (d. 1878), by 
Vela, to the right, in 1860. Opposite these statues are memorial 
tablets referring to the events of their reigns. 

The Via Milano leads hence to the N. to the church of S. Domen- 
ico (14th cent. •, containing a Madonna and St. Dominic by Guer- 
cino) , and the Via Corte d'Appello to the W. to Piazza Savoia 
(PI. D, 2), in which rises an obelisk (PI. 35), 75 ft. in height, 
commemorating the abolition of ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the 
minister Siccardi in 1850. — The Via della Consolata leads hence 
to the church of — 

La Consolata (PI. 11; D, 2), formed by the union of three 
ch'urches, now a building in the baroque style, erected by Ouarini 
in 1679, and decorated by Juvara in 1714. The chapel to the left 
below the dome contains kneeling statues in marble of Maria 
Theresa, Queen of Charles Albert, and Maria Adelaide, Queen of 
Victor Emmanuel (both of whom died in 1855), by Vela, erected 
in 1861. The church contains a highly revered Madonna. The 
passage to the right is hung with votive pictures. The campanile 
belonged to the convent of S. Andrea (9th century). — The column 
of the Madonna in the adjoining piazza, erected in 1835, commem- 
orates the cessation of the cholera. 

Bakdekek. Italy I. 9th Edit. 3 

34 Route 7. TURIN. Citadel Gardens. 

A little to the N. E. , and intersected by the Corso Regina Marghe- 
rita, lies the Piazza Emanuele Filiberto (PI. D, E, 1), adjoined 
on the S. by Piazza Milano, and on the N. by Piazza dei Molini. 
To the N. of the latter runs the Via al Ponte Mosca, with the 
station of the Cirie-Lanzo railway (p. 38) on the left, and on the 
right the new church of S. Oioachino, a basilica in the Lombard 
style, with a campanile 150 ft. high, designed by Count Ceppi. — 
The street then crosses the Dora Biparia by the Ponte Mosca, a 
handsome bridge of one arch, constructed in 1830, and named after 
its builder. Fine view of the Superga and of the Graian Alps over- 
topped by the Gran Paradise 

From Piazza Castello the Via Garibaldi leads to the Piazza 
dello Statuto (PL C , 2) , with the huge Mont Cenis Tunnel 
Monument (PL 36), by Tabacchi : the Genius of Science soars above 
a pile of granite rocks , on which lie the stupefied and conquered 
giants of the mountain. On a tablet are the names of the engineers, 
Sommeiller, Grattoni, and Grandis. 

From the Via Garibaldi we proceed to the S. by the Corso Sic- 
cardi to the Giardino della Citadella (PL D, 2, 3), where statues 
were erected in 1871 to Brofferio (d. 1866) , poet and orator, and 
opposite , in 1873 , to the jurist J. B. Cassinis. — Farther on, at 
the corner of the Via della Cernaia , in front of the former citadel, 
is a monument by Gius. Cassano in memory of Pietro Micca (PL 
D, 3), the heroic 'soldato minatore', who at the sacrifice of his 
own life saved the citadel of Turin, on 30th Aug., 1706, by 
springing a mine when the French grenadiers had already advanced 
to the very gates. Nearly opposite is a column bearing a bust of 
Al. Borella , the author , and in the Via della Cernaia rises the 
statue of General Alex. Lamarmora (d. 1855 in the Crimea) , by 
Cassano. — A marble tablet above the gateway of the citadel com- 
memorates the Italian soldiers who fell in Africa in January, 1887. 

In the Piazza Solferino (PL D , E, 3) rises an equestrian 
statue of Duke Ferdinand of Genoa (PL 27), commanding general 
at the battle of Novara, by Balzico; and the gardens of the piazza 
contain monuments of General Gerbaix de Sonnaz, by Dini , and 
the historian Gius. La Farina, by Auteri-Pomar. 

In front of the imposing Central Station (p. 25 ; PL E, 4, 6) 
extends the Piazza Carlo Felice , with its tasteful gardens, 
adorned with a bronze statue of Massimo d'Azeglio , patriot , poet, 
and painter (d. 1866), by Balzico, erected in 1873. This piazza 
is adjoined by two smaller ones, the Piazza Paleocapa to the "W., 
with the statue of the minister of that name (PL 34), and the Piazza 
Lagrange, on the E., with the statue of L. Lagrange, the mathe- 
matician (d. 1813 at Paris; PI. 33). The broad Corso Vitt. Emanuele 
leads to the W. to the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II, (PI. D, 4), with 
the monument of the king (unfinished). 

University. TURIN. 7. Route. 35 

In the Via dell' Arsenale, running N.W- from the Piazza Paleo- 
capa, stands the Arsenal (PI. 5; E, 4), occupying an entire block, 
and containing the Museo Nazionale d' Arliglieria (adm. daily ex- 
cept Sun.), a collection of cannons of every description from the 
14th cent, to the present day. — In the Via S. Secondo, the con- 
tinuation, to the S., of the Via dell'Arsenale , rises the church of 
8. Secondo, completed in 1882 in the Lombard style, with a cam- 
panile 170 ft. high. 

In the Piazza Bodoni (PI. F , 4) , to the N.E. of the Piazza 
Carlo Felice, rises a bronze equestrian statue of General Alfonso 
Lamarmora (d. 1878), by Sperati, erected in 1891. 

In the Via di Po (p. 27), which leads to the S.E. from Piazza 
Castello, on the left, is the University (PL 51 ; F, 2), erected in 
1713 from designs by the Genoese Ricca, with a handsome late- 
Renaissance court. It contains a Museo Lapidario of Roman anti- 
quities, chiefly inscriptions. Marble statues have been erected here 
to Carlo Emanuele III., and to Vittorio Amadeo II. (at the en- 
trance), both by the brothers Collini; to Prof. Riberi (d. 1861), 
by Albertoni; to Dr. L. Gallo (d. 1857), by Vela; to Prof. Timer- 
mans (d. 1875), byTabacchi; and to Pescatore, the jurist, by Dini. 
On the corridor of the first floor are busts of celebrated professors 
and a large allegorical group presented by Victor Emmanuel I. The 
Library (open to the public daily , 8-6 in summer , and 9-4 and 
7-10 in winter ; closed in Sept. ; chief librarian, Comm. Gorresio) 
numbers 200,000 vols, and contains valuable Aldine editions and 
manuscripts from Bobbio. The University (founded in 1404) has at 
present 85 professors and 2300 students. 

No. 6, to the right in the Via dell' Accademia Albertina, is the 
Accademia Albertina delle Belle Arti (PL 1; F, 3 ; shown on week- 
days, 10-4 ; gratuity 50 c), founded in 1652, and transferred hither 
in 1833. It contains a small collection of pictures, many being 
copies. Among the best are : 126. Quentin Massys (?), Head of 
Christ; 140, 141. Filippo Lippi, Four saints (wings of altar-piece) ; 
218. Giovenone, Adoration of the Child. Also numerous *Cartoons 
by Gaudenzio Ferrari and Lanini, and a cartoon of Leonardo's 
Madonna with St. Anna by an artist of the Lombard School (copy 
of the picture in the Louvre). 

The Via Montebello , the next cross-street , leads to the so- 
called Mole Antonelliana (PL 22; G, 2), begun in 1863 as a 
synagogue by Antonelli (d. 1888) , left unfinished for eight years, 
and completed by the city in 1878-89 as a historical national mu- 
seum, in memory of Victor Emmanuel II. It is a square building 
(44 yds. each way) resembling a tower, with a singular facade formed 
of several rows of columns ; its height to the head of the gilded 
statue (13 ft. high) at the top is 538 ft. The dome is striking from 
its bold disregard of the ordinary technical rules of construction. 


36 Route 7. TURIN. Museo Civico. 

The hall heneath the dome is 84 ft. square and upwards of 300 ft. 
high, and contains three galleries one ahove the other. 

In the Via di Gaudenzio Ferrari , No. 1 , is the Museo Civico 
(PL 62; F, 2), containing the civic collections (gratis on Sun., 
Thurs., and holidays, 12-3; on other days, 9-4, fee 50 c). 

Ground Floor. Early sculptures, early mediaeval relief of the Ma- 
donna, coffin of the poet Vagnone (d. 1499) with reliefs of Orpheus and 
Perseus, terracottas, wood-carvings of the 16th cent., a model of the Bucin- 
toro (p. 238). — FiRST Floor. Modern paintings and sculptures. Marble 
statues of Eve by Fantacchiotti and Dante by Vela. The realistic tendency 
of modern Italian art is well illustrated in the death agonies depicted in 
the Crucifixion of Eulalia by Franceschi and the 'Femme de Claude 1 by 
Mosso. Good water-colours by Bossoli , illustrating the events of 1859-61. 
Statuette by Balzico, the 'Plebiscite in Naples'. In the last room are a 
few old paintings by Bart. Vivarini(7), Bugiardini, Honthorst, and Victoors, 
and a marble bust of Sappho by Canova. — Second Floor. Rooms 12-14: 
Sculptures in wood, tapestry, bronze and iron work. Room 15: Modern 
wood and ivory carvings •, six pieces of sculpture from the tomb of Gaston 
de Foix (p. 101), by Bambaja. R. 16: Miniatures (missal of Cardinal della 
Rovere, 15th cent.), enamels, majolica. R. 17: Italian ceramic ware. RR. 18, 
19 : Mementoes of Massimo cTAzeglio (p. 34). R. 20 : Interesting collection 
of stained glass. RR. 21, 22: Prehistoric and ethnographical collection. 

Several monuments adorn the squares in this new quarter. That 
of the Dictator of Venice, Daniele Manin (d. 1857), beyond the 
Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, by Vela, represents the Republic 
of Venice leaning on the medallion-portrait of Manin. Also sta- 
tues of Cesare Balbo (d. 1583), minister and historian, by Vela; 
of Bava, the Piedmontese general, by Albertoni; of the Marquis 
Pes de Villamarina, the Sardinian statesman, in the adjoining Pare 
Oavour; and, nearer the Piazza Maria Teresa (PL G, 3), of General 
Ouglielmo Pepe (d. 1853), the brave defender of Venice in 1849, 
by Butti. 

From the large Piazza Vittorio Emanuele (PL G, 3) the Via de 
Po (p. 27) leads on one side and a handsome bridge over the Po 
(fine view of the opposite bank, see below) on the other. The Corso 
Lungo Po, adorned with a Monument of Garibaldi erected in 1887, 
also leads from this square up the river to the Nuovo Giardino 
Pubblico. In the Via Mazzini, diverging to the right, rises the 
church of S. Massimo (PL 15 ; F, G, 4), built in 1845-54, crowned 
with a dome. Facade adorned with statues of the Four Evangelists. 
Good modern frescoes in the interior, and several statues by Alber- 
toni. — In the Corso Vitt. Emanuele II., which leads from the chain 
bridge (Ponte Maria Terese; PL G, 4) to the Piazza Carlo Felice, 
on the left, rises the new church of S. Giovanni Evangelista in the 
Romanesque style. A few paces beyond it is the Waldensian Church 
(Tempio Valdese ; PL 18; F, 4 ; see p. 38), the first Protestant church 
built at Turin after the establishment of religious toleration in 1848. 

Close by, at the corner of the Via S. Anselmo and the Via Pio 
Quinto, is the Synagogue (PL 19; F. 4, 5), in the Moorish style, 
finished in 1884. — In the Piazza Saluzzo to the S.W. is the church 
of S. Pietro e Paolo, completed in 1865, with a Byzantine facade. 

Cemetery. TURIN. 7. Route. 37 

A favourite promenade is the *Nuovo Giardino Pubblico (PI. G, 
4, 5), above the iron bridge on the left bank of the Po (Caf6). It 
comprises the Botanical Garden, and the royal chateau II Valentino^ 
a turreted building of the 17th cent., now occupied by the Poly- 
technic School. On the S. side of the garden is a model of a Castle 
of the 15th cent. (adm. 50 c.) with its dependent village, erected 
for the exhibition of 1884 (restaurant). In the adjacent Corso 
Massimo d'Azeglio several scientific institutions connected with the 
university are in course of erection. 

On the Bight Bank of the river, beyond the handsome bridge 
leading from the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, a flight of 32 steps ascends 
to the spacious domed-church of Gran Madre di Dio (PI. 14 ; H, 3), 
erected in 1818 in imitation of the Pantheon at Rome, to comme- 
morate the return of King Victor Emmanuel I. in 1814. The groups 
flanking the steps represent Faith and Charity. The lofty columns 
of the portico are monoliths of granite. — In front of the church 
rises a Monument of Victor Emmanuel I. (d. 1824), by Gaggini. — 
A few hundred yards farther is the Villa delta Begina, now a school 
for the daughters of officers who have fallen in battle. To the S. 
of the Ponte Margherita (PI. H, 1) is a large building dedicated to 
the same object. 

The Via di Moncalieri, to the right, leads to a wooded hill on 
which rises the Capuchin Monastery, II Monte (PI. H, 3, 4 ; cable- 
tram; 955 ft. above the sea-level; 165 ft. above the Po). At the 
top is a well-equipped station of the Italian Alpine Club (open 
when the flag is flying ; adm. 25 c), containing maps and other 
collections, and commanding a noble view (best in the morning). 
The hill was fortified down to 1802. 

The *View embraces the river, city, plain, and the chain of the Alps 
in the background, prominent among which are (right) the snowy peaks 
of Monte Rosa (15,215 ft.), the Gran-Paradiso (13,78) ft.), and Monte Le- 
vanna (11,975 ft.); towards the W. are the valley of Susa (p. 2), the Sagra 
di S. Michele (p. 3) on a conspicuous hill (3110 ft.), above it the Roche- 
Melon (11,605 ft.) to the right of Mont Cenis, and farther to the S.W. 
Monte Viso (12,670 ft.). 

The Cemetery (Cimitero), li/ 2 M. to the N.E. of Turin, on the 
Chivasso road (open 12-4 o'cl. in winter in fine weather; in March 
and April 1-5; in summer 3-8; in Sept. and Oct. 2-4 only), is 
reached from the Ponte delle Benne by a shady avenue (steam 
tramway from Piazza Castello, see p. 25). The front part of the 
cemetery is enclosed by a wall with arches, while the more inter- 
esting portion beyond is surrounded by arcades covered with domes. 
In the front section, to the left by the wall, is the tomb of Silvio 
Pellico (d. 1854) ; in the other section we observe the names of 
many celebrated modern Italians, such as d'Azeglio, Bava, Brofferio, 
Gioberti, Pepe, and Pinelli. 

The 'Superga, or Soperga (2145 ft. ; comp. Map, p. 25 ; tramway from 
Piazza Castello to the village of Sassi in l J2 hr. ; thence to the top by 

38 Route 7. TURIN. Excursions. 

cable-tram in 20min.; no change of carriages in the case of treni diretti ; 
fares 2 fr. 60, 1 fr. 85 c), is well worthy of a visit. The Superga, the royal 
burial-church, a handsome edifice with a portico, and crowned with a 
dome, is conspicuously situated on a hill to the E. of Turin. The church, 
a votive offering dedicated by Victor Amadeus II., the first king of Sar- 
dinia, on the occasion of the emancipation of Turin in 1706 (p. 24), was 
erected in 1718-31 from designs by Juvara, and was consecrated in 1749. 
The interior (closed 12-2) contains a room hung with indifferent portraits 
of all the popes. Most interesting among the works of art is an Angel of 
Death with his sword, by Michael Angelo, at the foot of the steps descend- 
ing to the burial-vault. Splendid view of Mont Cenis and Monte Eosa, 
especially from the dome, the ascent of which is recommended. Adjoin- 
ing the church are a seminary for priests and a good trattoria. 

To the S. of Turin on the line to Genoa (R. 12a) lies Moncalieri 
(tramway) , picturesquely situated on a chain of hills , and command- 
ing a superb view. On a height above the village is the royal Chateau, in 
which Victor Emmanuel I. died in 1824. The picture-gallery in in the 
W. wing contains a series of large paintings illustrating the history of 
the House of Savoy. The last of the series, 'Delivery of the plebiscite of 
Tuscany by Baron Ricasoli in I860'' is interesting from its numerous por- 
traits (fee Vz-l fr.). A horse- tramway runs to the chateau from the ter- 
minus of the steam-tramway. 

About 6 M. to the S. W. of Turin (tramway) lies Stupinigi, a large 
royal hunting-chateau , erected from designs by Juvara in the reign of 
Charles Emmanuel ]IIL, with a beautiful and extensive park. (?*Albergodel 
Castel Vecchio, at the back of the chateau, moderate.) 

From Turin to Lanzo, 20 M., railway in 1 hr. 20 min., starting from 
the Via al Ponte Mosca (PI. E, 1 5 p. 34). — 4'/2 M. Venaria Reale, with ruins 
of a royal hunting-chateau destroyed by the French republicans, at the in- 
flux of the Ceronda into the Slura. The train crosses both streams and 
ascends the valley of the latter. 8 M. Ccu-elle. 13 M. Cirie, with a Gothic 
church of the 13th century. — 20 M. Lanzo (1770 ft.; Posta; Europa), prettily 
situated on a hill, with a ruined castle, and surrounded with villas, is the 
best starting-point for excursions in the Upper Valley of the Slura, in the 
valley of the Tesso, and to the loftily situated Santuario di S. Ignazio (3060ft.; 
I72 hr.). The Ponte del Roc, which crosses the Stura near Lanzo with an 
arch of 120 ft. in length, was built in 1378. — See C. Ratti's 'Z>« Torino 
a Lanzo e per le Valli delta Stura 1 (Turin, 1883). 

From Turin to Ceresole Reale. To (31 M.) Cuorgne, railway in 2 hrs. 
(comp. p. 47), via Rivarolo, etc. From Cuorgne (Alb. della Corona Grossa; 
carr. at the Impresa Fiora's, seat in an omn. to Noasca 5, one-horse carr. 
16, two-horse 27 fr.) a road ascends the valley of the Oreo via (3V2 M.) 
Ponte (Alb. al Valentino), a picturesque little town at the junction of the 
Val Soana and Val Locana, and Locana to (18 M.) Noasca (3480 ft.; Alb. 
Reale, R., L., & A. 31/2, dej. 2V2, D. 3 3 Afr.). In the neigbourhood is the 
pretty waterfall of the Noaschetta. A bridle-path (mule 6 fr.) leads from 
Noasca through the wild gorge of the Oreo, known as the Scalare di Cere- 
sole, to (I1/2 hr.) Ceresole Reale (5280 ft.; Grand Hotel, R., L., & A. from 
4 fr., B. H/4, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 12 fr. ; Alb. della Levanna), a village wilh 
300 inhab., frequented as a summer-resort for its chalybeate spring. From 
Ceresole to Cogne, see p. 45; to Vitteneuve and Aoeta, p. 42. 

From Turin to Torre Pellice, 34'/2 M., railway in 2 l /i hrs. — The 
train diverges from the Genoa line (p. 53) at Sangone and turns to the 
S.W. — 15V2 M. Airasca, whence a branch runs to Saluzzo (2272 M. ; pass- 
ing Moretta, p. 55). 1772 M. Pinerolo, Fr. Pignerol (Campana; Cannon 
d'Oro), a town with 16,000 inhab., an old cathedral, and a monument to 
Gen. Brignone by Tabacchi (tramways to Saluzzo, p. 55, and Fenestrelle). 
29V2 M. Bricherasio; 33 M. Luserna. — 3^/ 2 M. Torre Pellice, Fr. La Tour 
(1920 ft., Ours; Lion aVOr; Pension Suisse, well spoken of), the capital of 
the Waldensian Valleys {ValUes Vaudoises), adjoining the French frontier, 
home of those well-known Protestant communities (about 25,000 souls) 
who were formerly so cruelly persecuted and who have resided here for 
upwards of six centuries. 

8. From Turin to Aosta and Courmayeur. 

To Aosta, 8O1/2 M. Railway in 41/2-51/4 hrs. 5 fares 11 fr. 30, 7 fr. 95, 
5 fr. 10 c. — From Aosta to Courmayeur, 21 M., Omnibus thrice daily 
between July 1st and Sept. 1st (at other times to Pre-St. Didier only) in 
5 hrs. (return 4 hrs.)> fare 5 fr. ; one-horse carr. 18, two-horse 30 fr. 

From Turin to (18 M.) Chivasso, see p. 47 (carriages changed). 
Between the depressions of the lower mountains peep the snowy 
summits of the Gran Paradiso, and to the E., farther on, those of 
Monte Rosa. 

22 M. Montanaro, 25 M. Eodallo, 27 M. Caluso, 29 M. Candia, 
31 M. Mercenasco, and (33 M.) Strambino. 

39M. Ivrea (780 ft.; Scudo di Francia; Unioerso; Corona 
d'ltalia), a town with 10,400 inhah., is picturesquely situated on 
the Dora Baltea (Fr. Doire), on the slope of a hill crowned with an 
extensive and well-preserved old Castle, with three lofty "brick 
towers, now a prison. Adjacent is the Cathedral, a building of an- 
cient origin , but frequently restored. An ancient sarcophagus 
adorns the adjoining Piazza. A monument was erected here in 1880 
to Ettore Perrone, general and minister (d. 1848). Ivrea, the an- 
cient Eporedia, was colonised by the Romans, B.C. 100, in order to 
command the Alpine routes over the Great and Little St. Bernard. 
Pleasant walk to the Madonna del Monte (pilgrimage-church) and 
the lake of S. Giuseppe with a ruined monastery (1 hr.). 

Steam-tramway from Ivrea in 2 1 /* hrs. to Santhiit, (p. 47). 

The train crosses the Dora, penetrates the hill on which Ivrea 
stands by means of a tunnel, 1100 yds. long, and enters the fer- 
tile wine-bearing valley of the Dora. 41 M. Montalto; on a height 
to the right stands the well-preserved battlemented castle of that 
name. 42*/ 2 M. Borgofranco, with arsenical springs; 45 M. Tava- 
gnasco; 47 M. Quincinetto. 

49 M. Pont-St. Martin (1105 ft.; Rosa), with a ruined castle, 
one of the most picturesque spots in the valley. The bold and slender 
bridge over the Lys, which descends from Monte Rosa, is Roman. 
Several forges are situated on the Dora. 

50^2 M. Donnaz. The train now ascends a rocky defile and 
passes through a tunnel 660 yds. long under Fort Bard (1530 ft.) 
which was taken in 1052 by Count Amadeus of Savoy after a long 
siege, and in May, 1800, before the battle of Marengo, was gal- 
lantly defended by 400 Austrians, who kept the French army in 
check for a week. The train then crosses the Dora to (52^2 M.) 
Hone-Bard , beautifully situated. On the left opens the Val di 
Camporciero, or Champorcher, with its fine rocky peaks ; to the N.W. 
towers the Mont Luseney (11,505 ft.). 55 M. Arnaz. 

57 M. Verres (1205 ft. ; Italia; Ecu de France), with 1100 in- 
hab. and an old castle, lies picturesquely at the entrance of the Val 
Challant. To the right towers the rocky pyramid of the Becca di 
Viou (9950 ft.). 

40 Route 8. AOSTA. From Turin 

The valleys of Aosta and Susa (p. 2) were alternately occupied by 
the Franks and the Longohards, and belonged to the Franconian Empire, 
in consequence of which the French language still predominates in these 
Italian districts. The village of Bard (below the fort) is the point of 
transition from Italian to French, while at Verres the latter is spoken al- 
most exclusively. 

Above Verres trie valley expands, but soon contracts again. Near 
(6OI/2 M.) Montjovet appear on the right, high above us, the ex- 
tensive ruins of the chateau of Montjovet or St. Germain. The train 
crosses the Dora by means of a long viaduct and enters the pictur- 
esque *Defile of Montjovet, the grandest part of the line, with a suc- 
cession of tunnels and buttresses of masonry, and the brawling 
Dora far below. On the right, at the end of the defile, lies — 

631/2 M. St. Vincent (Lion d'Or; Corona), with a mineral spring 
and baths. Two tunnels. Loftily perched on the left is the old 
castle of Vssel. Then (IV2 M. farther) — 

65 M. Chatillon (1480 ft.). The little town (1810 ft. ; Hotel de 
Londres ; Ange), the capital of this district, with a handsome cha- 
teau of the old Counts of Challant, is beautifully situated 1 M. 
above the railway, at the entrance to the Val Tournanche. (To Val 
Tournanche, and over the Theodule Pass to Zermatt, see Baedeker's 

The line crosses the Matrnoire, or Marmore, descending from 
the Val Tournanche, traverses a deep cutting through a deposit of 
debris, threads two tunnels, and reaches (68 M.) Chambave, noted 
for its wine. To the W. opens the view of the beautiful valley of 
Aosta, rich in fruit and surrounded by lofty mountains, with the 
three-peaked Rutor in the background. 

The line traverses a mass of debris at Diemoz (viaduct 107 yds. 
long), and crosses the Dora. To the left lies the picturesque chateau 
of Fenis, at the mouth of the Clavalite Valley, through which peeps 
the snowy peak of the Tersiva (11,520 ft.). The train now crosses 
the Dora to (72 y 2 M.) Nus, with a ruined castle, at the mouth of the 
Val St. Barthelemy, and re-crosses the river twice. 7372 M. St. Mar- 
cel; 7572 M. Quart-Villefranche (with the chateau of Quart on a hill 
to the right, 2485 ft.). We then cross the Bagnere and the Buthier. 

80 72 M. Aosta. — Hotels. *Royal Victoria, opposite the station, 
R., L., & A. 43/4, B. I1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 9-10 fr. ; Hot. dd Mont- 
blanc, at the W. end of the town, R , L., <fe A. 3-3V2 fr. ; Corona, in the 
market-place; "Ale. Lanier, opposite, in the Hotel de Ville, moderate, 
with trattoria. — Caff& Nazionale, in the Hotel de Ville. Beer at Zinimer- 
manri's, near the Hotel de Ville; good bed-rooms at the omnibus-office in 
the market-place, R., L., & A. 3 fr. — Omnibus and carriages to Cour- 
mayeur, see p. 39. 

Aosta (1910 ft.), with 7700inhab.. the Augusta Praetoria Salas- 
sorum of the Romans, lies at the confluence of the Buthier and the 
Doire or Dora Baltea. The valley was anciently inhabited by the 
Salassi, a Celtic race, who commanded the passage of the Great and 
the Little St. Bernard, the two chief routes from Italy to Gaul. They 
frequently harassed the Romans in various ways, and on one occasion 

to Courmayeur. AOSTA. 8. Route. 41 

plundered the coffers of Caesar himself. After protracted struggles 
the tribe was finally extirpated by Augustus, who captured the 
survivors, 36,000 in number, and sold them as slaves at Eporedia. 
He then founded Aosta to protect the roads, named it after himself, 
and garrisoned it with 3000 soldiers of the Praetorian cohorts. 

The antiquities which still remain testify to the ancient impor- 
tance of Aosta. The Town Walls, flanked with towers, forming a 
rectangle 790 yds. by 620 yds., are preserved in their entire extent, 
and on the S.W. side, the ancient facing and cornice are still in situ. 
The walls of the old Theatre and the arcades of the Amphitheatre 
are visible above the houses in the market-place. 

The principal street leads to the E., through the ancient *Porta 
Pretoria, to the (i/jM.) handsome Triumphal Arch of Augustus, 
with its ten Corinthian pilasters. It then crosses theButhier, which 
has changed its channel, to the beautiful arch of the old Roman 
Bridge, now half-buried in the earth. 

In the suburbs lies the church of St. Ours, the choir of which 
contains the tomb of Bishop Gallus (d. 546) and finely carved stalls 
of the 15th century. The old crypt is borne by Roman columns. 
The cloisters contain early-Romanesque columns (12th cent.), with 
interesting capitals. Near the church rises a Tower, built of Roman 
hewn stones in the 12th cent., opposite which are a sarcophagus 
and two ancient columns at the entrance of a chapel. In the same 
piazza is the Priory of St. Ours, a handsome building of the loth 
cent., with terracotta ornamentation and an octagonal tower. The 
interior contains good wood-carvings and frescoes. 

The Cathedral owes its present form to the 14th century. 
Above the portal a painted terracotta relief; in the choir two mo- 
saics of the 10th cent, and early-Renaissance stalls. The treasury 
contains two shrines of the 13th and 15th cent. , a cameo of a 
Roman empress in a setting of the 13th cent., and a diptychon of 
the Consul Probus (406) with the Emp. Honorius. 

At the S. gate rises the tower of Bramafam (12th cent.), in 
which Count Challant is said to have starved his wife to death out 
of jealousy. By the W. wall is the Tour du Lepreux, described in 
Xavier Le Maistre's novel, in which a leper named Guasco (d. 
1803) and his sister Angelica (d. 1791) dragged out their miser- 
able existence. — Between the town and the station is a bronze 
Statue of Victor Emmanuel IT., in hunting costume, designed by 
Tortone, and dedicated 'au roi chasseur, 1886'. 

The *Becca di Nona (10,310 ft.), rising to the S. of Aosta, commands 
a superb view of the Alps. Ascent 6-7 hrs., with guide (12 fr.). Two-thirds 
of the way up is the Alp Combob (Inn) ; on the top is a refuge hut 
(Capanna Budden). — The Mont Emilius (11,670 ft.) may he ascended by 
experts from Comboe (see above) in 4 hrs., wiih guide (30 fr.). The view 
is still more extensive than that from the Becca di Nona. 

The Road to Courmayeur traverses the broad shadeless valley 
of the Dora Baltea, passing the handsome chateau of Sane, to 

42 Route 8. VILLENEUVE. From Turin 

Aymaville, with iron-foundries and the ch ateau of Count Castiglione 
with its four towers. Opposite St. Pierre (2165 ft.) opens the Val 
de Cogne on the S. (see p. 44). Thence we continue, with a fine 
view of the the three-peaked Rutor, the G rivola, etc., to (5Y 2 M.) — 
Villeneuve (2295 ft.; Cervo, unpretending), a picturesquely 

situated village. 

From Villeneuve to Ceresole over the Col de Nivolet (13 hrs.). 
Ascent from Villeneuve by a paved path, rough and steep. To the W. a 
line view of Mont Blanc. Opposite ( 3 /4 hr.) Champlong, where we reach 
the lowest part of the Val Savaranche (see below), the beautifully wooded 
Val de Rh&mes opens on the W. ; on the height between the valleys rises 
the chateau of Intro d (p. 46). Following the lofty right bank of the deep 
valley we next come to (3 hrs.) Valsavaranche (passes to the Val de Cogne 
and the Val de Rhemes, p. 46), then Tignet and Bien and (21/ 4 hrs.) Pont (Inn, 
with 4 beds), the highest hamlet in the Val Savaranche, at the base of the 
Or an Paradiso (p. 46). 

The Val Savaranche divides here. "We cross the brook descending 
from the W. branch of the valley, and ascend a steep rocky slope in 
numerous windings, passing a fine waterfall, to the (1 hr .) Croix d'Aro- 
letta (7800ft.), a cross on the brink of a precipice, where we enjoy a 
magnificent survey of the Gran Paradiso and its three peaks opposite to 
us, to the N. of which are the Becca de Montandaynt, Pointe Herbelet, and 
the Orivola. Traversing a desolate, and at places marshy valley, with 
numerous traces of glacier-friction, we next pass (1 hr.) the Chalets de 
Nivolet (rustic little Inn) and a small lake with a royal shooting-box 
which lie to the left, and reach the (1 hr.) Col de Nivolet (8660ft.), a 
narrow ridge of rock with a superb view of the Levanna (11,934 ft.), rising 
on the opposite side of the deep Val d'Orco. To the W. are the lofty Col 
de la Oalese and the Cima di Bousson ; to the E. the chain of the Gran 
Paradiso. (A route leads across the Colle Rossetto into the Val de Rhemes.) 

Our route descends a steep rocky slope in many windings, to a bleak 
valley with several small tarns and a few chalets, and thence by steep 
zigzags on the left side of the brook with its numerous falls to (2 hrs.) 
Chapis. or Chiapili di Sopra, the highest hamlet in the Val Locana, or valley 
of the Oreo, and (2 hrs.) Ceresole Reale (p. 38). 

Beyond Villeneuve we cross the Savaranche and ascend rapidly 
to (3 ! /2 M.) Arvier. In front of us is the snowy Rutor (p. 47). Near 
the beautifully situated but dirty village of (V2 M.) Liverogne 
(2390 ft.; Hot. du Col du Mont, plain) we cross the deep gorge of 
the Dora di Valgrisanche, a S. affluent of the Dora Baltea (p. 47), 
and traverse a rocky gorge to Ruinaz (2580 ft. ; Croix, poor). Mont 
Blanc now comes in sight. The road passes through another wild 
defile (Pierre Taillee) and crosses to the left bank by the (2 M.) 
Pont d'Equilive (2570 ft.). The valley expands. Near (iy 4 M.) 
ViUaret is the pretty waterfall of Derby in several leaps. 2V2M. Morgex 
(3020 ft.; Angelo). The road now follows the lofty slope for some 
distance, with a fine retrospective view of the Orivola (p. 44), and 
crosses to the right bank of the Dora Baltea before (2y 2 M.) — 

Pre-St. Didier (3280 ft,; Hotel de VUnivers, moderate; Restau- 
rant de Londres), a picturesquely situated village with baths, where 
the road to the Little St. Bernard diverges to the left. 

Excursions. Guides: F. Brunod, Jos. Barmaz, etc. The ascent of 
the *Crammont (9080 ft.; 31/2 hrs.) is highly interesting. Following the 
St. Bernard road to the first tunnel (shorter footpath in 20 min.), we 
thence ascend to the right to the 0/2 hr.) hamlet of Chanton (5970 ft.), 

to Courmayeur. COURMAYEUR. 8. Eoute. 43 

whence we reach the summit in 2 J /2 hrs. more. Splendid view of Mont 
Blanc and the Graian Alps. About 5 min. below the top is the Pavilion De 
Saussure, a refuge-hut of the Italian Alpine Club. Another route (bridle- 
path) diverges to the right from the St. Bernard road at Elevaz, 3 M. from 
Pre-St. Didier, joining the above route before the final ascent. Experts 
may dispense with a guide. 

To Bourg-St. Maurice ovee the Little St. Bernard, 23 M., a route 
preferred by some to that over the Col de la Seigne. The fine new road 
ascends the valley of the Thuile via La Balme and (6 M.) La Thuile 
((4726 ft. ; two small Inns), where we have a view of the great glacier of 
the Rutor (p. 47), which may be ascended hence (2 hrs. to the S. are the 
beautiful *Rutor waterfalls), to (33/ 4 M.) Pont-Serrand (4515 ft.), and past the 
(3 M.) Caniine des Eaux-Rousses (6740 ft.) to the (l'A M.) pass of the Little 
St. Bernard (7175 ft.). The boundary between France and Italy is on the 
S. side, about 3 /i M. beyond the summit and near a Hospice (7060 ft.) afford- 
ing good accommodation. [The Mt. Valaisan (9455 ft.), 372 hrs. to the S.E., 
the Mt. Belvedere (9665 ft.), l l /2 hr. to the E. , and the Lancebranletle 
(9605 ft.), 3 hrs. to the W., all afford admirable views of the Mont Blanc 
chain.] We now descend gradually, overlooking the beautiful upper valley 
of the Isere (La Tarentaise) and the Savoy Mts. the whole way, to St. Ger- 
main, Sdez, and (9 M.) Bourg-St, Maurice (2805 ft.; H6t. des Voyageurs, 
poor), a small town on the Isere, whence a diligence runs twice daily in 
472 hrs. to (16 M.) Moutiers-en- Tarentaise; see Baedeker's Southern France. 

Beyond Pre-St. Didier the road follows the left bank to (Y2 M.) 
Palesieux, and ascends in windings through a wooded ravine, to 
(3 M.) - 

Courmayeur. — *H6tel Royal, *Angelo, in both E., L., <fe A. 5-6, 
B. I1/2, dej, 31/2, D. 5 fr. ; "Union; s Mont Blanc, 1/2 M. to the N. of the 
village, R. & A. 272, D., incl. wine, 4 fr. — Cafe" du Montblanc. — Dili- 
gence to Aosta, see p. 39. Guides : Emile and Joseph Rey, S&raphin Henry, 
Laurent and Julien Proment, O. Petigax , J. M. Lanier, J. Oadin, Al. 
Berthod, Pantalion and Alexis Puchoz, J. and L. Croux, and P. Revel are 

Courmayeur (3963 ft.), a considerable village, with mineral 

springs , beutifully situated at the head of the Aosta valley , is 

much frequented by Italians in summer. The highest peak of Mont 

Blanc is concealed from Courmayeur by the Mont Chetif (7685 ft.}, 

but is seen from the Pre'-St. Didier road, i/ 2 M- to tne S. 

The 'Mont de Saxe (7735ft.; 272-3 hrs.; guide, 6 fr., unnecessary) 
affords a complete view of the S.E. side of Mont Blanc with its numerous 
glaciers, from the Col de la Seigne to the Col de Ferret, the Col du 
Ge'ant and the Jorasses being prominent. A good bridle-path ascends 
from Courmayeur, by La Saxe and Le Villair, to the (2 hrs.) Chalets du 
Pre" (6670 ft.) and the (1 hr.) nearer peak. The descent may be made by the 
Chalets de Leuchi into the Val de Ferret. — Excursions in the Mont Blanc 
chain, to Chamonix, etc., see Baedekers Switzerland or Southern France. 

Excursion to the Graian Alps. 

The Graian Alps, an extensive mountain-system culminating in the 
Gran Paradiso (13,320 ft.) and the Grivola (13,018 ft.), lie between the 
valleys of the Dora Baltea and the Isere on the N., and those of the 
Dora Riparia and the Arc on the S. We here describe a few of the most 
interesting routes through the E. part of this grand mountain-region, 
which presents so striking an appearance when approached from the 
Pennine Alps. These routes, which are easily accomplished from Aosta, 
lead us into the Val de Cogne and the Val Savaranche, Val de Rhemes, 
and Val Grisanche, which run parallel with the Val de Cogne on the W. 

44 Route 8. COGNE. Graian 

The mountains of Cogne form a favourite chasse of King Humbert, 
as they did of his father Victor Emmanuel (p. 41), and the mountain- 
goat ('Steinbock', Ital. 'stambecco', Fr. 'bouquetm'), elsewhere nearly- 
extinct, is still found here. Several excellent bridle-paths, leading to the 
royal shooting-lodges, are a great assistance to the pedestrian. 

FroM Aosta to Cogne (Jo 1 / 2 hrs.). As far as (6 M.J Aymaville 
(2120 ft.) we may follow the high-road (p. 41), but it is preferable 
to cross the Doire near Aosta, and to go by Gressan and Jovencan, 
across meadows and fields. The bridle-path then ascends rapidly 
past the church of St. Martin to Poia (2790 ft.), and enters the 
monotonous Val de Cogne at a great height above the ravine of 
the brawling Grand' Eyvie. Far below we soon observe the houses 
of Pont d'Ael (2865 ft.), with its admirably preserved *Roman 
Bridge (formerly an aqueduct), 60 yds. long and 394 ft. above the 
stream. It was erected in the reign of Augustus. The valley con- 
tracts. Near the bridge by which we cross the stream, we obtain a 
view of the Grivola for a sbort time. We next reach (iy 2 hr.) 
Vieyes (3730 ft. 5 cantine), at the mouth of the Combe de Nomenon 
(pretty waterfall), with the Grivola and the Gran Nomenon 
(11,440 ft.) in the background. Beyond (^hr.) Silvenoire (on the 
right) and a deserted iron-foundry, we again cross the brook by 
the Pont de Laval (4480 ft.), where the mountains of Cogne are 
revealed. Then (II/2 h r Epinel (4760 ft.), opposite the lofty 
Punta del Pousset (see below), with the Trajo Glacier on the right. 
At (i/^hr.) Cretaz the Valnontey descends from the S. to the Grand' 
Eyvie ; (20 min.) Cogne. 

Cogne (5030 ft.; *H6t. Grivola, pens. 6 1 / / 2fr., and Hot. Royal, 
both unpretending), charmingly situated, with a beautiful view of 
the Gran Paradiso and the Tour du Grand St. Pierre, with their 
glaciers (Glacier de la Tribulation, del Grand Crou, du Money, 
etc.) to the S., and of the Mont Blanc to the N.W., is an excellent 
starting-point for excursions. Three valleys converge here : the 
Vallone di Valnontey from the S., the Vallone d J Urtier from the E., 
and the Vallone di Grauson from the N. 

Ascents and Passes. (Guides, Elysie and Joseph Jeantet, L. Gui- 
chardaz.) *Punta del Pousset (10,745 It. ; 5 hrs. ; guide 6, with mule 12 fr.), 
a superb point of view. At Gritaz (see above) the bridle-path crosses the 
Valnontey and enters a wood and then ascends grassy slopes to the cha- 
lets of Ors-Dessvs and (3 hrs.) Pousset-Dessus or Superiori (8385 ft.). Thence 
a steep climb of IV2 hr., passing a very giddy place near the top, brings 
us to the rocky crest of the Punta del Pousset. Close to us, above the 
Grivola Glacier, towers the Grivola, which is hardly inferior in boldness 
to the Matterhorn, and other mountains of the Pennine and Graian Alps 
are also visible. — Grivola (13,020 ft. ; from Cogne 9 hrs. ; two guides at 
28 fr. each), difficult, and fit for experts only. Ascent from Valsava- 
ranche much more difficult. 

The Punta di Tersiva (11,5C0 ft.; 7 hrs., with guide) presents no 
difficulty to adepts. We proceed through the Vallone di Grauson to the 
(2i/ 2 hrs.) chalets of Grauson (7450 ft.) and to (_ 3 /t hr.) Ervilhere (8245 ft.); 
thence, passing the little Lac Dorieres. to the (1 hr.) Passo d" Invergneux 
(9185 ft.) and by the W. arete to the (2'/2 hrs.) summit. Magnificent view 
of the Graian and Pennine Alps and of the plain of Piedmont (Turin), etc. 

Alps. COGNE. 8. Route. 45 

The ascent may be also made from the S. from the Val d^Urlier via, the Pon- 
ton Alp, or from the N. (more difficult) from the Val de ClavaliU (p. 40). 
In the Vallone de Valnontey, opening to the S. of Cogne, lie the (3 hrs.) 
chalets of Le Money (7590 ft.), which command an admirable view of the 
Gran Faradiso with its glaciers (ascent, see p. 46). Two difficult glacier- 
passes, the Colle Grand Crou or Col Tuekett (11,135 ft.), between the Gran 
Paradiso and Becca di Gay, and the Colle Money (11,245 ft.), between the 
Roccia Viva and the Tour du Grand St. Pierre, lead from the head of the 
Vallone de Valnontey to Ceresole (p. 38 ; guide 15 fr.). 

Feom Cogne to Baed over the Col de Cogne, 11-12 hrs., attractive 
and not difficult. A bridle-path (royal hunting-path) crosses the Urtier 
at (1/2 hr.) Champlong (8185 ft.), and ascends the valley of the stream with 
its abundant flowers and waterfalls, commanding fine views of the Gri- 
vola to the W. and to the S. of the Combe de Valeille (see below). We 
next pass the chapel of Cret to the (2 hrs.) chalets of Plane's, whence we 
may either follow the lower path to the right by Brulot and Peyrasas, or 
that to the left along the slope of the Tersiva (p. 44), by Ponton with 
its little lake and along the Tour de Ponton, to the (2 hrs.) Col de Cogne 
(Fenetre de Cogne or Fineslra Champorcher, 9285 ft.), between the Tour de 
Ponton and the Becco Costassa. We descend into the pastoral Val Cham- 
porcher or Camporciero, passing the chalets of Dondenna, to (3 J /2 hrs.) 
Champorcher (4647 ft.; rustic Inn), and thence by Pont-Boset to (2*/2 hrs.) 
Hdne-Bard (p. 39). 

Feom Cogne to St. Maecel over the Col de St. Maecel, 8 hrs., 
not difficult and practicable for mules. The route leads through the 
Vallone di Grauson to the (2^2 hrs.) chalets of Grauson (p. 44), and thence 
past the little Coronas Lake to the (2 hrs.) Col de St. Marcel (Colle di 
Coronas, 9535 ft.), a saddle of the Cresta del Tessonet. We descend through 
the wooded Vallone di St. Marcel to (3^2 hrs.) St. Marcel (p. 40). 

Feom Cogne to Aosta ovee the Passo d'Aebole, 9 hrs. (with guide), 
fatiguing but interesting. The route ascends via. the chalets of Chavanis 
and Arpisson (7630 ft.) to the Col d'Arbole (9303 ft.) ; admirable view of 
the Gran Paradiso and Grivola. Descent via the Chalets d'Arbole (8186 ft.) 
and the hermitage of St. Grat (5S15 ft.). — To Atmaville over the Colle 
de Chaz-Seche (9250 ft.) or the Colle del Brine (8735 ft.), 7-8 hrs., both attrac- 
tive and not difficult. 

Feom Cogne to the Val Soana aceoss the Col della Nouva, 
7-8 hrs., attractive and repaying. To Pianes , see above. Here we turn 
to the right and ascend past the chalets of Chavanis and Brulot to the 
foot of the glacier. Trending to the left to avoid the glacier, we reach 
(3 hrs.) the Col della Nouva (Colle deW Arietta; 9670 ft.), and enjoy an 
admirable view of Mont Blanc and the S. side of the Graian Alps. Steep 
descent to the chalets of Arietta, and through Val Campiglia to (3 hrs.) 
Campiglia, f}/2 hr.) Valprato , and (}fa hr.) Ronco (Inn, clean), in the Val 
Soana, 2 J /2 hrs. above Ponte (p. 38). — Two other passes to the Val Soana 
lead respectively across the Colle Bardoney (9292 ft.), between the Punta 
Lavina and the Punta Rol (fatiguing), and across the Bocchetta di Ranzio 
(9850 ft.) to the N. of the Punta Lavina (difficult). 

To the Val Locana (p. 42) over the Colle Grand Crou or the Colle 
Money, see above. Two other difficult passes lead from the Vallone di 
Valeille, the lateral valley parallel to the Vallone d'Urtier, on the S. (see 
above) to the Rifugio (9020 ft.) of the Italian Alpine Club in the Val Pianto- 
netto and the Val d'Orco: the Colle di Telleccio (10,910 ft.), between the 
Tour du Grand St. Pierre (12,110 ft. ; the difficult ascent of which may be 
made from the pass) and the Ondezzana; and the Colle Sengie (10,515 ft.), 
between the Ondezzana and the Punta Sengie. 

From Cogne to Valsavaranche over the Colle Louson 
(8-9 hrs. ; guide 10 fr.), easy and attractive. From (3/ 4 hr.) Val- 
nontey (5505 ft.) the bridle-path ascends to the right, through 
wood, passing a pretty fall of the Louson, to the (2^2 hrs.) royal 
shooting-lodge (8490 ft.; 'Campement du Roi') and the (2 hrs.) 

46 Route 8. VAL SAVARANCHE. 

Colle Louson (10,830 ft), with an admirable view (still more ex- 
tensive from a height a few minutes to the S.). We now descend, 
enjoying superb views of the Gran Paradiso, on the left, and Grivola, 
on the right, to (Y2 hr.) *^ e Chalets de Leviona (7755 ft.). (Good 
walkers may cross the brook here near the small waterfall, and 
descend by a steep path direct to Valsavaranche.) The bridle-path 
follows the left bank and reaches the bottom of the Val Savaranche 
near the (1V 2 hr.) hamlet of Tignet , 1 M. to the S. of Valsava- 
ranche, or Degioz (5055 ft.; small Inn), the chief village in the 
Yalsavaranche (guides, G. Blanc and G. Dayne"). 

Two other somewhat fatiguing passes from Cogne to Val Savaranche 
are the Col de VHerbetet (10,830 ft.), and the Colle Mesoncles (10,170 ft.). — 
From Val Savaranche to Ceresole, see p. 42. 

The Gran Paradiso (13,320 ft.; difficult, for adepts only, guide 60 fr.) 
may be ascended in 7-8 hrs. from (2V4 hrs.) Pont (p. 42), the highest 
hamlet in the Val Savaranche. About 74 hr. to the S. of Pont we ascend 
to the left to the (4 hrs.) Ricovero Vittorio Emmanuele II. (10,200 ft.), built 
by the Italian Alpine Club, above the Moncorve" Alp, and thence cross the 
Glacier de Moncorve" to the (4 hrs.) summit. 

From Valsavaranche to Rhemes Notre - Dame over the Col 
d'Entrelor (6 hrs. ; guide 6 fr.). The bridle-path ascends from Val- 
savaranche by (1 M.) Creton, at first somewhat steeply, to a royal 
shooting-lodge (7185 ft.), and thence leads in zigzags along the slope 
to the left, passing (IV4 nr ^e small Lago di Djouan (8280 ft.) 
and the Lago Nero (9075 ft.) to the (1V 2 hr.) Colle d'Entrelor 
(9870 ft.), between the Cima di Gollien (10,115 ft.) and the Cima 
di Percia (10,110 ft.). Fine view of the Rutor (p. 47) to the W., 
and of the Gran Paradiso and Grivola to the E. Descent rather steep 
through the Val d'Entrelor, with the Becca di Sambeina (10,365 ft.) 
on the left, to (2 ! /2 hrs.) Rhemes Notre-Dame (6015 ft. ; poor can- 
tine, or a bed at the cure's), the chief place in the Val de Rhemes, 
which is enclosed by imposing glaciers. Notre-Dame is 5 hrs. from 
Villeneuve. The route down the valley passes Rhemes St. Georges 
and Introd (2885 ft.), with the chateau of that name, where the 
Val de Rhemes unites with the Val Savaranche (p. 42). In descend- 
ing we obtain a fine view of Mont Velan and the Grand Combin 
to the N. 

A shorter but more toilsome route than the Col d'Entrelor leads from 
Valsavaranche to Rhemes Notre-Dame across the Colle di Sort (9730 ft.), 
which lies to the S. of the ML Roletta (11,100 ft.). 

From Rhemes Notre-Dame over the Colle della Fixestra 
to Valgrisanche and to Liverogne and Aosta (6 hrs. to Valgri- 
sanche; guide 6 fr. ; 3 hrs. more to Liverogne). Steep ascent to 
the (3'/ 2 hrs.) Colle della Finest™ (9235 ft.), between the Becca de 
Tei, on the right, and the Becca dell' Invergnan (11,834 ft.), on the 
left, with fine view of the Ormelune and the Rutor. The path descends 
through the stony Vallone del Bouc. Where it divides, we keep to 
the left. On our left are the Glacier de Rabuigne and Mont Forciat 
which conceals the Becca dell' Invergnan. Passing (1^2 nr *h e Alp 
Nouva (7020 ft.; small Inn), we descend and crosss the brook to Fornet 

CHIVASSO. 9. Route. 47 

(5675 ft.), the highest hamlet in the Vol Grisanche; then to Sevey, 
Mondange, and (2 hrs.) Valgrisanche (5470 ft. ; Cantine du Col du 
Mont; or a bed at the curb's), the chief village in the valley, prettily 
situated at the base of the Butor. 

The ascent of the Rutor, an extensive, glacier-clad mountain with 
several peaks (S. and highest peak 11,435 ft. ; N. peak 11,310 ft.), either 
from Valgrisanche, or hetter from La Thuile on the Little St. Bernard 
route (p. 43), presents no serious difficulty (guide 40 fr.). From La Thuile 
a bridle-path leads through the deep and narrow Rutor valley to the 
(2 hrs.) grand "Falls of the Rutor (6345 ft.) whence we ascend to the left 
hy a new path to the (H/2 hr.) Capanna S. Margherita (8085 ft.), situated 
above the small Rutor Lake (now drained). Thence across the large Rutor 
Glacier to the (3 hrs.) Tete du Rutor (11,435 ft.), which commands a most 
splendid panorama (refuge hut of the Italian Alpine Club on the top). — 
From Valgrisanche to Bourg-St. Maurice (p. 43; 15 hrs. from Aosta), 
over the Col du Mont (8630 ft.), a tolerable bridle-path. 

The bridle-path from Valgrisanche to Liverogne (3 hrs.) leads 
through the beautifully wooded Val Grisanche, on the left bank of 
the Dora di Valgrisanche, to Ceres or Serre (Hot. Frassy, rustic) and 
Revers, where the river disappears for a short distance under rocks. 
The hamlet of Planaval lies to the left. The valley contracts to a 
wild ravine. The path on its left side skirts a precipice high above 
the roaring torrent. On the opposite bank, on an apparently in- 
accessible rock, is perched the ruined castle of Montmajeur or 
Tourd'Arboe. Near Liverogne the path quits the gorge and descends 
to the left through meadows and groups of trees to (3 hrs.) Li- 
verogne, on the road from Courmayeur to Aosta (p. 42). 

9. From Turin to Milan via No vara. 

93V 2 M. Railway in 3-51/4 hrs. (fares 16 fr. 95, 11 fr. 90, 7 fr. 65 c. •, 
express 18 fr. 65, 13 fr. 10 c). Glimpses of the Alps to the left. — Stations 
at Turin, see p. 25. 

The Dora Riparia is crossed, then the Stura between (5 M.) 
Succursale di Torino and (10*^ M.) Settimo Torinese (whence a rail- 
way runs N. to Rivarolo , with branches thence to Cuorgne (p. 38) 
and Castellamonte). "We cross the Oreo and the Malon. 15 M. 

18 M. Cbivasso (600 ft.; Alb. del Moro), near the influx of the 
Oreo into the Po. Branch-lines hence to Aosta (p. 39) and (30^2 M.) 
Casale (p. 48). Tramway to Turin. A road leads from Chivasso to 
the S. to (2 M.) 8. Oenesio, with favourite sulphur-baths (Grand 
Hotel S. Genesio ; pension from 8 fr„ 1st May to 1st Dec). 

20 M. Castelrosso; 21 l / 2 M. Torrazza di Verolan. Near (25 M.) 
Saluggia the train crosses the Dora Baltea (p. 40). 29Y2^. Livorno 
Vercellese; 32 M. Bianze; 35 l /<2 M. Tronzano. 

37 M. Santhih (Alb. del Pallone, mediocre). The church, re- 
stored in 1862, contains a picture by Gaud. Ferrari in ten sections. 

— Tramway to Ivrea (p. 39). 

From Santhia to Biella , I8V2 M., railway in 1 hr. , by Salussola, 
Vergnasco, Sandigliano, and Candelo. — Biella {Testa Origia; Angelo; Leon 
d'Oro; Alb. Cenirale; photographs of mountain-scenery at Vittorio J3ella''s'), 

48 Route 9. VERCELLI. From Turin 

an industrial town and seat of a bishop , possesses arcaded streets and a 
fine cathedral in a spacious Piazza, where the episcopal palace and a 
seminary are also situated. Monuments of Gen. Lamarmora and Quintino 
Sella, the statesman; the latter by Ant. Bortone (1838). The palaces of 
the old town, rising picturesquely on the hill and reached by a Cable 
Tramway, are now tenanted by the lower classes. About 3 M. to the N. 
(one-horse carr. 4, two-horse 8 fr.) lies Andorno ('Grand Hdtel; Engl. Ch. 
Serv. in summer), a favourite summer -resort, with two hydropathics, 
frequented of late by English and American visitors. Numerous pleasant 
excursions. Walkers may reach Zermatt (see Baedekers Switzerland) hence 
in 2 days. Beyond Andorno (V2 M.) is Sagliano , with a monument to 
Pietro Micca (p. 34). To the N.W. of Biella (7 J /2 M. ; omnibus; one-horse 
carr. 6, two-horse 12 fr.) lies the famous pilgrimage-church of Madonna 
d'Oropa, near which is the finely situated Hydropathic Establishment of 
Br. Mazzuchetti (3600 ft.). To the W. of Biella (7 M. ; one-horse carr. 6, 
two-horse 12 fr.) is the village of Graglia, with a pilgrimage-church and 
a hydropathic ; fine view. — Tramway to Cossalo. — Diligence from Biella 
twice daily in 2V2 hrs. to Piedicavallo (Alb. Mologna, well spoken of), 
whence the ascent of *Mte. Bo (8530 ft. ; splendid view) takes 4V2 hrs. 
(guide 5 fr.). Comp. Pertusi - RatW s Guida pel villeggiante nel Biellese 
(Turin, Casanova). 

The train skirts the high-road. 4OY2 M. S. Oermano. 

49^2 M. Vercelli (TreRe; Leone d?Oro), an episcopal town with 
20,200 (or, with suburbs, 29,000) inhabitants. From the station 
we see the imposing church of 8. Andrea, founded in 1219, with 
a dome and W. towers like those of northern churches. Interior 
early-Gothic. The church of S. Cristoforo contains frescoes by G. 
Ferrari (*Madonna and donors in an orchard) and B. Lanini. 8. Ca- 
terina, S. Paolo, and the Oalleria dell' Instituto di Belle Arti also 
contain works by Ferrari. The cathedral-library contains rare old 
MSS. A statue of Cavourw&s erected in the market-place in 1864. 
To the S. of Vercelli lie the Campi Raudii, where Marius defeated 
the Cimbri in B.C. 101. 

Tramway from Vercelli to Gasale (see below); also N. to Aranco in 
the valley of the Sesia and to Biandrate and Fara, and S. to Trino. 

From Vercelli to Alessandria, 35 M., railway in 2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 35, 
4 fr. 45, 2 fr. 85 c). The chief intermediate station is (14 1/2 M.) Casale (Alb. 
delV Angelo ; Leone dWro), on the right bank of the Po, the ancient capital 
of the Duchy of Monferrato, which afterwards belonged to the Gonzagas. 
The interesting Romanesque Cathedral contains several good paintings (by 
G. Ferrari and others), and sculptures by Lombard masters. The church 
of S. Domenico, in the Renaissance style, the Palazzo di Citta, with hand- 
some colonnade, and other palaces are also noteworthy. The Ghibelline 
prince William of Montferrat is mentioned by Dante in his Purgatory 
(VII. 134). Casale is the junction of the Asti-Mortara line (p. 53) and of 
that to Chivasso (p. 47). It is also connected with Alessandria, with Ver- 
celli (see above), and with Orti Vignale by tramways. — Various small 
stations, including Valenza (p. 51). — From Vercelli to Pavia, see p. 51. 

The train crosses the Sesia (p. 140); to the left rise the Alps, 
among which the magnificent Monte Rosa group is conspicuous. 
521/2 M. Borgo Vercelli; 57 M. Ponzana. 

62Y2M. Novara (*Rail. Restaurant; Alb. a" Italia, well spoken 
of; Tre Re; Roma; Hotel de la Ville), an episcopal town and for- 
merly a fortress, with 15,000 inhab., was the scene of a victory 
gained by the Austrians under Radetzky over the Piedmontese 
in 1849, which led to the abdication of Charles Albert. 

to Milan. 


9. Route. 49 

From the station we cross the Piazza Carlo Alberto to the Via 
Vittorio Emanuele, passing a Monument of Cavour , by Dini, and 
turn to the right to the church of S. Gaudenzio, erected about 1570, 
with a facade by Pellegrini and a dome 396 ft. high, added by An- 
tonelli (p. 35) in 1875-78. The church, which is without aisles, 
in imitation of S. Fedele at Milan, contains several good pictures by 
Gaud. Ferrari and is to be farther adorned, inside and out, with 78 
statues. The tower (300 steps) commands a very extensive prospect. 

The Cathedral, aJtenaissance building upon old Roman foun- 
dations, connected with the Baptistery by an entrance-court, pre- 
sents a picturesque appearance. In front of the theatre is a marble 
statue of Charles Emmanuel III., by Marchesi. The Mercato , or 
Corn Exchange , near the Porta Torino , is a handsome building 
with colonnades. Between the Mercato and the Castello is a mon- 
ument to Victor Emmanuel II. In the Corso Garibaldi , near the 
Palazzo Civico, is a monument to Charles Albert. 

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50 Route 9. MAGENTA. 

Tramway to Vigevano (p. 51) and to Biandrate (p. 48). 

From Novaka to Varallo, 34 M., railway in 2'/2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 25, 
4 fr. 40, 2 fr. SO c). Unimportant stations. — Varallo, see p. 140. 

From Novara to Seregno, 34 M., railway in 1V2-2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 60, 
3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 21 c). Unimportant stations. — IT M. Busto-Arsizio (p. 130). 
— 25V 2 M. Suronno (p. 111). — 34 M. Seregno (p. 113). 

At Novara the Turin and Milan line is crossed by those from 
Domo d'Ossola (p. 4) and from Bellinzona to Genoa (R. 10). Car- 
riages often changed at Novara. 

69 M. Trecate. Near S. Martino the line crosses the Ticino by 
a handsome stone bridge of eleven arches , which the Austrians 
partially destroyed before the battle of Magenta. 

Farther on we cross the Naviglio Orande , a canal connecting 
Milan with the Ticino and Lago Maggiore (comp. p. 94). On the 
right, near (77 M.) Magenta , stands a monument erected to Napo- 
leon III. in 1862 , to commemorate the victory of the French and 
Sardinians over the Austrians on 4th June, 1859, which compelled 
the latter to evacuate Lombardy. Opposite the station are numerous 
graves of those who fell in the struggle, with a small chapel on an 
eminence, and adjoining it a charnel-house. Tramway to Milan, 
see p. 90. 

The line intersects numerous rice-fields , which are kept under 
water two months in the year. Stations Vittuone ; Rhb (p. 130), 
"where the line unites with that from Arona; and Musocco. 

931/2 M. Milan (see p. 89). 

10. From Bellinzona to Genoa. 

156 M. Railway in 81/2-I2V2 hrs. (fares 28 fr. 15, 19 fr. 75, 13 fr. 20 c. ; 
express 30 fr. 70, 13 fr. 20 c). At Mortara this line is joined by another 
coming from Milan, on which the through-trains from Milan to Genoa run : 
From Milan to Genoa, 106 M., in 5-7 1/2 hrs. (fares 19 fr. 35, 13 fr. 55, 9 fr. 
70 c; express 21 fr. 35 c, 15 fr.). (Railway by Voghera, see R. 25.) 

Bellinzona, see p. 8. Journey to Cudenazzo , where the Lo- 
carno line diverges, see p. 8. — At (lO 1 ^ M.) Magadino (p. 132) 
the train reaches the Lago Maggiore, and skirts its E. bank (views 
to the right). Opposite lies Locarno (p. 132), at the mouth of the 
Maggia. 12!/ 2 M. S.Nazzaro; 14 M. Ranzo-Gera (opposite Bris- 
sago, p. 133). At Zenna we cross the Dirinella , the Italian fron- 
tier. Tunnel. 16 ] / 2 M. Pino, the first Italian station. The bank 
becomes steep and rocky, and the construction of the railway was 
attended with great difficulties here. Between Pino andLuino there 
are six tunnels, and numerous cuttings and viaducts. Delightful 
views of the lake to the right; on the opposite bank lies Cannobbio 
(p. 133), and farther on is the promontory of Cannero, with the pic- 
turesque castles of that name on a rocky islet (p. 134). Near 
(21 M.) Maccagno the train crosses the Giona. Several tunnels. 

25 M. Luino, an international station, with Swiss and Italian 
custom-houses, see p. 133. — To Lugano, see p. 128. 

The line crosses the Margorabbia (p. 134) below its union with 

MORTARA. 10. Route. 51 

the Tresa (p. 127), and leads by Oermignaga and through a tunnel 
to (29V2M.) Porto - Valtravaglia. Beyond a tunnel under the castle 
of Calde (p. 134) we skirt the bay of the same name (opposite 
Intra, p. 134) and enter the Tunnel of Calde, fully l 3 / 4 M. in 
length, the longest on the lake. 

34 M. Laveno (p. 134) is beautifully situated at the mouth of 
the Boesio, at the foot of the Sasso del Ferro (p. 134). The lake here 
attains its greatest breadth. Splendid view of the broad bay of 
Stresa ; in the centre lie the Borromean Islands : in the distance 
rise the snow-peaks of Monte Rosa and the Simplon. 

Laveno is the station for Intra , Pallanza, Stresa , and the Borromean 
Islands (steamer and small boats, p. 131 ; from the station to the steam- 
boat-quay, !/* h r - 5 omnibus in 6 min.). — Railway to Varese and Milan. 
pp. 130-128. 

The line quits the lake. Tunnel of Mombello ( 3 / 4 M.). 36i/ 2 M. 
Leggiuno-Monvalle ; 40 M. Ispra, on a promontory (opposite Bel- 
girate and Lesa, p. 137); 43 '/^ M. Taino-Angera. 

47 M. Sesto-Calende, at the efflux of the Ticino from the lake, 
junction for Arona and for Milan (p. 130). A handsome iron bridge, 
with three openings (central 310 ft., the others 260 ft.), and two 
roadways (the upper for the railway, the lower for the Simplon 
road), here spans the Ticino. The railway to Arona (p. 130) di- 
verges to the right on the other side of the river. 

We follow the right bank of the Ticino. 48 M. Castelletto- 
Ticino ; 51 M. Porto-Varalpombia ; then a long tunnel. 52M. Pom- 
bia. From (56y 2 M.) Oleggio a branch-line runs to Arona (p. 130), 
passing Varalpombia and Borgo Ticino. — 59 M. Bellinzago. 

67 M. Novara (p. 48), junction for Milan and Turin (R. 9). 

72 l / 2 M. Garbagna; 74t/ 2 M. Vespolate; 77 M. Borgo- Lavezzaro. 
"We traverse rice-fields , interspersed with arable land and mul- 

82 M. Mortara, a town with 8100 inhabitants. The church 
of S. Lorenzo contains pictures by Crespi , Lanino, Procaccini, 
and Gaud. Ferrari (Madonna with SS. Rochus and Sebastian). 

At Mortara the direct line to Milan diverges. From Milan to Mortaba, 
321/z M., in I1/4- 1 3 A hr. (fares 5 fr. 90, 4 fr. 15, 2 fr. 65 c. ; express 6 fr. 55, 
4 fr. 60 c). Stations Corsico, Gaggiano, and Abbiategrasso (with a church 
by Bramante). We then cross the Ticino to Vigevano (Albergo Eeale), 
with 14,100 inhab., a town of some importance in the silk-trade, with 
a spacious market-place surrounded by arcades. Tramway from Vige- 
vano to Novara (p. 48) and to Otlobiano. — Then (32V2 M.) Mortara , see 

Mortara is also the junction for the Vercelli-Pavia line: 41 J /2 M., in 
3-4 hrs (fares 7 fr. 60, 5 fr. 30, 3 fr. 45 c). Stations unimportant. Vercelli, 
see p. 48; Pavia, see p. 143. 

Tramway from Mortara by Ottobiano (see above) to Pieve del Casio. 

85 M. Olevano; 89 1/ 2 M. Valle; 92i/ 2 M. Sartirana; 95V2 M. 
Torre-Berretti (railway to Pavia, see p. 144). 

To the left the long chain of the Apennines forms a blue line 
in the distance. The line crosses the Po. — 100 M. Valenza, once 


52 Route 11. TOKTONA. 

a fortified town, has a cathedral of the 16th cent, (thence to Pavia, 
see p. 144; to Vercelli, see p. 48). Tunnel iy 3 M. in length. 
104 M. Valmadonna ; several prettily situated little towns lie on 
the chain of hills to the right. The Tanaro is then crossed. 
108 M. Alessandria; thence to Genoa, see p. 53. 

11. From Turin to Piacenza via Alessandria. 

117 M. Railway in 41/2-8 hrs. (fares 21 fr. 25, 14 fr. 90, 10 fr. 60 c, 
express 23 fr. 45, 16 fr. 40 c). 

From Turin to Alessandria, 57 M., see R. 12. Beyond Alessandria 
the train traverses the battle-field of Marengo (p. 54). 62 M. 
Spinetta , a little to the S.E. of Marengo , is also connected with 
Alessandria by a steam-tramway. 65 M. 8. Giuliano. The train 
crosses the Scrivia. 

70 M. Tortona (Croce Bianca) , the ancient Dertona, with a 
Cathedral of 1584, containing a fine ancient sarcophagus. Above 
the town are the ruins of a castle destroyed in 1155 by Frederick 

Branch-Line to Novi (p. 54), 12 M., in 20-40 min. (2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 50 c, 
1 fr. ; express 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 55 c). — Tramway to Sale (p. 56). 

Country fertile. At (76 M.) Pontecurone we cross the impet- 
uous Curone (dry in summer). — 81 M. Voghera (Italia; Albergo 
del Popolo), a town with 15,500 inhab. (perhaps the ancient Iria), 
on the left bank of the Staffora, was once fortified by Giangaleazzo 
Visconti. The old church of S. Lorenzo, founded in the 11th cent., 
was remodelled in 1600. Tramway to Stradella (see below). — 
From Voghera to Milan via Pavia, see R. 25. 

On the high-road from Voghera to Casteggio (see below), to the S. 
of the railway, lies Montebello , famous for the battle of 9th June, 1800 
(five days before the battle of Marengo), and where on 20th May, 1859, 
the first serious encounter between the Austrians and the united French 
ami Sardinian armies took place. Casteggio, a village on the Coppa, is the 
C'astidihm so often mentioned in the wars of the Romans against the Gauls. 

The train skirts the N. spurs of the Apennines. Stations Cas- 
teggio, S. Giuletta, Bronx, Stradella. (To Bressana-Bottarone and 
Pavia, see p. 145; to Voghera, see above.) At (98 M.) Arena-Po 
we enter the plain of the Po. 103 M. Castel S. Giovanni ; 105y 2 M. 
Sarmato; 108 M. Rottofreno. 110 M. S. Niccolb , in the plain of 
the Trebbia (ancient Trevia~), memorable for the victory gained by 
Hannibal, B. C. 218, over the Romans, whom he had previously 
defeated near Somma. — 117 M. Piacenza, see p. 260. 

12. From Turin to Genoa. 

a. Via Alessandria. 

102 M. Railway in &L-1 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 80, 13 fr. 15, 8 fr. 45 c. ; ex- 
press 20 fr. 65, 14 fr. 45 c). 

The line at first runs towards the S., at some distance from the 

left bank of the Po, crosses its affluent the Sangone (beyond which 

ASTI. 12. Route. 53 

the branch-line to Pinerolo diverges, p. 38), and then the Po itself 
by a bridge of seven arches. 5 M. Moncalieri , with a royal cha- 
teau on the hill (p. 38). A final retrospect is now obtained of the 
hills of Turin , and of the snowy Alps to the left. From (8 M.) 
Trofarello branch -lines diverge to Savona (p. 56) and Cuneo 
(p. 116), and to Chieri. Stations Cambiano, Pessione, Villanuova, 
Villafranca, Baldichieri, 8. Damiano. The train then crosses the 
Borbore and reaches the valley of the Tanaro , on the left bank 
of which it runs to Alessandria. 

35Y2 M. Asti (Leone d'Oro; Albergo Reale; Rail. Restaurant), 
the ancient Asta, with 17,300 inhab. (with suburbs 33,500) and 
numerous towers, is famous for its sparkling wine (Asti spumante) 
and its horticulture. The left aisle of the Gothic Cathedral, erected 
in 1348, contains (2nd chapel) a Madonna with four saints by a 
master of the school of Vercelli , and (3rd chapel) a Sposalizio, 
probably by the same. — The adjacent church of 8. Giovanni (the 
sacristan of the cathedral keeps the key) is built over an ancient 
Christian basilica, part of which has again been rendered accessible, 
and has monolithic columns with capitals bearing Christian sym- 
bols (6th cent.). The Piazza is adorned with a statue of the poet 
Alfieri (1749-1803 , a native of Asti) , by Vini, and the Giardino 
Pubblico with a monument of Victor Emmanuel II. Near the 
Porta Alessandria is the small octagonal Baptistery of S. Pietro (11th 
cent.), borne by short columns with square capitals, and enclosed by 
a low, polygonal gallery. 

From Asti to Moetaka (Milan), 46 M., in 2 3 /4-3V2 hrs. Stations un- 
important; 29 M. Casale, see p. 48; Mortara, see p. 51. — From Asti 
to Castagnole (p. 55), 13 M., in 1 hr. — Tramway from Asti to Crolanze 
(via, Montechiaro) and to Canale (via S. Damiano, see above). 

Next stations Annone , Cerro , Felizzano, Solero. Country fiat 
and fertile. Near Alessandria the line to Bellinzona (R. 10) diverges 
to the N. The train crosses the Tanaro by a bridge of 15 arches, 
skirts the fortifications, and reaches — 

56^2 M. Alessandria (*Rail. Restaurant ; Europa, well spoken 
of; Italia, mediocre), a town with 30,800, or with suburbs 62,500 
inhab., situated on the Tanaro in a marshy district, and only remark- 
able as a fortified place. It was founded in 1168 by the Lombard 
towns allied against the Emp. Frederick Barbarossa, and named after 
Pope Alexander III. A bronze statue, designed by Monteverde, 
was erected here in 1883 to the statesman TJrbano Rattazzi (d. 
1873), a native of the town. — Alessandria being a junction of 
several lines, carriages are generally changed here; railway to Ver- 
celli via Valenza, p. 48 ; to Novara and Bellinzona, pp. 52-50 ; to 
Milan via Mortara and Vigevano, see p. 51 ; to Pavia via Valenza, 
see p. 144; to Piacenza, Parma, Bologna, etc., see RR. 11 and 39; 

to Bra, see p. 55. 

Tramways from Alessandria via. Marengo to Sale and Tortona, to Casale 
(p. 48), to Spinetta (p. 52), and to Montemagno. 

54 Route 12. NO VI. From Turin 

From Alessandria to Savona (via Acqui), 65 M., in 4 hrs. (fares 
11 fr. 90, 8 fr. 35, 5 fr. 35 c). — As far as Cantalupo the line is the same 
as to Bra (see p. 55). — 21 M. Acqui (Moro; Italia), the Aquae Statiellae 
of the Romans, an episcopal town on the Bormida with 11,200 inhab., 
is well known for its mineral waters , which resemble those of Aix-la- 
Chapelle. The Cathedral, with its double aisles, dates from the 12th century. 
Good wine is produced in the vicinity. — The line ascends the valley of 
the Bormida, passing through ten tunnels. Stations of little importance. 
62 M. S. Giuseppe di Cairo, see p. 56. — 65 M. Savona, see p. 56. 

The line crosses the Bormida , which a little below Alessan- 
dria falls into the Tanaro. About l!/ 4 M. to the -E. of the bridge, 
in the plain between the Bormida and the Scrivia, lies the village 
of Marengo , near which , on 14th June, 1800 , was fought a 
battle momentous for the destinies of Europe. The French were 
commanded by Napoleon , the Austrians by Melas. The battle 
lasted 12 hrs. — 63 M. Frugarolo. 

70 M. Novi (Hot. Novi), on the hills to the right, commanded 
by a tower (*View) , was the scene of a victory gained by the 
Austrians and Russians under Suvorov over the French on 15th 
Aug. , 1799. Branch -line to Pavia and Milan via Tortona and 
Voghera, see p. 52, and R. 25; to Piacenza, see R. 11. Tramway 
to Ovada. — At (75 M.) Serravalle- Scrivia the train enters a moun- 
tainous region. 79 M. Arquata, with a ruined castle on the height. 
Between this and Genoa eleven tunnels. The train threads its way 
through rocky ravines (la Bocchetta) and over lofty embankments, 
crossing the Scrivia several times. Scenery imposing. 84*/ 2 M. Isola 
del Cantone; on the hill to the right a ruined castle. 87 M. Ronco. 

The train enters the Ronco Tunnel, upwards of 5 M. in length, 
and then descends through the narrow Polcev era Valley with the help 
of numerous viaducts and cuttings. Opposite we see the old line, 
which since 1889 has been used for local and goods traffic only. 92 M. 
Mignanego ; 96 V2 M. S. Quirico. The valley now expands ; its well- 
cultivated slopes are dotted with the summer-villas of the Genoese. 

101 M. Sampierdarena (p. 71), where travellers with through- 
tickets to or from Nice change carriages (Rail. Restaurant). On the 
right are the lighthouse and citadel, below which the train passes 
by a tunnel. 

102 M. Genoa, see p. 58. 

b. Via Bra and Savona. 

From Turin to Savona, 91 M., in 41/2-6 hrs. (fares 16 fr. 70, 11 fr. 70, 
8fr. 40 c.-, express 18 fr. 40, 12 fr. 90c); thence to Genoa, 27i/ 2 M., in 
174-2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 95, 3 fr. 50, 2 fr. 45 c. ; express 5 fr. 45, 4 fr. 75 c.)., 
Finest views to the right. 

From Turin to Trofarello , 8 M., see pp. 52, 53. — 12y 2 M. 

A road crossing the Po leads hence to the W. to (4 ! /2 M.) Carignano, a 
town with 7800 inhab. and several fine churches , situated on the high- 
road from Turin (tramway) to Nice. S. Giovanni Battista was erected by 
Count Alfieri ; S. Maria delle Grazie contains a monument to Bianca 
Palseologus, daughter of Guglielmo IV., Marquis of Montferrat, and wife 

to Genoa. BRA. 12. Route. 55 

of Duke Charles I., at whose court the 'Chevalier Bayard' was brought 
up. — Carignano, with the title of a principality, was given as an ap- 
panage to Thomas Francis (d. 1656), fourth son of Charles Emmanuel I., 
from whom the present royal family is descended. 

18 M. Carmagnola, with 4100 inhab., was the birthplace (1390) 
of the famous Condottiere Francesco Bussone, son of a swineherd, 
usually called Count of Carmagnola, who reconquered a great part 
of Lombardy for Duke Filippo Maria Visconti , and afterwards be- 
came Generalissimo of the Republic of Venice. At length his fidel- 
ity was suspected by the Council of Ten , and he was beheaded in 
the Piazzetta (p. 211) on 5th May, 1432. Bussone's fate is the sub- 
ject of a tragedy by Manzoni. — The 'Carmagnole', the celebrated 
republican dance and song of the first French Revolution , was 
named after this town, the home of most of the street-musicians of 
Paris. — Steam-tramway to Turin. 

From Carmagnola to Coneo, 36i/ 2 M. , railway in l 3 /4-2 hrs. (fares 
6 fr. 65, 4 fr. 70 c, 3 fr.). 5'/2 M. Racconigi, with a royal chateau and 
pnrk laid out in 1755 by Le Notre, once the favourite residence of Carlo 
Alberto (d. 1849). From (10 M.) Cacallermaggiore, a branch runs to (8 M.j 
Bra (see below) and to Moretta (p. 38). The principal church of (14 M.) 
Savigliano (Corona), a town on the Macra, with ancient fortifications, 
contains paintings by Ilulinari (1577-1640), a native of the town, surnamed 
Carraccino, as an imitator of Carvacci. Branch-line to Saluzzo, see below. 

18 M. Genola. — ■ 25V2 M. Fossano, with 16,900 inhab., finely situated 
on a hill on the left bank of the Stura, seat of a bishop, has an academy 
and mineral baths (branch-line to Mondovi, see p. 50). — 26 M. Maddalena. 
29 M. Centallo, a picturesque place with remains of mediaeval fortifications. 
3IV2M. S. Benigno di Cuneo. — 36 1 /2 M. Cuneo, and thence to Nice, see R. 15. 

A Branch Line (10 M. in J/z hr.) runs from Savigliano (see above) to 
Saluzzo, capital of the province (formerly marqui^ate) of that name, 
with 16,200 inhab., the seat of a bishop, with flourishing trade and in- 
dustries. The higher part of the town affords a fine survey of the Pied- 
montese plain. A monument was erected here in 1863 to Silvio Pellico, 
the poet (d. 1854), born at Saluzzo in 1788. Railway to Airasca, see p. 38. 
Tramway to Turin, p. 25; to Pinerolo , p. 38; to Cuneo, p. 81; and to 
Revello, where there is an ancient copy of Leonardo's Last Supper (p. 105), 
with variations. 

The line continues towards the S.E. 24 M. Sommariva del 
Bosco; 26 M. Sanfre; 29 M. Bandito. 

31 M. Bra (14,300 inhab.), with a busy trade in wine, cattle, 
truffles, and silk. Branch to Cavallermaggiore, see above. 

Fkom Bra to Alessandria, ,'J3 31., railway in 3 l A hrs. (fares 9 fr. 
65, 6 fr. 75, 4 fr. 35 c). — 4 J /2 M. S. Vittoria; pleasant excursion thence 
to the royal chateau of Pollenzo, vith the remains of the Roman town of 
Pollentia. IIV2 M. Alba, with 6400 inhab.; the cathedral of S. Lorenzo 
dates from the 15th century. — 19'/2 M. Castagnole; branch- line to Asti 
(p. 53). We next traverse a fertile wine-country. 25 l /2 M. S. Stefano 
Belbo, on the Belbo, the valley of "which the train traverses for some 
distance. 34 M. Nizza di Monferralo, whence a road leads to Acqui (p. 54). 
53 M. Alessandria, see p. 53. 

36 M. Cherasco, at the confluence of the Tanaro and Stura, not 
visible from the line. The train ascends the former. Stations Nar- 
zole, Monchiero-Dogliani, Farigliano. — 55 M. Carru. 

Branch -Line to Cdneo, 25»/2 M., in IV4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 65, 3 fr. 25, 
2 fr. 10 c). — 13 M. Mondovi ( Croce di Malta; Tre Limoni d'Oro), the only 
important station, a town with 17,900 inhab., on the Ellero , with a 

56 Route 12. MONDOVI. 

cathedral of the 15th cent, and a loftily situated old tower , is the best 
starting-point for a visit to the imposing * Cavern of Bossea, in the Valle 
di Corsaglia. A carriage may be hired at one of the inns at Mondovi for 
Frabosa , 97-2 M. to the S., whence a lighter 'calesso 1 conveys travellers 
to the cavern (each member of a party 7-8 fr. for the whole drive). The 
cavern is shown from the beginning of June to the end of October (ad- 
mission 2 J /4 fr. ; no gratuities). — Ctmeo, see p. 81. 

From Mondovi to Fossano (p. 55), 15 M., railway in l l It hr. (fares 1 fr. 
80, 1 fr. 30c); to S. Michele, tramway in 3 /\ hr. 

From Mondovi to the Certosa di Val Pesio (p. 81), a drive of 2'/2 hrs. 

56y 2 M. Niella; 60 M. Castellino. 62 l / 2 M. Ceva, on the Ta- 
naro , with an old castle , under which the train passes through a 

The train now begins to cross the Maritime Alps, the most im- 
posing part of the line. Between this and Savona are numerous 
viaducts and 28 tunnels. The train quits the Tanaro and ascends. 
Beyond (6672 M.) Sale is the Oalleria del Belbo, a tunnel upwards 
of 3 M. in length, the longest on the line. 69y 2 M. Saliceto ; 
73^2 M. Cengio, in the valley of the Bormida di Millesimo. 

79 M. S. Giuseppe di Cairo, on the Bormida di Spigno, through 
the valley of which the train descends to Acqui (p. 54). 

Interesting journey amid the deep ravines and precipices of the 
Apennines. Tunnels and viaducts in rapid succession. 86 Y2 M. 
Santuario di Savona, a pilgrimage-church, founded in 1536. 

91 M. Savona, and thence to Genoa, see p. 74. 

III. Liguria. 

13. Genoa 58 

From the principal station (Piazza Acquaverde) by the 
harbour to the Cathedral of S. Lorenzo and the Piazza 
Nuova, 62. — S. Maria in Carignano, 65. — From the 
Piazza Deferrari via, (he Piazza Fontane Morose, the "Via 
Garibaldi, Via Cairoli, and Via Balbi to the Piazza Ac- 
quaverde, and* thence to the lighthouse to the W. of 
the harbour, 65. — Via di Circonvalla'/.ione ; Acquasola; 
Villetta di Negro; Campo Santo, 71, 72. — Excursions, 72. 

14. From Genoa to Ventimiglia 72 

15. From Nice to Cuneo (Turin) by the Col di Tenda . . 80 

From Cuneo to the Certosa di Val Pesio 81 

16. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante 81 

The Maritime Alps and the contiguous Apennines (the boundary be- 
tween which is some 20 M. to the W. of Genoa) slope gently northwards 
to the Po in the form of an extensive rolling country, and descend 
abruptly towards the sea to the S. The narrow Riviera, or coast-district, 
expands at a few points only into small plains. The cultivated land climbs 
up the hillsides in terraces, sheltered from the N. wind, and enjoying a 
fine sunny aspect. While the mean temperature at Turin is 5373° Fahr., 
it is no less than 61° at Genoa; and again, while the temperature of Jan- 
uary averages 31° at the former, and occasionally falls below zero, it 
averages 46° at the latter, and is rarely lower than 23°. — The climate 
of the Riviera is therefore milder than that of Rome, and is even favour- 
able to the growth of the palm. 

As the country differs in many respects from Piedmont, so also do its 
Inhabitants, while their Genoese dialect, which is difficult for foreigners 
to understand, occupies a middle place between the Gallic patois of Upper 
Italy and that of Sardinia. The historical development of the two countries 
has also been widely different. The natural resource of the Ligurians, or 
the inhabitants of the Riviera, was the sea, and they were accordingly known 
to the Greeks at a very early period as pirates and freebooters. To what 
race the Ligurians belong has not yet been ascertained. As the Greek 
Massalia formed the centre of trade in S. France, with Nice as its extreme 
outpost towards the E., so Genoa constituted the natural outlet for the 
traffic of the Riviera. During the 3rd cent. B.C. Genoa became subject 
to the Romans, who in subsequent centuries had to wage long and obstinate 
wars with the Ligurians, in order to secure the possession of the military 
coast-road to Spain. As late as the reign of Augustus the Roman culture 
had made little progress here. At that period the inhabitants exported 
timber, cattle, hides, wool, and honey, receiving wine and oil in exchange. 
In the 7th cent, the Lombards gained a footing here, and thenceforth the 
political state of the country was gradually altered. The W. part with 
.Nice belonged to the Provence, but in 1388 came into the possession of 
the Counts of Savoy , forming their only access to the sea down to the 
period when they acquired Genoa (1815). After the Austrian war of 1859 
Nice (1512 sq. M.) and Savoy (3889 sq. M.) were ceded by Italy to France 
in 1860 as a compensation for the services rendered by Napoleon III. The 
district of Liguria, consisting of the provinces of Porto Maurizio and 
Genoa, with an area of 2040 sq. M. and 899,300 inhab., once formed the 
Republic of Genoa, which in the 13th cent, became mistress of the W. 
part of the Mediterranean , and afterwards fought against Venice for the 
supremacy in the Levant. Genoa's greatness was founded on the ruin of 

58 Route 13. GENOA. Hotels. 

Pisa. The Tuscan hatred of the Genoese was embodied in the saying — 
'Mare senza pesce, montagne senza alberi, uomini senza fede, e donne senza 
vergogiia', and Dante (Inf. xxxiii. 151-53) addresses them with the words — 
'Ahi, Genovesi, uomini diversi 
D'ogni costume, e pien d'ogni magagna; 
Perche non siete voi del mondo spersi?'' 

Modern historians describe the character of the Genoese in the middle 
ages in a similar strain. The whole energy of the Genoese'seems indeed 
to have been concentrated on commerce and the pursuit of gain. Notwith- 
standing their proud naval supremacy , they participated little in the 
intellectual development of Italy, and neither possessed a school of art, 
nor produced any scholars of eminence. When at length the effete re- 
public was incorporated with Piedmont, it became the representative of 
radical principles as contrasted with the conservatism of the royalist terri- 
tory. Giuseppe Mazzini, the chief leader of the national revolutionary 
party , was born at Genoa in 1808 , and Garibaldi , though born at Nice 
(1807) , was the son of a Genoese of Chiavari. The rivalry of the once 
far-famed republic with the upstart Turin , and of the restless harbour 
population with the stolid Piedmontese, have of recent years been pro- 
ductive of very notable results. Modern Genoa has, moreover, regained its 
ancient mercantile importance , though its naval arsenal has been trans- 
ferred to Spezia. 

13. Genoa. 

Arrival. Ti. Piazza Principe (PI. B, 2; Restaurant), the West 

or principal station ^iot all trains), is in the Piazza Acquaverde (goods- 
station in the Piazza del Principe). — The East station, or Stazione Piazza 
Brignole (PI. H, 6), at the end of the Via Serra, and connected with the 
chief station by means of a tunnel below the higher parts of the town, 
is the first place where the Spezia and Pisa trains stop. — Travellers 
arriving at Genoa by sea (embarking or disembarking, 1 fr. each, with 
luggage), and wishing to go on by rail without delay, may, immediately 
after the custom-house examination on the quay, book their luggage there 
for their destination (fee to the facchino of the dogana, 20 c). — Steamers 
to Leghorn, tee p. 314 5 to Naples, Marseilles, Tuni--, etc see p. 59. 

Hotels. (The chief hotels send omnibuses to meet the trains). Geand 
Hotel du Paec (PI. b; G, 5), Via Ugo Foscolo, near Acquasola (p. 72), 
quiet, with pleasant garden; Geand Hotel Isotta (PI. a; F, 5), Via 
Roma 7; Grand Hotel de Genes (PL f ; E, 5), by the Teatro Carlo Felice. 
These three have lifts, but in spite of the high charges (E. 372-5, L. 1, 
A. 1, B. d.1/2, de.}. 372, D. 5, pens. 12-14, omn. 1-1 1/2 fr.) are not absolutely 
first-class in all points. — Hotel de la Ville (PL d •, D, 4), in the old 
Pal. Fieschi, R. 2i/ 2 -5, L. 1, A. 1, dej. 3, D 5, pens. 9-14 fr., noisy situation; 
Hotel de France (PL g; D, 5), R.. L., & A. 2y 2 -3y 2 , B. H/2, dej. 3, D. incl. 
wine 4V2, pens, from 8 fr. ; Hot. de Londkes (PL h; C, 2), with lift, 
near the principal station, R., L., & A. 4-6, B. lV/ 2 . dej. 3, D. 4 3 / 4 , pens. 
9-12 fr. ; Hot. M^tbopole, R., L., & A. 3, B. iy 4 , dej. 3, D. incl. wine 4, 
pens. 8 fr., well spoken of; Hotel des Eteangees Rebecchino (PL 1; E, 4), 
Via Cairoli 1, with lift, K. 3-5, L. »/ 4 , A. s/ ( , B. iy 2 , dej. 3, D. 41/2, pens. 
9-12 fr.; Hotel Smith (PL n; D, 5; English), near the Exchange, Vico 
Denegri, R., L.,~ & A. 2y 2 -3y 2 , B. li/ 4 , dej. 2'/ 2 , D. incl. wine 3i/ 2 , pens. 
8-9 fr., well spoken of; Milano (PL i ; C, 2), Via Balbi 34, near the Palazzo 
Reale, R., L., & A. 3-5, B. iy 4 , dej. 21/2, D. 4, pens. 7-10 fr. ; Vittoeia 
(PL k; D, 3), Piazza dell 1 Annunziata 16; *Albergo & Teattoeia Con- 
fidenza (PL m; F, 5), Via S. Sebastiano 13, R. 2, L. 1/2, A. '/ 2 , dej. 21/2, 
D. incl. wine 4, pens. 8 fr. ; "'Hotel Centeal, Via S. Sebastiano 8, R., 
L., & A. from 2y 2 , pens, from 8V2 fr. ; Italia, Via Carlo Felice 14, R., 
L., & A. 3, pens. 9 : /2 fr.; Aquila, Piazza Acquaverde, near the station, 
moderate. — The 'Indicatore degli Alloggi'. published on the 1st and 15th 
01" each month, gives information as to lodgings. 

Theatres. GENOA. 73. Route. 59 

Cafes. "'Concordia, Via Garibaldi, opposite the Pal. Rosso (PI. E, 4; 
p. 68), with a garden, pleasant and cool, music frequently in the evening; 
"Roma, Via Roma and Galleria Mazzini ; "Italia, with a brilliantly lighted 
garden, open in summer only, at Acquasola (p. 72) ; Milatio, Gall. Mazzini ; 
Teatro, on the ground-floor of the Teatro Carlo Felice, on the right. 

Restaurants. * Concordia, see above; Labb, Via Carlo Felice 6; Teatro, 
see above, on the left; Borsa, Via S. Luca, moderate; Uhione, Piazza 
Campetto 9. — Beer: "Birreria Jensch, Piazza Corvetto (PI. G, 5), Munich 
beer; Monsch, Via S. Sebastiano, Bavarian beer; Klainguii, by the Teatro 
Carlo Felice , Vienna beer ; Birreria Svizzera, Piazza S. Siro , corner of 
Via Cairoli (PI. D, 4), Bavarian beer; Birreria Viennese, Via Roma. 

Cabs (a tariff in eacji) in the town, which includes the area shown 
in the map, and the neighbourhood of the harbour (lighthouse) to the W. : 

One-horse cab 


>rse cab 

By day 

At night 

By day 

At night 

1 — 



2 — 




3 — 

1 — 




Per drive .... 
Per hour .... 
Each addit. 1/2 hr. 
Small articles of luggage free ; trunk 20 c. — Night-fares are reckoned from 
the time when the street-lamps are lighted. 

Tramway Cars (comp. Plan) run from Piazza Cakicamento (PI. D, 5) 
by the Via Carlo Alberto to Sampierdarena (25 c. ; unpleasant drive), and 
thence in the one direction to Covnigliano (30 c), Seslri Ponente (45 c), 
Multedo, and Pegli (55 c), and in the other to Rivarolo (40 c), Bolzaneto 
(55 c), and Pontedecimo (80 c). — Omnibus from Piazza Deferrabi (PL 
E, 6) to the two stations (10 c.; to the principal station, 'Piazza 
Principe', via the Via Garibaldi and Via Balbi); via. Piazza Corvetto to 
Castelhlto (PI. E, 3) on the Via di Circonvallazione a Monte; via, Ac- 
quasola to S. Maria in Carignano (10 c.); to the Cimilero di Staglieno 
(25 c) ; from the Poeta d'Aechi (PI. F, 6) to S. Francesco d'Albaro ; to 
Sturla, Quinto, and Nervi every 20 min. (20, 30, 40 c), etc. 

Small Boats. For l-4pers. 2fr. per hour ; best to enquire beforehand. 

Baths. At the "Palazzo Spinola, Salita S. Caterina, adjoining Bossola's 
music shop; others at Via delle Grazie 11, and Piazza Sarzano 51. — Sea 
Baths by the Molo Vecchio (PI. A, B, 5); by the Mura della Cava (PI. 
D, E, 8) and the Strega; also by the lighthouse (Lanterna; p. 71), but in 
July and August only, poorly fitted up. Swimmers had better bathe from 
a boat. Sea-bathing places on the Riviera, see pp. 73, 82. 

Theatres. Carlo Felice (PI. E, F, 5), one of the largest in Italy, 
open in winter only ; Politeama Genovese (PI. F, G, 4), near Villetta di 
Negro, open the whole year; Politeama Regina Maegherita, in winter 
only; Paganini (PI. F, 3), at intervals. — Military Music in the Acquasola 
Park (p. 72): three times a week in summer, 7-9 p.m. and Sun. (except 
during great heat), 3-5; in winter three times a week, 2-4. 

Shops. Booksellers: H. Sternberg , Via Eoma 4; A. Donath, Via 
Luccoli 44; L. Beuf, Via Cairoli 2; Libr. Sordo-Muti, Piazza Fontane Mo- 
rose. — Photogeaphs : Alfred Noack, Vico del Filo 1, upstairs ; Degoix, 
Via Cairoli 7; Lupi, Via Orefici 148. — Candied Fruit : Pietro Romanengo, 
Strada Soziglia. — Perfumers : Stef. Frecceri, Via Cairoli 7; Vitale, Via 
S. Luca 84 and Via Carlo Felice 15. — Filigree Work : Forte, Via Orefici 
155, and others in the same street; Sivelli, Via Roma. — Alabaster and 
Marble: P. Capelli, Gall. Mazzini 5; Cl. Pocchini, Via Cairoli 1. — Goods- 
Agents : F. Brocchi & Co., 8 Piazza Fossatello, Via Lomellini; K. Rueprecht, 
at the back of S. Luca (also dealer in works of art). 

Post Office, Galleria Mazzini (PI. F, 5), open 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. — Tele- 
graph Office, Palazzo Ducale (PI. E, 6). 

Bankers, Oranet, Brown, & Co., Via Garibaldi 7. 

Steamboats. The most important for tourists are those of the Navi- 
gazione Generate Italiana (Florio-Rubattino; office Piazza Acquaverde), 
to all the chief ports of Italy and to the Levant. Comp. the Italian time- 
table (larger edition). Genoa has direct connection with London {General 
Steam Navigation Co., fortnightly), Liverpool (Cunard Line), etc. 

60 Route 13. GENOA. Harbour. 

Consulates. English, Mr. M. ¥. Brown, Spianata deir Acquasola 18} 
American, Mr. Fletcher, Via Assarotti 14. 

Physicians : Dr. Breiting (speaks English), Via Mameli 33 A ; Dr. Friihauf, 
Via Roma 8 A; Dr. Zaslein, Via Palestro 15. — Protestant Hospital sup- 
ported by the foreigners in Genoa (physician, Dr. Breiting). — Dentists: 
Mr. Charles S. Bright and Mi: Stanley C. Bright, Via SS. Giacomo e 
Filippo 35; Mr. Charles T. Terry, Piazza Cavour 5. — Chemists: Farmacia 
Zereya (English prescriptions), Via Carlo Felice ; Pharmacie des Etrangers, 
Via Cairoli 10. 

English Church. Church of the Holy Ghost (built by Street, in the 
Lombard style), Via Goito; perman. chaplain Rev. /. T. Christie, M. A. 
Church Seamen's Institute, Via Milano 26 (Rev. J. T. Christie) ; serv. Sun. 
and Thurs. 7.30 p.m.; weekly concert on Sat.; reading, writing and 
recreation rooms open daily for seamen 10 a.m. -10 p.m. — Presbyterian 
Church, Via Peschiera 4 (Rev. Donald Milter. M. A.); service at 11. Genoa 
Harbour Mission, serv. Sun. and Tues. at7.30p;m. in the Sailors" Rest, 13 
Via Milano (Rev. D. Miller). Social entertainments Frid. at 7.30 p.m. 

Principal Attractions. Walk through the Via S. Lorenzo past the 
Cathedral (p. 63) to the Piazza Nuova with S. Ambrogio (p. 64) ; ascend 
to S. Maria in Carignano (p. 65) and return to the Piazza Fontane Morose. 
Then through the Via Garibaldi (p. 67), and visit the Palazzi Rosso (p. 67) 
and Durazzo (p. 69; the mansions of the Genoese noblesse are generally 
shown between 11 and 4 o'clock, and probably earlier in summer), the 
Monument of Columbus (p. 62), and the Palazzo Doria (p. 70); drives round 
the Via di Circonvallazione a Monte (p. 71) on the Nervi Road, or to the 
Campo Santo (p. 72) ; row in the harbour, after which the evening may 
be spent in the park of Acquasola (p. 72). "Villa Pallavicini, see p. 73. 

Genoa, Italian Genova, French. Genes, with 210,000 inhab. , the 
seat of a university and of an archbishop, is the chief commercial 
town in Italy. Its situation, rising above the sea in a wide semi- 
circle, and its numerous palaces, justly entitle it to the epithet of 
i LaSuperba\ The town is divided into the 'sestieri' of Pre, Molo, 
Portoria, S. Vincenzo, S. Teodoro, and Maddalena, and is surround- 
ed by extensive fortifications , dating from the beginning of the 
17th cent., and recently strengthened. From the lighthouse on the 
W. side, where the barracks of S. Benigno afford quarters for 10,000 
men, a broad rampart runs up the hill at some distance from the 
town, past the Forte Begato (1620 ft.), to the Forte dello Sperone 
(1690 ft.), the highest point; then descends past Forte Castellaccio 
(1250 ft.) to the mouth of the Bisagno, which falls into the sea to 
the E. of Genoa, a circuit of about 9*^ M. in all. The heights 
around the town are crowned with ten detached forts. 

The Harbour consists of a semi- circular bay, about 4 M. in 
length, protected from the open sea by long and substantial piers. 
The Duke of Galliera (d. 1876) having presented 20 million francs 
for its improvement, on condition that government and the city 
would complete the required sum, an outer basin (Avamporto), a 
new harbour (Nuovo Porto), and an inner basin (Porto), provided 
with quays, have lately been constructed. Comp. the plan of the 
town and the map at p. 72. In 1890 the harbour was entered and 
quitted by 14,501 vessels of which 6144 were steamers. The im- 
ports (coal, sugar, chemicals, iron, etc.) were valued at 355 million 
francs (14,200,000*.), the exports at 82 millions (3,280,000i.). 

History. GENOA. 13. Route. 61 

From the earliest times Genoa has been famous as a seaport, and it 
is believed to derive its name from the fact that the shape of the coast 
here resembles that of a knee (genu). The Roman form of its municipal 
government was maintained throughout the period of the barbarian in- 
vasions, when a new feudal nobility sprang up alongside of the native 
noblesse. The smaller towns on the Ligurian coast looked up to Genoa 
as their champion against the Saracens, who ravaged the country from 
Frassineto , and in 936 even plundered Genoa itself. In 1015 the Genoese 
made themselves masters of Corsica, and in 1119 they waged a victorious 
war against Pisa, then mistress of the Tyrrhenian Sea. From that date 
the rival cities were almost permanently at war down to 1284, when a 
terrible naval battle took place between them at Meloria, on which oc- 
casion the Genoese captured 29 Pisan galleys, and sank 7 others. From 
this disaster Pisa never recovered , and Genoa now obtained the supre- 
macy over the W. islands, Corsica, and nominally over Sardinia also. 
At a still earlier period Genoa had participated in the Crusades , and se- 
cured to herself a busy trade with the Levant. She also possessed settle- 
ments at Constantinople and in the Crimea, in Syria and Cyprus, at 
Tunis and Majorca. The rivalry of the Genoese and Venetians was a fruit- 
ful source of wars and feuds during the 12-14th centuries, which at length 
were terminated by a decisive victory gained by the latter in 1380. 

The internal history of the city was no less chequered than the ex- 
ternal. The party conflicts between the sreat families of the Doria and 
Spinola (Ghibellines) on one side, and the Grimaldi and Fieschi (Guelphs) 
on the other , led to some extraordinary results. The defeated party 
used, at the expense of their own independence, to invoke the aid of 
some foreign prince, and accordingly we find that after the 14th cent, 
the kings of Naples and France , the counts of Monferrat , and the dukes 
of Milan, were alternately masters of Genoa. Nor was this state of 
matters materially altered by the revolution of 1339, by which the ex- 
clusive sway of the nobility was overthrown, and a Doge invested with 
the supreme power. In the midst of all this confusion the only stable 
element was the mercantile Banco di S. Giorgio, which had acquired ex- 
tensive possessions , chiefly in Corsica , and would have eventually ab- 
sorbed the whole of the republic and converted it into a commercial 
aristocracy, had not Genoa lost its power of independent development by 
becoming involved in the wars of the great powers. Andrea Doria (p. 70), 
the admiral of Emperor Charles V., at length restored peace by the estab- 
lishment of a new oligarchic constitution , and the unsuccessful conspir- 
acy of Fiesco in 1547 was one of the last instances of an attempt to 
make the supreme power dependent on unbridled personal ambition. But 
the power of Genoa was already on the wane. The Turks conquered 
its Oriental possessions one after another, and the city was subjected to 
severe humiliations by its powerful Italian rivals, as well as by the 
French, who took Genoa in 1684, and by the Imperial troops by whom 
Genoa was occupied for a few days in 1746. These last were expelled 
by a popular rising, begun by a stone thrown by Balilla, a lad of 15 years. 
In 1736 the ambition of Theodore de Neuhof, a Westphalian nobleman, 
occasioned great disquietude to the republic. He was created king by 
the Corsicans, who were subjects of Genoa, but the usurper was expelled 
with the aid of the French, who afterwards (1768) took possession of the 
island on their own behalf. After the battle of Marengo (1800) Genoa 
was taken by the French. In 1805 it was formally annexed to the Empire 
of France, and in 1815 to the Kingdom of Sardinia. 

The beauty of its situation and the reminiscences of its ancient 
glory render a visit to Genoa very attractive. To the student of art 
the Renaissance palaces of the Genoese nobility are objects of ex- 
treme interest, surpassing in number and magnificence those of any 
other city in Italy. Some of the smaller churches are of very ancient 
origin, though usually altered in the Gothic period. 

62 Route 13. GENOA. Statue of Columbus. 

Many of the Genoese palaces were erected by Galeazzo Alessi (a pupil 
of Michael Angelo, horn at Perugia 1500, d. 1572) , whose style was fol- 
lowed by subsequent architects. In spite of occasional defects, the archi- 
tecture of the city is of an imposing and uniform character, and great 
ingenuity has been displayed in making the best of an unfavourable and 
limited site. The palaces moreover contain a considerable number of 
works of art, while Rubens, who resided at Genoa in 1606-8, and Van Dyck 
at a later period, have preserved the memory of many members of the 
noblesse. The native school of art, however, never rose to importance, 
and was far from being benefited by the zeal of its artists in painting fa- 
cades. The chief painters were Luca Cambiaso (1527-85), Bernardo Strozzi, 
surnamed II Cappuccino or Prete Genovese (1581-1644), Giov. Bait. Paggi, 
and Benedetto Gastiglione. 

In front of the Principal Railway Station (PI. B. 2; p. 58), on 
the N.W. side of the town , extends the spacious Piazza Acqua- 
yerde (PI. C, 2), in the centre of which, emhosomed in palm- 
trees, rises the marble Statue of Columbus, who was born at Cogo- 
leto (p. 74) in 1456. The pedestal is adorned with ships' prows. 
At the feet of the statue , which leans on an anchor , kneels the 
figure of America. The surrounding allegorical figures represent 
Religion, Science, Geography, Strength, and Wisdom. Between 
these axe reliefs from the history of Columbus , with the inscrip- 
tions : l A Cristoforo Colombo la P atria' y and i divihato un mondo lo 
avvinse di %erenni benefizi all' antico\ 1862. Opposite is the 
Palazzo Farraggiana, with a marble relief in the pediment repre- 
senting scenes from the life of Columbus. — Between this palace 
and the Hotel de Londres is the end of the Via Balbi (p. 94). 

"We descend the Via delle Monachette (PL 0, 2), leading S. to 
the harbour. At the end of the street, on the right, rises the small 
Romanesque church of S. Giovanni Battista, with its two apses re- 
sulting from an alteration of facade (best light in the forenoon). 
On the tower is the head of the founder Guglielmo Acton, 1180, 
in relief. To the E. of this point runs the Strada di Pre; to the 
S.W. are the piazza and chapel della Comenda, a dilapidated Re- 
naissance building. 

Adjoining the former Arsenale di Marinais the Darsena (PI. C, 3), 
in which Fiesco (p. 61) was drowned in 1547. We follow the busy 
Via Carlo Alberto (PL C, D, 3, 4), which down to 1885 was 
separated from the harbour by a lofty arcaded wall with a marble 
platform. No. 9 in this street, near the Piazza della Darsena 
(p. 63), is adorned with a statuette of Columbus in a niche, with 
the inscription : 'Diss! , volli, credi, ecco un secondo sorger nuovo 
dall' onde ignoto mondo'. The Via Carlo Alberto ends in the Piazza 
Caricambnto (PL D, 4, 5), where the Dogana occupies the build- 
ing of the former Bank of S. Giorgio (p. 61). The large hall is 
embellished with 21 marble statues of men who have deserved 
well of the city, partly of the 15th century. On the upper floor are 
the Archives. Farther on is the Deposito Franco, or free harbour, 
with extensive bonded warehouses (visitors admitted ; no smoking). 

The Via Vittorio Emanuelb (PL D, 5), on the E. side of the 

8. Maria di Castello. GENOA. 13. Route. 63 

Porto Franco , leads S. to the Piazza Cavour, which is adjoined by 
the Molo Vecchio, the oldest pier, with the Porta del Molo (PI. C, 5), 
a gateway built in 1550 by Gal. Alessi. — The Via S. Lorenzo, run- 
ning E. from the N. end of the Via VittorioEmanuele, leads straight 
to the cathedral and S. Ambrogio, see below. 

Near the S. end of the Via Vittorio Emanuele, in a small side-street 
to the E., is the church of S.Giorgio (PL D, 6), a baroque structure with 
a dome. Adjoining it is a charming little church in the same style, by 
Borromini. Farther on is the small Piazza Cattaneo, with the palace of 
that name, a room on the second floor of which contains eight portraits by 
Van Dyck. The Via delle Grazie leads hence to the Gothic church of 8. 
Cosmo, which contains a Florentine Madonna of the 14th cent, (left of the 
high-altar). — Continuing to ascend beyond S. Cosmo, we reach the church 
of Sta. Maria di Castello (PL D, 6) , on the site of the Roman castle. 
Above the portal is an ancient architrave; ten of the shafts of the columns 
in the interior are also ancient. In the first chapel on the left is a Roman 
sarcophagus, used as an altar; the third has an Annunciation by Gio- 
vanni Mazone of Alessandria (15th cent.) ; the last chapel contains a 
marble door with Renaissance sculptures. The choir was added in the 
15th century. In the transept is a Madonna by Justus oVAllamagna, 1451 
(under glass). 

The following route avoids the noisy and crowded streets near 
the harbour. From the Piazza della Darsena (PL D, 3; p. 62), 
whence the Via' delle Fontane leads to the left to the Annunziata 
(p. 69), we pass through the fine Gothic Porta de' Vacca, with its 
mediaeval sculptures and towers of the 16th cent., to the Via del 
Campo (PI. D, 4). [From the Piazza Fossatello (PI. D, 4) the Via 
Lomellini leads to the left to the Annunziata (p. 69).] Then through 
the Via di Fossatello and the Via S. Luca to the Piazza Banchi, 
with the Exchange [Loggia dc' Banchi, Borsa, PI. D, 5), erected 
at the end of the 16th cent, from plans by Gal. Alessi, and adorned 
with a marble figure of Cavour by Vine. Vela. [In a side-street to 
the left of the Via S. Luca is the old cathedral of S. Siro (PL D, 
E, 4), rebuilt about 1580, with facade of 1830, containing statues 
by Taddeo and frescoes by Giov. Bait. Carlone.] — The narrow Via 
Orefici (PL D, E, 5) with numerous goldsmiths' shops (a door on 
the right is adorned with an Adoration of the Magi in relief, 15th 
cent.), and then the Via Luccoli, lead to the Piazza delle Fontane 
Morose (p. 67). A little to the N. of the Via Orefici is the church 
of S. Maria delle Vigne, containing a wooden crucifix with painted 
statues of SS. Mary and John by Maragliano, three Gothic figures 
above the side-portal on tbe right, and a tower of the 13th century. 
On the left is a ruined cloister of the 11th century. In the piazza 
is the Palazzo de Amicis of the 16th century. — To the S. of the 
Exchange the Via S. Pietro della Porta, passing the curious church 
of S. Pietro de' Banchi (1583), leads to the Piazza S. Lorenzo, in 
which are the Banca Nazionale (PL D, 5), and the cathedral of — 

*S. Lorenzo (PL E, 6), erected in 1100 on the site of an older 
church, and afterwards so much altered that it now presents three 
distinct styles, Romanesque, French Gothic, and Renaissance. The 
lower part of the facade, which consists of alternate courses of black 

64 Route 13. GENOA S. Lorenzo. 

and white marble, was constructed in the 13th cent, in imitation of 
the French churches ; the two lower of the recumbent lions which 
adorn it on the right and left of the steps are modern. Only one 
of the towers is completed. The sculptures of the principal portal 
date from the end of the 13th century. The Romanesque entrances 
to the aisles are richly decorated with sculptures of the 12th cent, 
with antique ornamentation on the entablature and capitals. A 
small oriel of 1402, formerly belonging to the Hospital of St. John, 
has been built into the right aisle. 

The Interior, constructed in 1307 , is borne by the columns of the 
earlier church. Beyond the massive substructure of the towers , which 
forms a kind of atrium, lies the nave with its aisles, covered with cylindrical 
vaulting and a dome (which last was constructed by Alessi in 1567), and 
borne by sixteen Corinthian columns of coloured marble and four buttresses, 
above which is another series of columns alternating with pillars. On the 
right, over the second side-portal, is the monument of a bishop by Giov. di 
Balduccio (1336). In the chapel to the right of the choir a *Crucifixion 
with saints and angels (covered), the masterpiece of Fed. Baroccio, the 
statues by P- Francavilla. In the choir, handsome stalls with inlaid-work. 
In the chapel to the left of the choir six pictures and a statue of Fides by 
L. Cambiaso. In the left aisle, seven statues by Ougl. della Porta. — The 
second chapel to the left of the entrance, that of *S. Giovanni Battista, 
erected in 1451-96, contains in a stone area of the 13th cent, (below the al- 
tar) relics of John the Baptist, brought from Palestine during the Crusades. 
The rix statues at the sides and the reliefs above them are by Matteo Gi- 
vitali (p. 329); the Madonna and John the Baptist by Andrea Sansovino (1504) ; 
the canopy and the other sculptures by Giacomo and Guglielmo della Porta 
(1532). The external decoration of the chapel is in the Gothic style, with 
admirable reliefs above (ladies not admitted ; best light in the afternoon). 
— In the sacristy is the Cathedral Treasury (permesso obtainable at the 
Municipio, first floor, to the left, 10-4 o'cl.). Here is preserved the Sacro 
Catino, the vessel out of which the Saviour and his disciples are said to 
have partaken of the paschal lamb, and in which Joseph of Arimathea is 
said to have caught some drops of the blood of the Crucified (a fine glass 
vessel, captured by the Genoese at Cesarea in 1101 and supposed to be 
made of a large emerald, until it was broken at Paris, whither it had been 
carried by Napoleon I.). The setting dates from 1827. Among the other 
relics are a cross from Ephesus, captured at Phocseain 1308; a silver shrine 
for the Procession of Corpus Domini (1553) ; and a beautifully wrought sil- 
ver chalice attributed to Benvenuto Cellini. 

On the left of the cathedral are Romanesque cloisters of the 
12th century. — Farther on, in the Piazza Nuova, is S.Ambrogio 
(PI. E, 6), a church of the Jesuits, of the close of the 16th cent., 
profusely decorated. 

3rd Altar on right: 'Assumption by Guido Reni (coverel). High-altar- 
piece, Presentation in the temple, by Rubens. The four black monolith 
columns are from Porto Venere (p. 84). First chapel on left, Martyrdom 
of St. Andrew, by Semino the Elder. 3rd Altar on left: "Rubens, St. Ignatius 
driving out an evil spirit (covered). 

The house Vico dei Notari No. 2, to the right of the church, has 
a fine Renaissance portal. In the Piazza Nuova is also situated the 
Palazzo Ducale (PI. E, 6), the grand old residence of the doges, 
originally a building of the 13th cent., to which the tower on the 
left belonged, but completely remodelled by Bocco Pennone in the 
16th cent, (fine staircase), and modernised after a fire in 1777. Facade 
by Shuone Cantoni. It now contains offices of the municipality. 

8. Maria in Carhgnano. GENOA. 13. Route. 65 

This is the best starting-point for a visit to the church of S. 
Maria in Carignano, situated on one of the highest points at the S.E. 
end of the city (omnibus, see p. 59). Opposite the Palazzo Ducale 
we follow the Salita Pollajuoli to the Piazza Ferretto and the ancient 
church of S. Donato. (Portal adorned with antique entablature 
and columns like the Cathedral. Campanile also Romanesque. In 
the interior a few ancient columns ; also, to the left, an Adoration 
of the Magi by a Lower Rhenish master.) We then ascend the 
Stradone Agostino (passing 8. Agostino, with ruined facade of the 
13th cent.), and cross the Piazza Sarzano to the left to the Ponte 
Carignano, which spans a street 100 ft. below. 

*S. Maria in Carignano (PI. E, 8; 174 ft. above the sea), 
begun by Oaleazzo Alessi in 1552, but not completed till 1603, is 
a smaller edition of the plan adopted by Michael Angelo and Bra- 
mante for St. Peter's at Rome. Here, however, a square ground- 
plan takes the place of the Greek cross of St. Peter's , and small 
lanterns represent the minor domes. Principal portal, 18th century. 

Interior. 2nd altar to the right, Maratta, SS. Blasius and Sebastian ; 
4th altar, Franc. Vanni, Communion of St. Magdalene; 1st altar to the 
left, Guercino, St, Francis; 3rd altar, ''Cambiaso, Entombment. Baroque 
statues below the dome by Paget (St. Sebastian and Alessandro Sauli), 
Parodi (St. John), and David (St. Bartholomew). 

The *View from the highest gallery of the dome (370 ft. above the 
sea; 119 steps to the first gallery, thence to the top 130; easy and well- 
lighted staircase) embraces the city, harbour, and fortifications, the well- 
peopled coast (W. the Riviera di Ponente, E. the Riviera di Levante), and 
on the S. the vast, ever-varying expanse of the Mediterranean. (Sacristan 
25 c ; his attendance for the ascent unnecessary; best light in the morning.) 

Hence by the Via Gal. Alessi, Mura Santa Chiara, and Mura 

Santo Stefano to the Park of Acquasola, see p. 71. 

From the Piazza Nuova the Via Sellai (PI. E, 6) leads to the 
left to the Piazza Deferrari (with palace of that name, 18th cent., 
on the left), formerly Piazza S. Domenico (80 ft. above the sea). 

The Salita di S. Matteo, the second side-street to the left, leads hence 
to the small Gothic church of S. Matteo (PL E, 5 ; 1278) , containing 
many memorials of the Doria family, the facade being covered with in- 
scriptions in their honour. The interior was altered in 1530 by the 
Florentine Oiov. Angelo Montorsoli , who was invited to Genoa by An- 
drea Doria , and who, with his assistants, executed the whole of the 
sculptures which adorn the church. The balustrade of the organ-loft is 
particularly fine. Above the high- altar is Dona's sword, and his tomb is 
in the chapel below. To the left of the church are handsome cloisters 
with double columns in the Transition style, 1308-10, with 17 ancient in- 
scriptions relating to the Dorias, and remains of a statue of Andrea Doria, 
which was mutilated during the Revolution in 1797. An ancient sarco- 
phagus-relief, with an inscription in honour of Lamba Doria , who de- 
feated the Venetians at Curzola in 1297, is built into the right side of the 
facade. — The little piazza in front of the church is surrounded with 
palaces of the Doria family; one nearly opposite, the lower half of which 
is covered with black and yellow marble, bears the inscription, i Senat. 
Cons. Andreae de Oria, patriae liberatori munus publicum' (1528). — ~No. 13, 
to the left of S. Matteo, is the Palazzo Centurione, with an early Renaissance 

Baedek— Ti ~ , ~ T n ^ ™ J - X ft 

66 Route 13. GENOA. 8. Stefano. 

In the Piazza Deferrari, on the Tight, is the Teatro Carlo Felice 
(PI. E, F, 5; see p. 59). Adjacent is the — 

Accademia delle Belle Arti (PI. E, F, 6). The vestibule con- 
tains mediaeval sculptures from the suppressed church of S. Domen- 
ico. On the first floor is the Biblioteca Civica (about 40,000 vols.); 
on the second floor a Picture Oallery (shown by the custodian). 

The copying-room contains, on the right, a coloured marble relief of 
the 15th cent, and a Coronation of the Virgin by Luca della Robbia. In 
the room to the left are mediaeval reliefs, Renaissance sculptures (door- 
frame, chimney-piece), and casts. A room to the right of the copying- 
room contains ancient pictures , unarranged , some of them unnumbered. 
The finest are : 69. Last Supper ; 19. St. Anthony ; *20. Two saints ; 68, 97, 
99. Miracles of St. Philip. Then 28 (9). Manfredino da Pisloja (1292), Annun- 
ciation, Christ in the house of Martha; 21. Umbrian School, Crucifixion; 
Ant. Scarini , Entombment ; L. Cambiaso , Holy Family. In the centre 
modern statues. Next a circular room and a saloon with pictures by 
Genoese painters (Piola, Deferrari, Ferrari, Fiasella, etc.); lastly two 
rooms with paintings, terracottas, bronzes, etc., chiefly modern (Museo 
Principe Odone). 

The Via Gitilia leads from the academy E. to the Piazza degli 
Archi. On a terrace to the left of the piazza is S. Stefano (PI. F, 
G, 6), a Gothic church (14th cent.), with Romanesque tower. In- 
terior modernised. The cantoria (choir-gallery) on the entrance- 
wall dates from 1499. Above the high-altar the *Stoning of Stephen 
by Giulio Romano, one of his best works (1523 ; covered). From the 
back of the church we may go to the left to Acquasola (p. 72), or 
to the right to S. Maria in Carignano (p. 65). — In the neighbour- 
ing Via Bosco is the church of 8. Caterina, with a fine portal (1521); 
adjoining it is the Spedale Pamatone, in front of which is a fountain 
with a bronze statue of the boy Balilla (p. 61) by Giani. 

To the right the new Via Roma, to the left the Via Carlo 
Felice , lead N.E. from the Piazza Deferrari. The Via Roma (PI. 
F, 5), cutting off a corner of the interesting old Palazzo Spinola, 
now the Prefettura , soon reaches the Piazza Corvetto , where a 
large bronze equestrian Statue of Victor Emmanuel II. was erected 
in 1886. The chief entrance of the Galleria Mazzini is in this 
piazza. We may ascend hence to the right to Acquasola (p. 72), or 
go to the left, passing a marble Statue of Mazzini , by Costa (with 
allegorical figures of Thought and Action on the pedestal) , to the 
Villetta di Negro (p. 72). The Via Roma is continued by the Via 
Assarotti, which leads to the loftily-situated Piazza Manin (p. 71). 

On the left side of Via Carlo Felice (PL F, 5), No. 12, is the 
Palazzo Pallavicini, now belonging to the Durazzo family (p. 69). 
We next come to the Piazza delle Fontane Morose (PI. F, 4, 5). 
No. 17 in the piazza is the Pal. della Casa, originally Spinola, 
adorned with five statues in niches (15th cent.) ; No. 27 is the Pal. 
Lud. Stef. Pallavicini, sumptuously fitted up in modern taste. 

At the Piazza Fontane Morose begins a broad line of 16th cent. 
streets, extending to the Piazza Acquaverde (p. 62), under the 
names of Via Garibaldi (formerly Nuova), Via Cairoli (formerly 

Pal. Municipals GENOA. 13. Route. 67 

Nuovissima), and Via Balbi, one of the chief arteries of traffic. In 
these streets are the most important palaces and several churches. 
Some of the former should be visited for the sake of their noble 
staircases, one of the sights of Genoa. On each side of these streets 
a labyrinth of lanes, occupied by the lower classes, descend to the 
harbour, and ascend the hill, also presenting points of interest. 

The first of these main streets , *Via Garibaldi (PI. E, 4), is 
flanked with a succession of palaces. On the right, No. 1, Palazzo 
Ces. Cambiaso, by Gal. Alessi. On the left, No. 2, Pal. Gambaro, 
formerly Cambiaso. Right, No. 3, Pal. Parodi, erected in 1567-81 
by Gal. Alessi for Franco Lercaro, containing frescoes by Luca Cam- 
biaso and others. Left, No. 4, *Pal. Cataldi, formerly Carega, 
erected about 1560 by Giov. Batt. Castello. Right, No. 5, *Pal. 
Spinola, by Gal. Alessi, containing pictures of the Genoese school, 
a portrait of Cambiaso by himself, a Madonna by Luini, an eques- 
trian portrait, and a Madonna by Van Dyck. Left, No. 6, Pal. 
Giorgio Doria (not always open), by Alessi, adorned with frescoes 
by Luca Cambiaso and other pictures (Castiglione , Shepherd and 
shepherdess; Van Dyck, Portrait of a lady ; P. Veronese, Susanna). 

Left, No. 10, Pal. Adorno (not always accessible), also by Gal. 
Alessi , contains several good pictures [Rubens, Hercules and Pe- 
janira ; three small pictures attributed to Mantegna, though more 
in the style of S. Botticelli : Triumph of Amor, of Jugurtha, of 
Judith (comp. p. 31, No. 369); Cambiaso, Madonna and saints; 
Clouet, Portraits of four children ; Piola, Frieze with children ; 
Perino del Vaga, Nativity of Mary.] 

Left, No. 12, Pal.Serra, by Alessi; interior rebuilt by DeWailly 
(d. 1798) and Tagliafico, with a magnificent hall. 

Right, No. 9, Palazzo Municipals (PI. E, 4), formerly Doria 
Tursi, by Eocco Lurago (16th cent.), has a handsome staircase and 
court, skilfully adapted to its sloping site. 

The Vestibule is adorned with five frescoes from the life of the Doge 
Grimaldi, the Court with a marble statue of Mazzini , and the Stair- 
case with a statue of Cataneo Pinelli. — In the large Council Chamber 
on the upper floor are portraits of Columbus and Marco Polo in mosaic. 
In the adjacent room a Madonna between two saints, by Gerard David of 
Bruges (not Van Eyck) ; Crucifixion with SS. Mary and John by a good 
early Netherlands master (not Diirer) ; other pictures inferior. Facsimiles 
of letters of Columbus (the originals are in the pedestal of his bust in 
the Sala della Giunta); large bronze tablet of B. C. 117, recording the 
judgment of Roman arbiters in a dispute between Genoa and a neighbouring 
castle. A cabinet to the left contains Paganini's violin. In the loggia to 
the left is a Bacchic sarcophagus-relief from the tomb of Franc. Spinola. 
(Permessi for the cathedral-treasury are procured on the third floor.) 

Left, No. 18, *Pa!azzo Rosso (PL E, 4), by Alessi, so named 
from its red colour, formerly the property of the Brignole-Sale 
family , with its valuable contents , library , and *Picture Gallery 
(open 10-3, Mon., Thurs., Sat., and holidays free), was presented, 
to the city of Genoa in 1874 by the Marchesa Maria Brignole-Sale, 
Duchess of Galliera (d. 1889), and by her son Filippo. 


68 Route 13. GENOA. Pal. Rosso. 

Ascending the staircase, we pass through an Antisala into the Camera 
delle Aeti Libeeali, named like the following rooms, after the ceiling- 
paintings (by Carlone, Parodi, Deferrari, and others), and containing three 
portraits of Doges of the Brignole family, 17-18th centuries. The ceil- 
ing-paintings are sometimes continued by the relief-work of the cornices. 
— Small Room (Alcova): Rigand, Lady and gentleman of the Brignole 
family. — III. Stanza della Giovent^. Over the door : Carletto Caliari, 
Martyrdom of St. Justina. Adjacent, to the right: "Guercino, Cleopatra; 
B. Strozzi, HI Cappuccino\ Charity; L. Cambiaso, Holy Family; B. Strozzi, 
Cook with poultry ; Andrea del Sarto, Holy Family (copy). — IV. Salone, 
with ceiling decorated with the armorial bearings of the family. Guido- 
bono di Savona, Lot and his daughters; Valerio Castello, Rape of the 
Sabines. Entrance-wall: Guidobono, Lot in captivity; D. Piola, Sun-chariot 
of Apollo; Guidobono, Abraham dismissing Hagar. In the middle, intended 
for the Palazzo Bianco (see Vlow): ''Rubens, Mars and Venus; Van Dyck, 
The tribute-money; Mvrillo (?), Flight into Egypt; Zurbaran (?), SS. Ursula 
and Euphemia. — V. Stanza della Peimaveea : Style of Paris Bordone, 
Venetian woman; A. Diirer, Portrait (1506; ruined); Moretlo (?), Scholar 
with book; "Van Dyck, Marchese Antonio Giulio Brignole-Sale on horse- 
back; Titian (school-piece), Philip II. of Spain. Over the egress: Van 
Dyck, Prince of Orange; Van Dyck , Portrait of a father and son. On the 
entrance-wall: B. Strozzi, Flute-player; Van Dyck, IMarchesa Paola Bri- 
gnole-Sale; Van Dyck, Bearing of [the Cross; *Jac. Bassano, Portrait of 
father and son ; "Paris Bordone , Portrait. On an easel (for the Pal. 
Bianco): ''Gerard David (wrongly attributed to Memling), Madonna. — 
VI. Stanza d'Estate : Guercino, Suicide of Cato; L. Garracci, Annun- 
ciation; Luca Giordano, Clorinda liberating Olintho and Sophronia (from 
Tasso); Guercino, Christ driving out the money-changers; B. Strozzi, 
St. Paul ; Lanfranco, Bearing of the Cross ; Caravaggio, Raising of Lazarus ; 
Guido Reni, St. Sebastian (early copy). — VII. Stanza d'Autdnno : Boni- 
fazio II. , Adoration of the Magi; Bassano , Adoration of the Child; ad- 
joining, Guido Reni, Half-fignres of Christ and the Madonna; '''Guercino, 
Madonna enthroned, with saints ; Venetian School (attributed to Bellini), 
Portrait of Franc. Philetus; G. Reni. St. Mark. For the Pal. Bianco: 
Sassoferrato , Madonna; Guido Reni, Four Sibyls. — VIII. Stanza dell 1 
Invekno : To the left of the entrance: "Style of P. Veronese, Judith and 
Holofernes; Murillo (?), Holy Family; Rubens (?), Portrait of an old man; 
Varotari (Padovanmo), Magdalene. On the entrance-wall : "'Paris Bordone, 
Holy Family with SS. Jerome and Catharine (much injured); Carlo Maratta, 
Propose during the flight to Egypt. On the exit wall : Procaccini, Holy Family ; 
P. Bordone (V), Half-length of a young man; School of Leonardo da Vinci, 
John the Baptist (original in the Loxivre). — In the corridor: "Palma 
Vecchio, Madonna with John the Bnptist and Mary Magdalene (for the 
Pal. Bianco). — IX. Stanza della Vita dell 1 Uomo : Van Dyck, Portrait; 
P. Veronese (?), Venetian lady; Teniers, Peasants carousing, two pictures; 
* Van Dyck, Marchesa Geronima Brignole-Sale with her daughter (retouched 

No. 13, opposite Pal. Rosso, and named 'white' by way of con- 
trast, is the Palazzo Bianco (PI. E, 4), erected in 1565-69, also 
for a long period the property of the Brignole-Sale family, but now 
bequeathed to the city by the Duchess of Galliera (p. 67) , and 
destined for a museum. 

Crossing the small piazza in front of these palaces, we enter 
the Via Caikoli (PI. D, 4). At the end of this street, No. 13, on 
the left, is the *Palazzo Balbi (by Greg. Petondi, 18th cent.), through 
which a fine view is obtained of the lower-lying Via Lomellina. — 
On the height, obliquely opposite, is the Pal. Centurioni, with 
marble portal, containing several pictures. We then cross the 
Piazza de' Forni to the Piazza dell' Annunziata (PI. D, 3), with the 

Pal. Marc. Durazzo. GENOA. 13. Route. 69 

former Capuchin church of *S. Annunziata , erected by Qiac. della 
Porta in 1587. The portal is borne by marble columns ; brick facade 
otherwise unfinished. It is a well-proportioned basilica with a 
dome; the vaulting rests on twelve fluted and inlaid columns of 
marble. This is the most sumptuous church in Genoa. 

In the nave are frescoes by the Carloni. In the left transept the 
altar-piece is a wooden group of the Communion of St. Pasquale, by 
Maragliano (1723). The sacristy contains a Descent from the Cross, by 
Maragliano (1726); the colouring modern. 

In the handsome Via Balbi (PL D, C, 3, 2), on the right, No. 1, 
is the *Palazzo Marcello Durazzo, formerly della Scala, built 
by Gal. Alessi, with a handsome facade , fine vestibule , and a 
superb staircase (left) added by Andrea Tagliafico at the end of 
the 18th century. On the first floor is the *Galleria Durazzo- Palla- 
vicini, shown daily (usually Rooms I- VII only), 11-4; l / 2 -i fr. 

The Antisala contains busts of the Durazzo -Pallavicini family. — 
II. Room. Left: "Guercino, Mucius Scsevola before Porsenna; Van Dyck, 
Portrait of a man; "Rubens, Silenus with Bacchantes; "Lucas van Leyden 
(or rather School of Memling), Descent from the Cross ; An. Carracci, 
Magdalene; Van Dyck (?), James I. of Great Britain with his family ; Diirer 
(more probably of Italian origin), Madonna, the Child, and John the Baptist. 

— III. Room. Procaccini, The Woman taken in adultery ; Strozzi, Portrait of a 
bishop; Guercino, The tribute-money; Titian, Magdalene (school-piece; 
original in Florence); Zanchi, Jephtha's daughter. — IV. Room. L. Carracci, 
Scourging of Christ; School of Andrea del Sarto, Madonna and Child, a 
round picture ; Guido Reni, Carita Romana ; ''Paolo Veronese. Marriage of 
St. Catharine; Guido Reni, St. Jerome, *Vestal virgin; Rubens, Portrait, 
a round picture ; Guido Reni, Cleopatra ; Tinto retio, Portrait of Marchese 
Agostino Durazzo. Admirable porcelain vases in the centre of the 
room. — V. Principal Room. Paintings relating to the myth of Achilles 
by unimportant Genoese masters. Beautiful Chinese porcelain. — VI. Room. 
Domenichino, Risen Christ appearing to his mother; "Van Dyck, Boy in 
white satin ; above it, Van Dyck, Young Tobias ; Domenichino, Venus mourn- 
ing the death of Adonis ; Van Dyck, Three children with a dog ; Rubens, 
Philip IV. of Spain, full length; Ribera, Heraclitus (weeping philosopher); 
"Ribera, Democritus (laughing philosopher); Van Dyck, Lady with two 
children; Titian, Ceres with Bacchus, nymph, and Cujiid (after the original 
in the Galleria Borghese). — VII. Room. Unimportant. — VIII. Room. 
Fr. Pourbus, Garden of Flora; Flemish School of 15th cent., Madonna and 
Child with St. Francis and the donors; /. Brueghel, Landscape with 
peasants; "Dutch Master of 15th cent., Pieta. — IX. Room. German School 
(attributed to Lombard Sch.), Crucifixion, with saints; A. del Sarto, Adora- 
tion of the Magi (after the fresco at Florence) ; Rubens, Ambrogio Spinola. 

— The Library contains 7000 vols., including many specimens of early 

On the left side, No. 4, isthe*PalazzoBalbi-Senarega(Pl. D, 3), 
begun early in the 17th cent, by Bart. Bianco, and enlarged by Pier 
Ant. Corradi. It still belongs to the family who built it, and after 
whom the street is named. The superb court, with its Doric 
colonnades, affords a glimpse of the orangery. The Picture Gallery 
on the first floor deserves a visit (admission 9-4, during the ab- 
sence of the family). 

I. Room, adorned like the others with ceiling-paintings by Genoese 
artists. Van Dyck, Francesco Maria Balbi on horseback; Bern. Strozzi, 
Joseph interpreting the dream. — II. Room. "Rubens , Infant Christ and 
St. John. "Titian, Madonna with SS. Catharine, Dominic, and donors: 

70 Route 13. GENOA. Pal. Beale. 

'charming picture (about 1520), thrown out of focus by abrasion, washing, 
and repainting; but still pleasing on account of the grace of the attitudes 
and the beauty of the landscape'' ( Crowe & Cavalcaselle). Gaud. Ferrari, Holy 
Family; A. Carracci, St. Catharine; Michael Angelotf), Gethsemane; Van 
Dyck, Madonna with the pomegranate (della Melagrana). — III. Room. 
Three 'Portraits of the Balbi family by Van Dyck (in the equestrian piece 
the head of Philip IV. is said to have been substituted by Velazquez for 
that of theBalbi, who had been banished). — IV. Room. Caravaggio, Conver- 
sion of St. Paul, trivial in conception, but masterly in execution ; portraits 
by Tintoretto, Allori, Van Dyck, and Carracci; then, Guido Rent, St. Je- 
rome; Lower Rhenish School, Holy Family and Adoration of the Magi. — 
V. Room. Four children, sketches by Perino del Vaga; small pictures by 
Andrea Schiavone. — VI. Gallkkx. P. del Vaga, Holy Family; Rubens, 
Portrait ; Van Dyck, Holy Family ; * Titian, Portrait ; Flemish Master, Cruci- 
fixion; Filippino Lippi ('?), Communion of St. Jerome. 

On the right side of the street , No. 5 , is the *Palazzo dell' 
Universita (PI. D, 3), begun as a Jesuit college by Bart. Bianco in 
1623 , and erected into a university in 1812. The court and stair- 
case are probably the finest at Genoa. The latter is adorned with 
a statue of Boccanegra, first Doge of Genoa (14th cent.). The 
building contains a library, a natural history museum, a small 
botanical garden , and in the hall six bronze statues , and 'putti' 
and reliefs by Giovanni da Bologna. 

On the left, No. 6, Pal. Durazzo, with colonnaded court. Right, 
S. Carlo, with sculptures by Algaxdi (1650). 

Left, No. 10, Palazzo Reale (Pi. C, 3), erected in the 17th 
cent, by the Lombard architects Franc. Cantone and Oiov. Ang. 
Falcone for the Durazzo family , and extended at the beginning of 
the 18th by Carlo Fontana of Rome. It was purchased by the royal 
family in 1815, and restored in 1842. Fine view from the terrace. 
The palace contains handsome staircases and balconies , and is 
sumptuously furnished (shown daily , when the royal family is ab- 
sent). The pictures and antiquities are of no great value. 

Ante-Chamber : Battle-pieces by Burrasca. Room on the right : Van 
Dyck, Portrait of Marchesa Durazzo ; good portrait of the Lombard School, 
attributed to Leon, da Vinci ; Perino del Vaga , Holy Family. To the 
right a handsome gallery with rococo-painting and a few ancient and 
modern statues : on the right, Apollo and Apollino, on the left, Mercury ; 
at the end, Rape of Proserpine by Schiaffino. On the left, Crucifixion by 
Van Dyck ; Adulteress, Moretto ; St. Agnes, Sluerbout; Sibyl, Guercino. In 
the throne-room two large pictures by Luca Giordano. 

In the vicinity is the Piazza Acquaverde, near the station, with 
the monument of Columbus (see p. 62). 

The Piazza del Principe (PI. B, 2), to the W. of the station, 
commands a good view of part of the old fortifications. No. 4 in the 
piazza is the long *Palazzo Doria (PI. A, 2), presented in 1522 to 
Andrea Doria, 'padre della patria' (d. 1560, at the age of 92). It 
was remodelled in 1529 from designs by Oiov. Ang. Montorsoli, 
and adorned with frescoes by Perino del Vaga, a pupil of Raphael. 

The long Latin inscription on the side next the street records that 
Andrea d'Oria, admiral of the Papal, Imperial, French, and native fleets, 
in order to close his eventful career in honourable repose , caused the 

Palazzo Doria. GENOA. 13. Route. 71 

palace to be rebuilt for himself and his successors. His praises were 
thus sung by Ariosto: 'questo e quel Doria, che fa dai pirati sicuro il 
vostro mar per tutti i lati\ — The finest of the Frescoes by Perino 
del Vaga (restored in 1845), which often recall the paintings of Raphael, 
are the scenes from Roman history on the ceiling, vaulting, and lunettes of 
the great entrance-hall (with reliefs by Montorsoli); a corridor with por- 
traits of the Doria family; a saloon with a large ceiling-painting, Jupiter 
overthrowing the Titans ; and a room with the love-adventures of Jupiter. 
The Sala di Rarita Romane also contains a portrait of the aged prince 
with his favourite cat, and a superb chimney-piece. The elder branch of 
the Doria family, to whom the palace belongs, generally resides at Rome. 

The garden, extending towards the harbour, contains a large 
arcaded Loggia. The gardens on the hill opposite, with a statue 
of Hercules ( i Il Qigante) in a niche, also belong to the estate. 

Farther on , in the direction of the Molo Nuovo , stretch the 
large new quays (comp. p. 60). On the hill above the Magazzini 
Oenerali and the railway lies the Palazzo dello Scoglietto, property 
of Sign. Vitale Rosazza, the charming gardens of which also command 
a fine view (gardener 1 fr.). 

On the rocky headland from which the Molo Nuovo stretches 
into the sea rises the large Lighthouse (Lanterna; 380 ft.), with 
its dazzling reflectors showing a light visible for 20 miles. Visitors 
may go by tramway from Piazza Caricamento to the tunnel (p. 59). 
The tower (353 marble steps) may be ascended and the apparatus 
inspected (fee 1 fr.); but the high ground at its foot commands 
as good a ^iew. Best light in the evening. 

On the coast, farther W., lies the suburb of S. Pier d' Arena, or Sampier- 
darena (cab 2, with two horses 2'/2fr.), with 22,000 inhab. and numerous 
palaces and gardens, including the Pal. Spinola and Pal. Scassi (formerly 
Imperiali), the latter with a pleasant garden, both probably by Gal. Alessi. 
The church of S. Maria delta Cella contains frescoes of the Genoese school. 
Large sugar refinery. — Railway-station, see p. 73; tramway, see p. 59. 

The *Via di Circonvallazione a Monte, a magnificent route laid 
out in 1876 on the hills at the back of the town, offers a beautiful 
walk or drive (p. 60). It begins on the E. at the Piazza Manin 
(PI. I, 4 ; 330 ft. above the sea), skirts the hillside in long wind- 
ings, under various names (Corso Solferino , Corso Magenta, 
Corso Paganini), and leads to the Albergo dei Poveri (PI. D, E, 1 ; 
320 ft.), a poor-house founded in the 17th cent., and last extended 
in 1835, accommodating 1300 persons. A little higher up, */2 nr « 
from the Castelletto (PI. E, 3 ; omn. p. 59), is the Trattoria dei Cac- 
ciatori, with garden and fine view. This point may also be reached 
by a shadeless but interesting route skirting the fortin cations from 
the Porta 8. Bartolommeo (PI. 13), near which is the frequented 
trattoria of Benedetto Ferrari. — From the Albergo dei Poveri the 
road descends to the Piazza deW Annunziata (PI. D, 3 ; p. 68). 

Another fine street is the Via di Circonvallazione al Mare, 
leading from Piazza Cavour (PI. D, 6) along the shore (Mura delle 
Grazie, della Cava, della Strega}, trending to theleft near the Ospedale 
S. Andrea, and debouching in the Mura S. Chiara (see below). 

A favourite promenade, especially when the band plays (p. 59), 

72 Route 13. GENOA. Acquasola. 

is the little park of Acquasola (PI. G, 5, 6 ; 135 ft.), on an eminence 
at the N.E. end of the town (approached by the Via Roma), laid 
out on part of the old ramparts of the town in 1837. Fine views to 
the E. and S. , and seawards. — To the N. of Acquasola is the *Vill- 
etta di Negro (PI. F, 4), the property of the city, and open to the 
public, with a fine and well-kept garden, a small museum of Natural 
History (open on Sundays), and an incipient Zoological Garden. 
Winding promenades ascend hence to a bastion about 160 ft. above 
Acquasola, which affords a noble survey of city, harbour, and en- 
virons. — From Acquasola we may proceed S. by Mura S. Stefano i 
Mura S. Chiara (to the left, below, is the Manicomio, or lunatic 
asylum), and Via Gal. Alessi to S. Maria in Carignano (p. 65), or 
go on to the Via di Circonvallazione al Mare (see above). 

The ■ Campo Santo {Cimitero di Staglieno, open from 10 a.m.; cab there 
and back 5, with two horses 7 fr.; omnibus, p. 59; comp. Map), laid out 
in 1867 on the slope of Ihe valley of the Bisagno, H/2 M. from the town, 
is reached from the Piazza Deferrari (p. 65) by the Via Giulia, Via S. Vi- 
cenzo , and Porta Romana (PI. H, 6, 7). It contains several fine 'Mon- 
uments, e.g. that of Marchese Taliacarne, in the lower row on the right, 
above No. 359. The arrangement of the cemetery is interesting, as also 
the rotunda in the upper row, the internal gallery of which is borne by 
monolithic columns of black marble. At the upper end of the cemetery, 
on our right, when our backs are turned to the river, is the tomb of 
Giuseppe Mazzini (d. 1872). — On one side we observe a conduit and 
aqueduct belonging to the water-works of the city. 

Excursions. To the W. to Pegli (*Villa Pallavicini), by railway, see 
p. 73, or in I1/4 hr. by carriage (there and back 10, with two horses 
15 fr.); tramway every 10 min., comp. p. 59. — To the E. the *Nervi Road 
leads first to S. Francesco d Albaro (omn. p. 59), near which are the 
'Villa Cambiaso (1557) and the Villa Paradiso. Then follow Sturla, 
Quarto, and Quinto, stations of the ordinary trains from the E. Station 
to Pisa (comp. pp. 5S, 81 ; several sea-bathing resorts on the way). Fine 
view of Nervi and the Rivieras. Kervi (p. 82) is reached in 2 l /2 hrs. 
(omn. p. 59). — To S. Margherita (by rail), and thence to Portofino, see p. 82. 

14. From Genoa to Ventimiglia. 

94Vz M. Railway in 41/4-51/4 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 10, 11 fr. 95, 17 fr. 70 c. 
express 23 fr. 15, 16 fr. 30 c). 

The Riviera (p. 57), the narrow sea-border of Liguria, divided by Genoa 
into an eastern (Riviera di Levante; p. 81) and a larger western half 
(Riviera di Ponente), which belongs to France from Ventimiglia westwards, 
is one of the most picturesque regions of Italy. It affords a delightful 
variety of landscapes, bold and lofty promontories alternating with wooded 
hills, and richly cultivated plains near the coast. At places the road 
passes precipitous and frowning cliffs, washed by the surf of the Mediter- 
ranean, while the summits are crowned with the venerable ruins of 
towers erected in bygone ages for protection against pirates. At other 
places extensive plantations of olives, with their grotesque and gnarled 
stems, bright green pine-forests, and luxuriant growths of figs, vines, 
citrons, oranges, oleanders, myrtles, and aloes meet the view, and even 
palms are occasionally seen. Many of the towns are charmingly situated 
in fertile spots or on picturesque hills; others, commanded by ancient 
strongholds, are perched like nests among the rocks. Little churches and 
chapels peering from the sombre foliage of cypresses, and gigantic grey 
pinnacles of rock frowning upon the smiling plains, frequently enhance 
the charms of the scenery, while the vast expanse of the Mediterranean, 
with its ever-varying hues, forms one of the chief attractions. At one 

PEG LI. 14. Route. 73 

time the sea is bathed in a flood of sunshine, at another its beautiful blue 
colour arrests the eye; or while the shore immediately below the spectator 
is lashed with wild breakers, the snowy crests of the waves are gradually 
softened to view in the purple distance. On some parts of the route, especi- 
ally between Savona and Loano (p. 74), and between San Remo and Nice, 
many travellers will prefer to quit the railway with its tiresome succession 
of tunnels in order to enjoy a drive on the picturesque road. 

During the present century the Riviera has suffered from Earthquakes 
in 1818, 1831, 1854, and 1887. On the last occasion repeated shocks were 
felt between Feb. 23rd and the middle of March in the district between 
Nice and Savona. The increasing intervals between the outbreaks, the 
last being 33 years (1854;1887), render a speedy recurrence of the dis- 
turbances very unlikely. 

The railway skirts the coast, and runs parallel with the high- 
road as far as Savona. The numerous promontories are penetrated 
by tunnels. 2*/2 M. Sampierdarena, see pp. 71, 54 ; 3 M. Corni- 
gliano (Grand Hotel Villa Rachel), with numerous villas, adapted 
for a prolonged visit in April and May (Engl. Ch. Serv.). 

47-2 M. Sestri Ponente [Grand Hotel de Sestri, closed in 1891), 
with 11,000 inhab., also has a number of villas (V- Rossi, with 
fine garden), a church adorned with frescoes, manufactories, and 
wharves (tramway, see p. 59). The Grotta of Sestri has been known 
for two centuries (Inn, good cuisine). 

6 M. Pegli. — Hotels. 'Hotel de la Mkditeeeanke, in the Pa- 
lazzo Lomellini, with fine garden, E, 2V2-5, L. 3/ 4 , A. 1, B. IV2, dej. 3'/*, 
D. 5, sea-bath 1/2, pens. 10-12 fr. ; Hotel Gaegini; these two on the 
coast; Hotel d'Angleteebe, opposite the station, pension 6-7 fr. — Physi- 
cians, see under Genoa, p. 60. 

Pegli, a sea-bathing place, with 7700 inhab., much visited from 
Genoa, is a pleasant resting-place for travellers on their way to the 
favourite wintering -places on the Riviera. Numerous cool and 
beautiful walks in the wooded valleys and on the hill-slopes lend a 
peculiar charm to the place. Among the villas are the Villa Rostan, 
with grounds in the English style, Villa Elena (10 c. for opening 
the door), Villa Doria, and the * Villa Pallavicini, a favourite ob- 
ject for an excursion from Genoa (comp. p. 72; adm. 10-3; fee 

1 fr. , for a party 2 fr.). Visitors should insist upon proceeding to 
the highest point for the sake of the view. 

The villa is on our left as we leave the station. The visit takes 

2 hours. The grounds extending along the slopes of the coast display a 
profusion of luxuriant vegetation and afford delightful prospects of Genoa, 
the sea, coast, and mountains. On the highest point stands a castle in 
the mediaeval style with a tower ("View). 'Around it are indications of 
a simulated siege : mausoleum of the fallen commandant , ruin-strewn 
burial-place of his heroes. Farther on is a stalactite grotto with a sub- 
terranean piece of water; under the bridge a striking glimpse of the 
lighthouse of Genoa and the sea. There are also summer-houses in 
the Pompeian , Turkish , and Chinese styles , an obelisk , fountains , etc. 
The gardens contain fine examples of the coffee, vanilla, cinnamon, pepper, 
and camphor plants, sugar-canes, palms, cedars, magnolias, and azaleas. 

7^2 M. Pro,, a ship-building place; 8^2 M - Voltri (Alb. Svizzero), 

at the mouth of the Ceruso, near which is the Villa Brignole, with 

three female figures from the tomb of Empress Margaretha, by 

Giov. Pisano. 

74 Route Id. SAVONA. From Genoa 

Numerous tunnels and bridges. 13 M. Arenzano, a retired 
and sheltered spot, with the tine park of Marchesa Pallavicini; 
beautiful retrospect towards Genoa. — 1572 M - Cogoleto, the sup- 
posed birthplace of Columbus (p. 62), to whom a monument was 
erected here in 1888; the house bears several inscriptions (the one 
above of 1650, two lower ones of 1826). 

20 M. Varazze, with 10,000 inhab., is a busy ship-building 
place. The coast on both sides of it is rocky. Numerous cuttings 
and tunnels. — 2172 M. Celle; 24 M. Albissola, at the mouth of 
the Sansobbia, where pottery is largely manufactured. 

2672 M. Savona (Rail. Restaurant; Alb. Svizzero; Roma, well 
spoken of ; Italia), a town with 27,000 inhab. , is charmingly situated 
amidst lemon and orange gardens. Busy harbour, commanded by 
a fort. The Cathedral (of 1604) contains several good pictures. 
The handsome theatre, erected in 1853, is dedicated to the poet 
Chiabrera (1552-1637), a native of the place. S. Maria di Castello 
has a Madonna by Foppa (1490). The church of Madonna degli 
Angeli affords a fine view of the town. Savona was the birthplace 
of the great popes SixtusIV. and Julius II. (della Rovere). A Church 
Seamen's Institute for British sailors was opened here in 1891 (Rev. 
J. T. Christie of Genoa; serv. on Sun. andTues., concert on Wed.). 

Santuario see p. 56. From Savona to Turin, see pp. 56-54$ to Ales- 
sandria, see p. 54. 

30 M. Vado. On this side of (32 M. ) Bergeggi we obtain a 
*Retrospect of the Riviera as far as Genoa. Then a tunnel and gal- 
leries, through the arches of which are seen the sea and the islet 
of Bergeggi. The construction of the line was difficult here ; the 
tunnels become longer. 34 M. Spotorno ; 36 M. Noli, a little town 
embosomed in olive-groves, with the ruins of a castle. 

42 M. Finalmarina (Hotel Garibaldi, poor) is the seaport and 
principal part of Finale, which consists of three different villages; 
it contains a cathedral by Bernini, with double columns of white 
marble , a dome , and rich gilding. To the left lies Finalborgo, 
the oldest part, with a castle; and towards the E. is Finalpta. 
In the neighbourhood are interesting caverns, with prehistoric re- 
mains. Finalmarina and several of the following places suffered 
severely from the earthquake of February, 1887, the ruins caused 
by which are still traceable. — 43 M. Borgio Verezzi [Grand 
Hotel Beaurivage, R. 2-3, L. i/ 2) A. 7 2 , B. iy 2 , dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 
6-9 fr.) , rising in favour as a winter-resort. — 4472 M. Pietra- 
ligure ; 47 M. Loano, with a ruined castle. To the right of the line 
are two suppressed monasteries, of which Monte Carmelo, the higher, 
erected by the Dorias in 1609, commands a fine view. The large 
twelve-sided church of the village was also erected by the Dorias. 
— 4?7 2 M. Borghetto S. Spirito. Beyond (49 M.) Ceriale, with its 
market-gardens, the mountains recede. 

52 M. Albenga {Albergo Reale, Vittoria, both Italian), the Albin- 

to Ventimiglia. ALASSIO. 14. Route. 75 

gaunum of the Romans, an ancient town and episcopal see, 1 M. 
to the W. of the station. Between the station and the town are ex- 
tensive remains of a Roman bridge (Ponte Lungo). Several chateaux 
of the old noblesse with lofty towers, and the cathedral with towers 
and elegant facade, are all of brick. — To the left lies the rocky 
island of Oallinaria, crowned with a tower. 

The train quits the coast and traverses olive-groves, vineyards, 
and orchards. It crosses the Centa and skirts the promontory of 
S. Croce. Several tunnels. 

57 M. Alassio. — Hotels. *Gkand Hotel Alassio, on the shore, R. 
21/2, L. 1/2, A. 3/ 4 , b. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 41/2, pens. 7-9 fr. ; Hotel Sdisse, 
pens. 7-8 fr. ; Hot. de la MediterkaniSe, with large orangery, also on 
the shore, pens. 6-7 fr. ; Hot. de Londees, pens. 6 fr. — English Church. 

Alassio, a seaport with 4800 inhab., is frequented in summer as a 
bathing-place, and in winter as a health-resort, especially by Eng- 
lish visitors. The orange-gardens contain numerous palm-trees. 

58 M. Laigueglia; beautiful retrospect of the wild Capo S. 
Croce. The train penetrates the Capo delle Mele by means of a long 
tunnel. GO 1 ^ M. Andora Marina; the village of Andora lies on the 
hill to the right. Several tunnels. 63!/2 M. Cervo, picturesquely 
situated on the slope. 64 M. Diano Marina, in a fertile plain, the 
central point of the great earthquake of February, 1887; to the 
right, inland, Diano Castello. — The train enters a more extensive 
plain, in which Oneglia and Porto Maurizio are situated. 

6872 M. Oneglia (Bail. Restaurant ; *Victoria; Alb. del Vapore), 
with 7800 inhab. and a shallow harbour, carries on a busy trade in 
olive-oil. The prison near the station resembles a church. 

The train crosses the broad stony bed of the Impero, which the 
road crosses to the left by a suspension-bridge. — 70 M. Porto 
Maurizio (Hotel de France), with 7400 inhab. and a good harbour, 
most picturesquely situated on a promontory amidst dense olive- 
groves. Olive-oil is the staple commodity. The finest kinds are pro- 
duced here and at Oneglia. 

73 M. S. Lorenzo. The low, massive towers which rise at inter- 
vals along the coast to the right of the line, some of them con- 
verted into dwelling-houses, were erected for defence against the 
Saracens in the 9th and 10th centuries. — 77y 2 M. S. Stefano- 
Rivaligure. To the right on the hill is the fortified S. Stefano, 
beyond which we enter the broad Vol Taggia. The train crosses 
the Taggia, beyond which is (79 Y2 M.) the station of that name 
(the village lies 3 M. up the valley). Beyond a short tunnel a 
valley on the right affords a charming view of Bussana, romantically 
perched on a rock. The village opposite is Poggio, which first be- 
comes visible. Then a tunnel under the Capo Verde. 

84 1 /4 M. San Remo. — Hotels & Pensions. On the W. Side of the 
Town: Gk. Hotel de l'Eukope et de la Paix (PL a; C, 4), near the sta- 
tion, open situation, R., L., & A. 3-6, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. V/2-iO^z fr. ; 
Hotel Metropole (PI. C, 4), pens, from 7 fr. ; Gk. Hot des Anglais (PL 
bj B, 4), new; *Gk. Hot. de Londkes (PL c; A, 4), frequented by Eng- 

76 Route 14, SAN REMO. From Genoa 

lish; *Bellevue (PL d; B, 4), good cuisine: charges at the two last: 
R., L., & A. 3-7, B. 11/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 10-15 fr. ; *Gr. Hot. Royal, 
R. 3-8, L. 3/ 4 , A. 1, B. I1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens, fiom 9 fr. ; Villa Paba- 
dis (PI. f; B, 4), pension, same charges; -West End Hotel (PI. e; B, 4), 
with lift and garden, R. 21/2-8, L. 1, A. 1, B. I1/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 
10-18 fr. ; 'Villa Qcisisana (PI. g; A, 4), with garden, R. 3-6 fr., L. 
60 c, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 8-12 fr. ; *Pension Teapp (PI. h; A, 4), 
unpretending, pens. 10 fr. ; Pens. Bristol (PI. ij B, 4), R., L., & A. 
21/2-5, B. li/ 4 , dej. 21/2, D. 4, pens. 7-10 fr. ; Hot. du Pavillon (PL k; 
A, 4), moderate; Hot. des Anglais (PL 1; A, 4); Pens, de la Reine, 
plain, adjoining the Jardin Public; Pens. Belvedeee (PL B, 3); Pens. 
Bellavista (PL m; B, 3), English, Via Berigo; Hot. des Iles Bei- 
tanniques (PL n; A, 4), close to the sea, R., L., & A. 43/4-8V2, B. I1/2, 
dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 11-15 fr. ; *Villa Floea (PL 0; B, 3), with garden 
and sea-view, pens. 8-13 fr. ; Hot. Beeigo (PL p; B, 4). — In the Prin- 
cipal Part of the Lower Town: :;: H6tel du Commeece (PL q; C, 3), with 
cafe-restaurant and small garden, near the station, D. 4, L. 3 /4, A. l fe fr. ; 
Molinaei (PL r; D, 3); National, well spoken of, all with moderate pri- 
ces; Hotel Geande Beetagne (PL S; D, 3; Italian style). — On the E. Side 
of the Town: "-Hotel de Nioe (PL t; E, 2), in a sheltered situation, with 
large garden, R. 2i/ 2 -5, L. 1/2, A. 1/2, B. I1/2, dej. 3i/ 2 , D. 5, pens. 9-14 fr.; 
Pens. Zahn, Corso Garibaldi 2 (PL E, 2); *Villa Bottcher (PL u; E, 2), 
Corso Garibaldi 14, R. 2i/ 2 -4, L. 1/2, B. I1/2, D- 3, pens. 8-9 fr., open in 
summer also; -Pens. Villa Lindenhof, near the sea, B. I1/2, dej. 21/2, 
D. 4, pens. 9-14 fr., well spoken of; *H6tel de Rome (PL v; F ,2), small, 
R. 21/2-4, L. 3/ 4 , A. 3 / 4 , B. I1/2, dej. 2y 2 , D. 4, pens. 8-10 fr., well spoken 
of; Hotel Mediterranee (PL w; F, 2), R. 2-5, L. 1/2, A. 3 / 4 , B. I1/2, dej. 
31/2, D. 5, pens. 9-14 fr., open throughout the year; *H6tel Victoeia (PL x; 
F, 2), R. 3-6, L. s/ 4) A. 1, B. I1/2, dej. 3i| 2 , D. 5, pens. 9-14 fr. ; the last 
two have large gardens; Pens. Faulstich, Via Roma (PI. E, 2) ; Hot. 
d'Italie (PL y; E, 2), modest; Pension d'Angleterre (PL z; E, 2). 

Apartments. Suites of apartments, which are coming more and more 
into favour , are to be found in the Via Vittorio Emanuele , Corso dell 1 
Imperatrice, Via Feraldi, Corso Garibaldi, Via Umberto, and Via Roma. 
Those in the interior of the town are less desirable, owing to the coldness 
of the streets. Villas abound; rent for the winter 1800, 12,000 fr., in- 
cluding furniture and other requisites (distinct bargain necessary). A 
lower rent than that advertised is generally taken. Situation important 
where invalids are concerned; a S. aspect is essential. Lists of apartments 
and villas at Mr. Congreve's, Via Vitt. Emanuele 16; the Agence Ligurienne ; 
Agence Mariani, Via Roma; and the Agence Universelle Gandolfo, Agence 
Benecle, Via Vitt. Emanuele. 

Cafes-Restaurants. '-Commerce, see above; * Eur opt en and Heeb, Via 
Vitt. Emanuele; Mttropole and Roma, Via Roma; Cavour, Via Vitt. Em.; 
C'acciatore, near Ponte S. Martino. — Cafes. ''Europeen, Via Vitt. Em.; Co- 
lombo, Menotti, both in the Via Vitt. Em.; Mazzini, Piazza del Mercato ; 
Corradi, Via Feraldi ; Caffe di Francia and Caffe del Popolo, Via Palazzo. 

Reading Room at the Circolo Internazionale, where balls and concerts 
are also given ; subscription for the winter 50, per quarter 30, per month 12 fr. 

Music in the Giardino Pabblico thrice weekly. — Operas at the 
Theatre (PL D, 3) from 1st Jan. to Easter. 

Carriages. Drive in the town 1 fr., with two horses I1/2 fr. ; per hour 
2 or 3 fr. ; if luggage over 40 lbs., each box 1/2 fr. ; one-horse carr. to Mentone 
30 fr. — Donkey per day 5, half-day 3fr., and gratuity. — Boat per hour 
for 1 person 1 fr., for several 2 fr. and fee. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PL D, 3), Via Roma, in the Casa Piccone. 

Bankers. Asguasciati, Rvbino , and Banca di Credito, all in the Via 
Vitt. Emanuele; Fratelli Marsaglia, Via Roma. 

Shops. Gandolfo, bookseller, with lending library, Via Vitt. Emanuele. 
Among the specialties of the place are inlaid wood (Anfossi, Corso Gari- 
baldi, and Di Leva, Via Vitt. Emanuele) and the perfumes manufactured 
by Ajcardi. 

to Ventimiglia. SAN REMO. Id. Route. 77 

Physicians. English, Drs. Freeman, Hassall, and Kay-Slmttleworth; 
German, Drs. Gollz, De Ponte, Secchi, Strahler, Rieth, Watzold, Weil, and 
Frank; Russian, Drs. Kerlin and Tymovsky ; Italian, Drs. Ajcardi, Ameglio, 
Ansaldi, Maccary, Onetti, and Panizzi. — Dentists: Terry, Villa Bracco 6; 
Voigt, Via Vitt. Emanuele. — Chemists. Squire, Via Vittorio Emanuele 17; 
Pharmacie Internationale (Calvi), at the corner of Via Vitt. Emanuele and 
ViaFeraldi; Wiedemann, Via Vitt. Emanuele 10, undertakes chemical and 
microscopical analyses; Panizzi (a good botanist), Via Palazzo. — Baths 
in the Stabilimento Bagni, Via Privata. Sea-baths at the Stahilimento dei 
Bagni di Mare (Passeggiata Imperatore Federico). 

British Vice-Consul, Mr. John Congreve, Via Vitt. Emanuele 16. — 
U.S. Consular Agent, Signor Alberto Ameglio, Via Umberto. 

English Churches. St. 'John the Baptist's, Via Carli. — All Saints', Corso 
dell 1 Imperatrice ; chaplain, Rev. the Marquis of Normanby. — Scottish 
and American Church (Presbyterian Service), Corso deir Imperatrice 4. 

Climate. San Remo is sheltered by an unbroken semicircular hill 
rising from the Capo Nero by the Piano Carparo to its culminating points 
in the Monte Caggio (3575 ft.) and Monte Bignone (4260 ft.), and descend- 
ing thence to the Capo Verde, its summit being nowhere more than 4 M. 
distant in a straight line. The N. winds are therefore entirely excluded 
from this favoured spot, especially as a double range of Alps rises behind 
the town a little farther back, while the force of the E. and W. winds 
is much broken. Violent E. winds, however, frequently occur at the end 
of February and the beginning of March , and the 'Mistral' is also an un- 
welcome visitor at this season. Heavy rains are not uncommon between 
the middle of October and the middle of November, but December and 
January are usually calm and sunny. — To consumptive and bronchial 
patients the E. bay is recommended on account of its sheltered situation 
and humid atmosphere, while sufferers from nervous and liver complaints 
will find the dry and stimulating air of the W. bay more beneficial. An 
aqueduct, completed in 1885, supplies San Remo with good drinking-water. 

San Remo, although apparently a small place, contains 17,000 
inhab. , densely crowded in the older parts of the town, which 
consist of a curious labyrinth of narrow but clean lanes , flights of 
steps, archways, lofty and sombre houses, and mouldering walls. 
The arches which connect the houses high above the streets are 
intended to give them stability in case of earthquakes. Vines are 
frequently seen clambering up the houses and putting forth their 
tendrils and leaves on the topmost stories. The town, once fortified, 
stands on a hill between two short valleys, and the houses rising 
one above another receive light and air from the back only. Casti- 
gliuoli, a smaller quarter on the "W. side, is similarly situated. 

The E. part of the town terminates in a height approached by 
broad roads shaded by cypresses , which command charming views 
of the bay and mountains , and is crowned with the white dome- 
covered church of Madonna della Costa (PI. O, 1,2), in front of which 
there is a large hospital. On a more prominent point, in the grounds 
of Villa Carbone (PI. C, D, 2), rises a low octagonal tower (fee 
l /-2 fr.), which affords an excellent survey of the situation. Corsica 
is visible in the distance to the S. 

Another walk may be taken to the "W. pier of the small harbour, 
which is defended by the fort of S. Tecla (PI. D, 3, 4), erected by 
the Genoese, now a prison. A survey from the upper platform of 
the Molo will convey an idea of the sheltered position of San Remo, 
which renders the climate as genial as that of Mentone and has 

78 Route 14. OSPEDALETTI. From Genoa 

brought it into notice as a health-resort (p. 77). In the rich vege- 
tation of the bay the olive predominates, while the hills above are 
chiefly clothed with pines, 1'rorn amidst the olive-groves peep a 
number of country-houses and little churches , the highest being 
at S. Bomolo (2580 ft.) at the foot of the Biguone, where summer 
visitors seek refuge from the heat. Majestic palms adorn the town. 

Walks numerous and beautiful. Some of the roads are new and ex- 
cellent. Near the station are the Giardino Pubblico (PI. C, 3), containing 
palms, eucalypti, etc., and the Corso Mezzogiorno (PI. B, C, 4), planted 
with palms and pepper-trees, and terminating towards the W. in the Giardino 
deW Imperatrice (PL A, B, 4), which was laid out under the auspices of 
the late Empress of Russia. Higher up is the "Via Berigo (PI. A, B, 3), 
which affords a delightful drive (tariff, see p. 76). A new road leads 
from the Via Berigo to Madonna del Bovgo (PL B, 1), Madonna della Costa 
(see above ; PL B, C, 1, 2), and the Via Barragallo (see below). Other 
roads are the sheltered Via Baragallo (PL D, 1, 2), the Via Peirogallo (PL 
*E, F, 1), with the Emperor Frederick Hospital opened in 1890, the Via 
di Francia (PL D, E, 2), and the new Corso di Levante (PL E, F, 2). 
On a height to the N. of the last-named, towards the Via Peirogallo, and 
opposite the Hotel Mediterranee, stands the Villa Zirio, where the suffering 
Crown Prince Frederick resided from 3rd Nov., 1887, to 10th March, 1888. 
All these roads are well-protected from wind. 

Excursions. A beautiful point of view easily reached is the "Madonna 
della Guardia on Capo Verde (best view in the morning), returning by 
Poggio. — To S. Romolo (2580 ft.), a donkey-ride of 3 hrs. About 2 hrs. higher 
rises Monte Bignone (4260 ft. ; panorama of the sea to the S., and the Ma- 
ritime Alps to the N.) ; on the way back the Piano del Re , a celebrated 
point of view, may also be visited. — Good roads lead to Ceriana and to 
Taggia (p. 75). — To Coldirodi (830 ft.) by Ospedaletti (see below) 2 hrs.; 
or direct, by a very ancient road, 1 hr. To the prettily situated Verezzo, 
with the churches of S. Donato and S. Antonio , by a new road through 
the charm ing valley of 8. Martino in 2 J /2 hrs. — To S. Pietro, 2 hrs. 

The train passes through a tunnel under Capo Nero, while the 
road winds round the promontory high above the sea. 

87i/ 2 M. Ospedaletti (*H6tel de la Beine, R. 4-8, L. 3/ 4> A. 1, 
B. iy 2 , dej. 4, D. 5, pens. 8-16 fr. ; *H6t. Suisse, R. 27 2 -4, 
L. % A. V2, B. 1% dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 7-9 fr.; Cafe-Bestaur. de 
Bhodes, with. R. — Engl. Ch. Serv. in winter. Physician, Dr. Ender- 
lin), in a sheltered and most favourable situation, with walks free 
from dust, has recently been converted into a winter-resort at great 
expense. This is the station for the loftily-situated (1 hr.) Col- 
dirodi, the town-hall of which contains a picture-gallery. — A view 
is now soon obtained of the palm-groves of — 

91 M. Bordighera. — Hotels and Pensions (most closed during the 
summer). On the road: •■Westend Hotel & Beauiuvage, R., L., & A. 2- 
4, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 7-10 fr. ; -Hotel d'Angleterre, R., L., & A. 
3V2-6, B. I72, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 8-12 fr. 5 Gr. Hotel des Iles Britan- 
niquiis <fe Victoria, a little back from the road, new. Higher up, on the 
Strada Romana (see below): :;: H6tel Angst, in a sheltered situation com- 
manding a good view, R. 2-5, L. 3 /i, A. 3 /i, B. IV2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 
9-12 fr. ; Hotel Belvedere, well situated, R., L., & A. 3-5, B. l 1 /^ dej. 
3^2, D. 4, pens. 7-12 fr. ; Hotel de Londres ; Hotel Westminster, R. 
2-4, L. 1/2, A. 3/4, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 7 fr., R. extra; Hotel Wind- 
sor, well spoken of; ''Hotel Bella Vista, with line view. Charges in 
the two last: R., L., &. A. from 3, B. I1/2, dej. 21/2, D. 3 J /2-4, pens. 7- 
10 fr. Pens. Canzi, pens. incl. wine 6 fr. — Caffe"-Jii$t. Ligure, 

to Ventimiglia. BORDIGHERA. 14. Route. 79 

Physicians : Dr. Goodchild (English), Dr. Christeller, etc. 

English Church: All Saints\ Via Bischoffsheim, services at 8, 10.30, 
and 3; chaplain, Rev. Arthur T. Barnett, M.A., Via Bischoffsheim. 

Post Office, Via Vittorio Emanuele, open 8.30-12 and 3.30-7.30. — 
Telegraph Office, Via Vitt. Emanuele (9-12 and 2-7) and at the station. 

Bankers and House Agents : Fraletti Bolognini, Via Vittorio Emanuele ; 
Agence des Etrangers, adjoining the Hot. Windsor. 

Climate. The old town of Bordighera is perhaps too exposed to be a 
good resort for invalids, but the new quarter which has lately sprung up is 
well sheltered by trees and hills and is recommended to invalids who 
require a climate rather more bracing than that of San Eemo or Mentone. 

The little town (2536 inhab.) consists of a new lower and an 
old upper quarter. The former, with, the railway-station, hotels, 
and straight streets , extends along the shore ; the latter stands on 
the higher ground of the promontory. From the main road in the 
lower quarter several cross-roads ascend to the Strada Romana (the 
ancient Via Aurelia), running parallel with it. A fine view is 
obtained from the terrace by the Hotel Bella Vista, to the leit at 
the entrance to the old town. A more extensive prospect is gained 
from the stone benches on the top of the promontory , a few paces 
to the S. of the highest houses : to the left the bay of Ospedaletti ; 
to the right Ventimiglia, Mentone, Cap Martin, Monaco, the 
Monts Esterel, and the snow-flecked Alpes Maritimes. Bordighera 
is famous for its date-palms (Phoenix dactylifera) , but the fruit 
seldom ripens sufficiently to be edible. Among the attractions 
are the Museum and Reading Room recently built by an English 
resident (containing a unique collection of the flora of the Riviera, 
about 4000 specimens , and a free library of nearly 3500 books, 
mostly English) , the Bordighera Lawn Tennis Club , the Garden 
of Hr. Winter, to the E. of the town (his shop on the W. side 
contains an exhibition of plaited palm-branches) , and the Villa 
Oarnier (or Palazzino des Palmiers, property of the French architect 
Gamier), both with beautiful palms. 

Walks. To the Torre dei Mostazzini, a good view-point; to the Val 
del Borghetto and along the conduit to the Roman aqueduct; to the 
Scheffel Palms in Hr. Winter's garden. 

Exouksions to (6 M.) Dolceacqua, with the ancestral castle of the Dorias 
of Genoa, and via, Isolabuona to (6 M.) Pignct; to (3 M.) Vallebuona via, 
Borghetto; from Old Bordighera by foot and bridle paths through beautiful 
olive-groves to ( 3 , 4 hr.) Sasso; and to the celebrated gardens of Mr. Thomas 
Hanbury at La Aiortola, i J /4 hr/s drive (visitors admitted on Mon. and Frid.). 

To the right of the line we pass the Protestant school of Valle- 
crosia. Crossing the Nervia, we obtain a glimpse of the Maritime 
Alps. The line crosses the road; on the left are scanty remains of a 
Roman theatre and the burial-ground of the recently discovered Nervi. 

94 M. Ventimiglia, Fr. Vintimille (^Rail. Restaurant ; Hotel 
de V Europe, well spoken of; *H6tel Suisse, modest). The town, 
an Italian frontier-fortress, with 8400 inhab., lies picturesquely 
on a hill beyond the Roja , whose broad stony bed the line crosses 
farther on. In the Municipio a small collection of Roman antiquities 
from Nervi (see above). The church of S. Michele is interesting; 

80 Route 15. COL DI TENDA. 

tlie columns of its vaulted crypt bear Roman inscriptions. Fine 
view of the Roja valley through the Porta Romana. Branch-line 
from Ventimiglia to Cuneo (p. 81) in course of construction. 

From Ventimiglia to Mentone, Monte Carlo, and Nice, see 
Baedeker s Southern France. 

15. From Nice to Cuneo (Turin) by the Col di Tenda. 

82 M. Post Omnibus ('Courrier de Coni 1 ; office at Nice in the Hotel 
de FAigle d'Or, Place St. Francois, near the Boulevard du Vieux-Pont) 
to Limone in 14-15 hrs. ; departure from Nice in the evening, from Limone 
in the morning. — Railway from Limone to Cuneo, 20 M., in \}fa hr. 

Nice, see Baedeker's Southern France. The road leads to tho 
N., on the left bank of the Paillon , through the villages of La 
Trinite-Vittorio and Drappo, beyond which it crosses and quits 
the brook. 12 M. Scarena, Fr. Escartne. Sterile region, with rocks 
curiously stratified at places. The road ascends to the Col di Braus 
(4230 ft.). To the S., on a lofty rock to the right, is the castle of 
Castillon, or Castiglione. On the E. side of the pass lies — 

2572 M. Sospello, Fr. SospeZ (1175 ft.; Hotel Carenco, mediocre; 
Hot. de la Poste), in the valley of the Bevera (affluent of the Roja, 
see below), amidst dense olive-groves and surrounded by mountains. 
The road now ascends to the Col di Brouis (2870 ft.). From the top 
of the pass we take a parting look at the sea. Bleak mountains on 
every side. Then a steep descent to — 

38 M. Giandola (1250 ft. ; Hotel des Etrangers; Poste), grandly 
situated at the base of lofty rocks. Breglio, a small town with the 
ruined castle of Trivella, lies far below on the right. 

The road now ascends the narrow valley of the Roja, which 
falls into the sea near Ventimiglia (p. 79). Saorgio, rising in ter- 
races on a lofty rock on the right, with the ruins of a castle in the 
Oriental style , destroyed by the French in 1792, commands the 
road. On the opposite side is a large monastery. The valley con- 
tracts , barely leaving room for river and road between the perpen- 
dicular rocks. Several hamlets lie at the points where the valley 
expands. 43 M. Fontana, 2 l /2 M. beyond which the road crosses 
the Italian frontier. The country becomes bleaker. 48 M. S. Dal- 
mazzo (Italian custom-house), where an old abbey fitted up as a 
hydropathic attracts summer-visitors from Nice. 

50y 2 M. Tenda (2675ft. ; Alb. Nazionale ; Italia), at the S. base 
of the Col di Tenda. Fragments of the castle of Beatrice di Tenia 
(comp. Binasco, p. 141) are situated on a rock here. 

The old road , now disused, ascends a dreary valley by the side 
of the Roja and winds up the barren mountain in 69 zigzags, passing 
several refuges, to the Col di Tenda, or di Cornio (6263 ft.), where 
the Maritime Alps (W.) terminate and the Apennines (E.) begin. 
Immediately beyond the first refuge the New Road penetrates the 
Tenda by means of a tunnel, lighted by electricity, about l 1 ^ M. 

CUNEO. 25. Route 81 

long, which first gradually ascends and then descends. From the 
central point both ends are visible. 

62 M. Limone (3295 ft. ; Hotel de la Poste), at the N. base of 
the Col di Tenda, lies in the valley of the Vermanagna , enclosed 
by wooded heights , or flanked with precipitous limestone cliffs. 
To the left rises the superb pyramid of Monte Viso (12,670 ft.). 
Here we reach the railway now in course of construction between 
Cuneo and Ventimiglia (p. 79). 5y 2 M. Vernante; d 1 /^ M. Robi- 
lante ; 11 M. Roccavione / 12 M. Borgo S. JDalmazzo, also connected 
with Cuneo by a steam-tramway; 15 M. Boves. 

20 M. Cuneo, or Coni (1500 ft.; Barra di Ferro, good cuisine ; 
Alb. di Supergd), a town with 28,810 inhab., at the confluence of 
the Stura and the Gesso. After the battle of Marengo the fortifications 
were converted into promenades. In the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele a 
monument to Giuseppe Barbaroux, by Dini, was erected in 1879. 
The Franciscan Church is in the Gothic style (12th cent.). Pleasant 
walk to the Madonna degli Angeli, at the confluence of the streams. 

Steah-Tkamway from Cuneo to Dronero on theW., and to Busca and 
Saluzzo (p. 55; 2 J /4 hrs.) on the N. 

About 9 M. to the S.E. of Cuneo, in the Val Pesio, is the Certosa di 
Val Pesio, founded in 1173, with romantic environs. It is now a "'Hydro- 
pathic and pleasant health-resort, open from 1st June to the end of Sep- 
tember (pens, from 8 fr.). — In the Val di Gesso, about 15 M. to the S.W. 
of Cuneo, are the Baths of Valdieri. 

Railway from Cuneo to Turin, see p. 55. 

16. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante. 

10272 M. Railway in 3s/ 4 -7 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 65, 13 fr. 10, 8 fr. 40 c. ; 
express 20 fr. 50, 14 fr. 35 c). Finest views on the side of the train oppo- 
site to that on which passengers enter at Genoa. Travellers by the night- 
express of course miss all the scenery. Beyond Nervi, however, there is 
little to be seen owing to the numerous tunnels. Observe that it is danger- 
ous to lean out of the carriage-window. If time permit the traveller should 
drive from Becco to Chiavari (with ascent of the Montejino, p. 82) or from 
Sestri to Spezia. Carriage and pair from Genoa to Spezia 120 fr., incl. fee. 

Genoa, p. 58. The train backs out of the Stazione Piazza Prin- 
cipe, and then starts in the opposite (E.) direction, passing through 
a long tunnel under the higher parts of the town (4-5 min.). 

2 M. Stazione Piazza Brignole. To the left we obtain a view 
of the fortress-crowned heights around Genoa (comp. p. 60). 

The railway, parallel with the road at places, now follows the 
*Riviera di Levante, where the vegetation is less luxuriant than 
on the Riviera di Ponente (p. 72), but the scenery is almost more 
striking. The line is carried through numerous cuttings mid eighty 
tunnels, some very long. The villages present a town-like appearance, 
with their narrow streets and lofty, substantial houses, closely built 
on the narrow sea-board or in short and confined valleys, and mostly 
painted externally as at Genoa. 

The train crosses the insignificant Bisagno, and passes under 
8. Francesco d'Albaro by means of a tunnel. 4 M. Sturla. To the 
Baedeker. Italy I. 9th Edit. g 

82 Route 16. NERVI. From Genoa 

right the Mediterranean ; to the left the olive-clad slopes of the 
Apennines, sprinkled with country-houses. '5 M. Quarto. 6 M. 
Quinto (Alb. Quinto, -with garden and sea-view"), with numerous 
villas, dense lemon plantations, and several fine palm-trees. 

71/2 M. Nervi. — Hotels. *Eden Hotel (proprietor T. Fanconi, in 
summer at Bad St. Moritz in the. Engadine), in a palatial style, on the hill 
above the town, R., L., & A. 3-5, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 41/2, pens. 8-12 fr. 
(closed in summer); "Gr. Hot. -Pens. Anglaise (in winter only), adjoining 
the park of Marchese Gropallo, R. 3-6, L. 1, A. 1, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 5, 
pens. 9-15 fr. ; Hot.-Pens. Victoria, near the station and the sea, with 
shady garden, B., 2-5, L. 1/2, A. 3/ 4 , B. IVi, dej. 2V2, D. 4, pens. 7-10 fr. : 
*H6t. Nervi, R., L., & A. 3-6, B. I1/4, de"j. 2'/2, D. 4 pens. 8-10 fr.-, Hot.- 
Pens. Bellevue, R. 21/2-31/2, L 1/2, B. 174, dej. 272, D. 37 2 , pens. 6V2- 
8 fr., well spoken of; Alb. -Pens. Svizzera. with restaurant, R, L., &- A. 
272-3, B. 1, dej. 274, D. 372, pens. 67 2 -77 2 fr. — Pensions. Mme. Linden- 
berg, wilh garden and view, 7-8 fr. ; Pens. Bonera & Villa Gnecco, with 
garden and view, R. 27 2 -37 2 , B. 3 / 4 , dej. 27 2 , D. 37 2 , pens. 7-9 fr. ; Frau 
Beischert, 5-6 fr. — Furnished Apartments (800-1500 fr. for the season) and 
villas (2000-4000 fr.) are scarce. A doctor should be consulted as to situation. 

Physicians. Dr. Friedmann , Br. Schetelig, Dr. Laudien, all of whom 
receive boarders. — Chemists: one at the post-office; another opposite the 
Palazzo Gropallo. — Telegraph Office opposite the post-office. — English 
Church Service at the Eden Hotel. 

Nervi, a small town with 5700 inhab., surrounded with groves 
of olives, oranges, and lemons, is much frequented in winter. Warmer 
and calmer than Pegli, it is recommended to patients who wish to 
be much in the open air without taking active exercise. Nervi, 
Quinto , and Sturla are frequented by Italians in summer for the 
sea-bathing, but the beach is rocky. Among the villas the finest are 
Villa Gropallo (beautiful park, not always open ; entrance by No. 55 
in the main street; fee), V. Serra, V. Croce (to the W., with superb 
grounds), and the pagoda-like V. Ponzone, all noteworthy for their 
luxuriant vegetation. The picturesque rocky coast is skirted'by a 
well-sheltered path, free from dust. Another charming walk is by 
the road to the church of S. Ilario, halfway up the Monte Giugo, 
which commands an admirable view of the Riviera di Levante as 
far as Portoftno, the Riviera di Ponente, and the Maritime Alps. 

9 M. Bogliasco ; §i/ 2 M - Pieve di Sori,- 10 1/ 2 M. Son, beautifully 
situated ; noble survey of sea and valley from the viaduct which 
passes high above the town and rivulet. — 21 M. Recco. 

From Recco to Euta 272 M. ; omnibus and carriages (4 fr.) at the- 
station. From Rvta (Italia, pens, from 6 fr.) we may ascend to the (72 hr. ; 
guide not necessary) top of the Promontory of Portofino and thence in 3 /i hr. 
to the top of the "Montefino (2010 ft. ; no inn, provisions shouldbe taken), 
which affords a magnificent survey of the Gulf of Genoa and as far as 
Spezia (Corsica is sometimes visible to the S.). Interesting descent to (1 hr.) 
S. Frutluoso (p. 83) or to (17 2 hr.) Portofino (p. ^3). From Ruta to S. Mar- 
gherita I72 hr. 

14^2 M. Camogli, on the coast, to the right, whence another 
ascent to the (3 hrs.) begins. Beyond the long Tunnel of 
Ruta, penetrating Capo 8. Margherita, the train reaches the fertile 
plain of Rapallo, with its numerous villas. 

171/2 M. S. Margherita [Hotel Bellevue, with garden, R. 3, 

to Pisa. RAPALLO. 16. Route. 83 

D. 41/2, B. iy 2 fr-)> on the coast, is a winter-resort of the English 
and Germans. On a commanding promontory, */% M. off, is Marchese 
Spinola's Villa Pagana, with a beautiful garden. 

Attractive Excursion hence (best on foot along the coast, 1 hr., and 
hack by boat, 4 fr.) to Portofino, a small seaport ensconced behind the 
Monteflno, with two old castles, now the property of Mr. Brown, the Eng- 
lish consul at Genoa, and his brother; the one situated at the extremity 
of the promontory O/2 hr. from Portofino) commands a splendid prospect. 
Halfway is the suppressed monastery of Cervara, where, after the battle of 
Pavia, Francis I. of France, when detained here by contrary winds on his 
way to Madrid as the prisoner of Charles V., was once confined. In a 
sequestered bay to the W. of Portofino, one of the finest points on the 
entire coast, stands the church of *S. Fruttuoso, containing tombs of 
the Doria family of the 13th and 14th centuries. — Other pleasant excur- 
sions to Ruta (IV2 hr. ; p. 82) ; to the Madonna di Montallegro (3 brs. ; see 
below); to Portofino via. Nosarega (2-3 hrs.); to Chiappa by boat (272 hrs.), and 
thence on foot to S. Rocco P/2 hr.) and Camogli C/2 hr. ; see above). 

I8V2 M. Rapallo. — Hotels. Gr. Hot. de l'Eorope, R. from 2, 
L. V2, A. V2, B. I 1 /.!, dej. 272, D. 4, pens, from 7 fr. ; Alb. & Pens. Rapallo 
& della Posta, R., L., & A. 3, B. 17 2 , dej. 27 2 , D. 37 2 , pens. 7-10 fr., 
opposite the Europe, with sea view; Pens. Villa Germania, 6-8 fr.-, the 
last two well spoken of. — Engl. Church Service at the Hot. de TEurope. 

Rapallo, a small seaport with 11,200 inhah., who make lace 
and do a brisk trade in olive-oil, is also a winter-resort. To the 
N.E. is the pilgrimage-church of *Madonna di Montallegro (2015 ft. ; 
Inn, R. 2-3, pens. 5-6 fr.), reached by one of several routes in 
272 hrs. (guide unnecessary), which commands a superb view to the 
N. and S. A path at the back of the hospice ascends to the top of 
the hill, where the view is still more extensive. — 21 1 /2l\f. Zoagli. 

24y 2 M. Chiavari {Fen ice ; Trattoria $> Alb. del Negrino), a town 
with 12,100 inhab., at the mouth of the Entella, where the moun- 
tains recede in a wide semicircle, manufactures lace, .light chairs 
(sedie di Chiavari), and silk, and builds ships. New town-hall. 

The train now traverses a fertile district. 25 V2 M- Lavagna, a 
ship-building place, ancestral seat of the Counts Fieschi, and birth- 
place of Sinibaldo de" 1 Fieschi, professor of law at Bologna, afterwards 
Pope Innocent IV. (1243-54). — 28 1/2 M. Cavi. Then a long tunnel. 

287*2 M. Sestri Levante (Hot. de V Europe, pens. 7 fr. ; Hot. 
d' 'Angleterre , new , pens. 6-7 fr. ; Italia, unpretending), picture- 
squely situated on a bay and shut in by a promontory. 

The High Road from Sestri to Spezia, far superior to the railway in 
point of scenery (carriage and pair about 45 fr.), turns inland and winds up 
the scantily wooded mountains, affording fine retrospects of the peninsula 
and the valley, with the village of Casarza. Farther on , the village of 
Bracco is seen on the left; then to the right a view of the sea is disclosed. 
The village on the coast is Moneglia (see below). Then a gradual ascent 
through a bleak district to the Osteria Baracca (2235 ft.), whence we 
descend into a pleasant valley in which lies the village of Carrodano. Af- 
ter a slight ascent we next descend by Pogliasca to Borghetto (*Cafe, with 
rooms) and the valley of the impetuous Vara, an affluent of the Magra, 
which falls into the sea near Sarzana. The road skirts the broad, gravelly 
bed of the river and then enters a wooded tract to the right. Beyond Ba- 
racca the sea is not visible until the last height before Spezia is attained, 
whence we enjoy a magnificent prospect of the bay and the precipitous 
mountains of Carrara or Alpi Apuane, as the whole range is called. 


84 Route 16. SPEZIA. From Oenoa 

Beyond Sestri the mountains recede, and the train also leaves 
the coast for a time. Many tunnels. Several tine views of the sea 
and the coast to the right. 34*/ 2 M. Moneglia, close to the sea; 
37 1 / 2 M. Deiva, at the entrance to a side-valley, 39 M~. Framura; 
41 M. Bonassola; 43 M. Levanto (Alb. Nazionale, Hot. Levanto, 
pens, in both about 6 fr.), a small town of 5000 inhab., with old 
fortifications, a small Giardino Pubblico, and good sea-baths. Again 
a succession of tunnels. 46 M. Monterosso ; 48M. Vernazza; 50 M. 
Corniglia; 51 M. Manarola ; 51^2 M. Riomaggiore. Before reaching 
Spezia four more tunnels, the last very long (7 min.). 

56^2 M- Spezia. — Hotels. :: Gk. Hotel & Croce di Malta, facing the 
sea, R. 3"- 10, B. IV2, D. incl. wine 5, A. 1, L. '3/ 4 , omn. 1, pens. 7-12 fr. — 
♦Italia, with restaurant ; Alb. Roma, R. 2-2 l /2, L. V21 -A- V2? B. 1, dej. 2, 
D. 372, pens. 6-7 fr., tolerable; LocandaGkanBretagna, R., L., & A. 2>/2, 
B. 3 /4, dej. 2, D. 3, pens. 7 fr., these three mainly commercial. — Posta, 
Corso Cavour. 

Cafes. Cafe" del Corso, near the Giardino Pubblico. 

Baths. Warm baths at the Hotel Croce di Malta. — Sea-baths in sum- 
mer on the beach to the N., 30-40 c. 

Post Office, Corso Cavour (8-8). — Telegraph Office, Via da Passano. 

— Chemists. Fossati, Via del Prione ; International Pharmacy (English and 
German prescriptions). Mr. C. S. Bright of Genoa (p. (JO) attends twice 
monthly at the Hotel Croce di Malta. 

Cabs. Per drive 80 c, at night 1 fr. ; with two horses 1 and I1/4 fr. — 

— Omnibus to or from the station 20 c, at night 30 c. 

Boat with one rower, l 1 ^ fr. the first hr., 1 fr. each additional hour. 

English Church Service in the Hotel Croce di Malta. — English Vice- 
Consdl : M. (J. Ourney, Esq. 

Spezia, a town with 45,582 inhab., lies at the N.W. angle of the 
Oolfo della Spezia, at the foot of beautiful hills fringed by pictur- 
esque villages and crowned with forts. The climate is very mild 
and sunny, and sanitary arrangements have been of late much im- 
proved, so that Spezia may be recommended as a winter-residence to 
delicate and consumptive persons. The harbour, one of the largest, 
safest, and most convenient in Europe, was anciently praised by 
Ennius as the Lunai Portus, and since 1861 has been the chief 
war-harbour of Italy. The Royal Dockyard on the S.W. side of the 
town, constructed by General Chiodo, whose statue rises at the en- 
trance, is a large establishment, 150 acres in extent (adm. on appli- 
cation to the traveller's ambassador at Rome). The marine artillery 
magazines in the bay of S. Vito cover an area of 100 acres, but are 
not open to the public. Spezia is also a trading and manufacturing 
place of some importance. The walks and drives are very pleasant. 

Delightful Excursion to Porto Venere (unpretending Inn, immediately 
to the left of the entrance), on the W. side of the bay (small steamer, not 
too clean, twice daily in H/2 hr., 30 c. ; there and back 50 c. ; carr. and 
pair in H^hr., 10 fr.), on the site of the ancient Portus Veneris. Charm- 
ing prospect from the ruined church of <S. Pietro, rising high above the 
sea, and supposed to occupy the site of the temple of Venus. At 'Byron's 
Grotto' the poet is said to have written much of his Corsair. Opposite 
lies the fortified island of Palmaria. — Beautiful excursions may also be 
taken on the E. side of the bay, to S. Terenzo, where Shelley passed his 
last days, and Lerici, to which a steamer plies thrice daily (60 c), start- 
ing from the Molo of the harbour. The ascent of the fortified Monte di 

to Pisa. CARRARA. 16. Route. 85 

Castellana (1670 ft.) is forbidden without a permesso, obtained at the 
Presidio Militare in Spezia. We proceed by boat (1 fr.) or by the Porte 
Venere steamer to Le Grazie, whence an easy road ascends to the (2 hrs.) top. 
Fine view of the sea and the Rivieras from the top and during the ascent. 

From Spezia to Parma railway in course of construction (comp. p. 270). 

Four tunnels. 62^2 M. Areola, with a conspicuous campanile. 
The train passes through a long tunnel, and crosses the broad Magra, 
the ancient boundary between Italy and Liguria. 

65 ! /2 M\ Sarzana, with 10,300 inhab., Rom. Sergiana, or Luna 
Nova, from its having succeeded the ancient Luna, with the pictur- 
esque fortification of Sarzan'ello, constructed by Castruccio Castra- 
cani (p. 329), was taken by the Florentines in 1467 under Lorenzo 
Magniflco, from whom it was wrested by Charles VIII. of France. It 
subsequently belonged to Genoa, and then to Sardinia. Sarzana was 
the birthplace of Pope Nicholas V. (Tommaso Parentucelli, 1447- 
55). The handsome Cathedral of white marble, in the Italian Gothic 
style, begun in 1355, contains an ancient painted crucifix from Luni. 

The environs are fertile. Among the mountains to the left the 
quarries of white marble are visible. Near (70 M.) Luni are the 
ruins of Luna. This ancient Etruscan town fell to decay under the 
Roman emperors ; in the middle ages it was destroyed by the Arabs 
(1016) ; and its episcopal see was transferred to Sarzana in 1465. 
The ruins of an amphitheatre and a circus are still traceable. From 
Luna the district derives its name of La Lunigiana. 

72 M. Avenza , a small town on the brook of that name, 
above which rises an old castle of Castruccio Castracani , of 1322, 
with bold round towers and pinnacles , was once the frontier-town 
of the Duchy of Massa. On the coast to the right is a small harbour 
for the shipment of the Carrara marble. 

Branch Railwat in 16 min. (fares 60, 40, 30 c.) to (3 M.) — 

Carrara (Alb. della Posta & Nazionale, well spoken of), a town with 
11,900 inhab. (with suburbs 30,000) , most of whom gain their livelihood 
by working the marble. Some of the studios of the numerous sculptors are 
interesting. So also the following churches : S. Andrea, in a half Germanic 
style of the 13th cent., with interesting facade and good sculptures; Madonna 
delle Grazie, with sumptuous decorations in marble. The Accademia delle 
Belle Arti contains works by sculptors of Carrara and several Roman anti- 
quities found in the mines of Fantiscritti (see below), e.g. a basrelief of 
Jupiter with Bacchus. The piazza in front of the Academy is embellished 
with a statue of Pellegrino Rossi of Carrara, the papal minister, assassinated 
at Rome in 1848, and by a monument to Garibaldi. 

A visit to the far-famed quarries requires 3 hrs. at least (somewhat 
fatiguing). Guides demand 5 fr., but their services are not indispensable; 
Leaving the station, we turn to the right and follow the street in a straight 
direction, past the theatre, to the Piazza, which is adorned with a statue 
of the grand-duchess Maria Beatrice, over life-size, erected in 1861. We 
cross the bridge to the left at the end of the Piazza, and follow the 
road with deep ruts, ascending on the right bank of the Carrione. At 
O/4 M.) a group of houses a path diverges to the right to large quarries 
of inferior marble, but we continue to follow the road, passing numerous 
marble cutting and polishing works. Beyond the village of Torano, round 
which the road leads, the first quarries with their broad heaps of de"bris 
are situated on both sides of the valley. The detached blocks are carried 
away by means of a railway ('Ferrovia marmifera'), the construction of 
which is interesting. The finer description is called marmo statuario. 

86 Route 16. VIAREGGIO. 

About 400 quarries with G000 workmen are at present in operation. The 
working hours are from 5 a.m. to 2 or 3 p.m.; the forenoon is therefore 
the best time for a visit. A horn is blown as a signal when the rock 
is about to be blasted. The quarries of Monte Crestola and M. Sagro 
yield the best and largest blocks. Pretty quartz crystals are offered for 
sale. The quarries of Fantiscritti , 3 M. from Carrara, were worked by 
the ancient Romans. 

76 Y2 M. Massa (Alb. Giappone) , formerly the capital of the 
Duchy of Massa- Carrara, which was united with Modena in 1829, 
with 20,000 inhab., is pleasantly situated amidst hills, and enjoys 
a mild climate. The marble-quarries rival those of Carrara. 

Country fertile and well cultivated. The picturesque ruined 
castle of Montignoso occupies an abrupt height to the left. — 80 ^ M. 
Serravezza, a pleasant summer-resort, with marble-quarries. 

83 M. Pietrasanta (Unione; Europa), a small town with ancient 
walls, beautifully situated, was besieged and taken by Lorenzo de' 
Medici in 1482. The church of S. Martino (11 Duomo), begun in 
the 13th cent. , with additions extending down to the 16th cent., 
contains a pulpit and sculptures by Stagio Stagi. Ancient font and 
bronzes byDonatello in the Battistero. Campanile of 1380. S. Ago- 
st/no, an unfinished Gothic church of the 14th cent., contains a 
painting by Taddeo Zacchia, of 1519. In the Piazza is the pinnacled 
Town Hall. Near Pietrasanta are quicksilver-mines. 

89 Y2 M. Viareggio. — Hotels. 'Hot. de Russie, on the beach, 
with a dt ; pendance, R. 21/2, L. 3 A, A. 3/ 4 , b. 1, dej. 2, D. 4, pens. 9 fr. ; 
Alb. di Roma; Hot. d'Italie, R. 3-5, L. 1/2, A. 3/ 4) B. 3 / 4 , dej. incl. wine 
2 1 /2, D. incl. wine 4, pens. 5-7 fr. ; Corona d'Italia ; Commehcio ; all 
these are near the beach; Hot. Viareggio; etc. — Apartments moderate. 

Viareggio, a small town on the coast, and a sea-bathing place 
( Stabilimento Nettuno ; Balena), has lately come into favour -as a 
winter-resort. The climate resembles that of Pisa. The celebrated 
pine-wood (Pineta), which forms a half-circle round the place from 
N.E. to S.W., shelters it from the wind. Walks in the somewhat 
neglected grounds of the Piazza Azeglio on the shore, or on the 
long Molo, with its lighthouse (view). The S. portion of the Pineta, 
which extends along the coast for 3 1 /a M., belongs to the Duchess 
of Madrid, wife of Don Carlos, whose fine villa (garden open to the 
public), with sea-view, is about 3 M. from Viareggio. In the 
smaller and inferior part of the wood which belongs to the town 
are the ruins of a hippodrome. — Longer excursions to the beauti- 
fully situated Camajore (2 hr?.), and to the Lake of Massaciuccoli, 
near Torre di Lago (see below). 

From Viareggio to Lucca, 14 M., a branch-railway in 3 /i-i hr. via 
(5 M.) Maxsarosa and (8'/2 M.) Nozzano. From Lucca (p. 829; to Florence via. 
Pistoja, see pp. 335-342; to Bologna, see pp. 310, 309). 

The line enters the marshy plain of the Serchio. 92^2 M. 
Torre del Lago. At (9772 M.) Migliarino we cross the Serchio. 

102'/ 2 M. Pisa (p. 317). To the left rise the cathedral, baptistery, 
and campanile. We then cross the Arno. 

IV. Lombardy. 

17. Milan 89 

18. From Milan to Como and Lecco Ill 

A. From Milan to Como via, Saroimo Ill 

B. From Milan to Como and to Lecco via Monza. . .112 

19. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza 116 

20. Lake of Como 117 

From Colico to Sondrio and Bormio 124 

21. From Menaggio on the Lake of Como via Lugano to 
Luino on the Lago Maggiore 125 

22. From Milan to Laveno and Arona 128 

1. From Milan to Laveno 128 

a. Via, Saronno and Varese 128 

From Varese to Como, Laveno, and Porto Ceresio . . 129 

b. Via Gallarate 130 

From Gallarate to Varese 130 

2. From Milan to Arona 130 

23. Lago Maggiore 131 

24. From Stresa to Orta and Varallo 138 

25. From Milan to Voghera (Genoa) via, Pavia. Certosa di 
Pavia 140 

1. From Paviato Alessandria via, Torre-BerrettiandValenza 144 

2. From Pavia to Brescia via, Cremona 144 

3. From Pavia to Stradella, to Cremona via, Codogno . . 145 

26. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona 145 

1. From Cremona to Piacenza 147 

2. From Piadena to Parma 147 

27. From Milan to Bergamo 148 

1. From Bergamo to Ponte della Selva 150 

2. From Lecco to Brescia via, Bergamo 151 

28. From Milan to Verona 151 

29. Brescia 152 

30. The Lago di Garda 158 

Excursions from Riva. Arco 161, 162 

31. From Brescia to Tirano. Lago d'Iseo 163 

The name of the Germanic tribe that invaded Italy in 568 is now 
applied to the country between the Alps and the Po, which is separated 
from Piedmont by the Ticino, and from Venetia by the Mincio. It is 
divided into the eight provinces of Como, Milano, Pavia, Sondrio, Ber- 
gamo, Cremona, Brescia, and Mantova, covering an area of about 9000 sq. 
M., and containing 3,713,331 inhabitants. The name was once applied to a 
much larger tract. Lombardy has not inaptly been likened to an 
artichoke, the leaves of which were eaten off in succession by the lords 
of Piedmont; thus in 1427 they appropriated Vercelli, in 1531 Asti, in 1703 
Val Sesia, in 1706 Alessandria, in 1736 Tortona, and Novara, and in 1743 
Domo d'Ossola. The heart of the country, if we continue to use the 
simile, would then be the District of Milan, or the tract lying between 
the Ticino, Po , and Adda. The three zones of cultivation are the same 
as in Piedmont, viz. the region of pastures among the mountains, that 



of the vine, fruit-trees, and the silk-culture on the lower undulating 
country and the slopes adjoining the lakes, and that of wheat, maize, 
and meadows in the plains, the yield of these last being, however, far 
more abundant than in Piedmont. The summers are hot and dry, rain 
being rare beyond the lower Alps , and falling more frequently when 
the wind is from the E. than from the W., as the moisture of the latter 
is absorbed by the Maritime Alps and the Apennines. The land, however, 
is more thoroughly irrigated than that of any other district in Europe, 
and the servitude of aquae ductus, or right to conduct water across the 
property of others, has been very prevalent here for centuries. A failure 
of the crops indeed is hardly possible , except when the summer is 
unusually cold. Meadows yield as many as twelve crops in* the year, 
their growth being unretarded by the winter. The so-called Parmesan 
cheese is one of the well-known products of Lombardy. In the middle 
ages the importance of Milan was due to its woollen industries, but sheep- 
breeding has in modern times been largely superseded by the silk-culture, 
an industry which has so materially increased the wealth of the country, 
that it used to be said during the Austrian regime, that the army and the 
officers lived on mulberry leaves, as their produce alone sufficed to pay 
the land taxes. Under these circumstances the population is unusually 
dense, being about 380 persons to the sq. mile, exclusive of the capital. 
The central situation, and the wealth of the country, have ever ren- 
dered it an apple of discord to the different European nations. In the 
earliest period known to us, it was occupied by the Etruscans,. an Italian 
race, which about the 6th cent. B.C. was subjugated or expelled by 
Celts from the W. These immigrants founded Mediolanum (Milan), and 
traces of their language still survive in the modern dialect of the coun- 
try. It was but slowly that the Italians subdued or assimilated these 
foreigners, and it was not till B.C. 220 that the Romans extended their 
supremacy to the banks of the Po. In the following century they consti- 
tuted Gallia Cisalpina a province , on which Csesar conferred the rights 
of citizenship in B.C. 46. Throughout the whole of the imperial epoch 
these regions of Northern Italy formed the chief buttress of the power of 
Rome. Since the 4th cent. Milan has surpassed Rome in extent, and, 
in many respects, in importance also. It became an imperial residence, 
and the church founded here by St. Ambrosius (who became bishop in 
374), long maintained its independence of the popes. The Lombards 
made Pavia their capital, but their domination, after lasting for two 
centuries, was overthrown by Charlemagne in 774. The Lombard dia- 
lect also contains a good many words derived from the German (thus, 
bron, gast, gra, pib, smessor, stora, and stosa, from the German Brun- 
nen, Gast , Greis, Pflug, Messer, storen, and stossen). The crown of 
Lombardy was worn successively by the Franconian and by the German 
Kings, the latter of whom, particularly the Othos , did much to promote 
the prosperity of the towns. When the rupture between the emperor 
and the pope converted the whole of Italy into a Guelph and Ghibelline 
camp, Milan formed the headquarters of the former, and Cremona those 
of the latter party, and the power of the Hohenstaufen proved to be no 
match for the Lombard walls. The internal dissensions between the 
nobles and the townspeople, however, led to the creation of several new 
principalities. In 1287 Matteo degli Visconti of Milan (whose family 
was so called from their former office of 'vicecomites' , or archiepiscopal 
judges) was nominated 'Capitano del Popolo'', and in 1294 appointed gov- 
ernor of Lombardy by the German King. Although banished for a time 
by the Guelph family Delia Torre, both he and his sons and their poster- 
ity contrived to assert their right to the Signoria. The greatest of this 
family was Giovanni Galeazzo, who wrested the reins of government from 
his uncle in 1385, and extended his duchy to Pisa and Bologna, and even 
as far as Perugia and Spoleto. Just, however, as he was preparing at 
Florence to be crowned king of Italy , he died of the plague in 1402, 
in the 55th year of his age. On the extinction of the Visconti family in 
1447, the condottiere Francesco Sforza ascended the throne, and under his 
descendants was developed to the utmost that despotism which Leo de- 

MILAN. 17. Route. 89 

scribes as 'a state in which the noblest institutions prosper when the 
prince is a good man; in which the greatest horrors are possible when 
the prince cannot govern himself; a state which has everywhere thriven 
in Mohammedan countries, but rarely in the middle ages in other Christian 
countries besides this'. In 1494 when Lodovico il Moro induced Charles 
VIII. of France to undertake a campaign against Naples , he inaugurated 
a new period in the history of Italy. Since that time Italy has at once 
been the battlefield and the prey of the great powers of Europe. Lodo- 
vico himself, after having revolted against France and been defeated at 
Novara in 1500, terminated his career in a French dungeon. In 1525 the 
battle of Pavia constituted Charles V. arbiter of the fortunes of Italy. In 
1535, after the death of the last Sforza, he invested his son, Philip II. of 
Spain, with the duchy of Milan. In 1713 the Spanish supremacy was 
followed by the Austrian in consequence of the War of Succession. On 
four occasions (1733, 1745, 1796, and 1800) the French took possession of 
Milan, and the Napoleonic period at length swept away the last relics of 
its mediaeval institutions. Although Napoleon annexed the whole of 
Piedmont, Genoa, Parma, Tuscany, and Rome (about 36,000 sq. M. of 
Italian territory) to France, the erection of a kingdom of Italy contrib- 
uted materially to arouse a national spirit of patriotism. This kingdom 
embraced Lombardy, Venice, S. Tyrol, Istria, the greater part of the 
Emilia, and the Marches (about 32,000 sq. M.). Milan was the capital, 
and Napoleon was king , but was represented by his stepson Eugene 
Beauharnais. The Austrian Supremacy , which was restored in 1815, proved 
irreconcilable with the national aspirations of the people. By the Peace 
of Zurich (10th Nov. 1859), Lombardy , with the exception of the district 
of Mantya, was ceded to Napoleon III., and by him to Sardinia. 

17. Milan, Ital. Milano. 

Arrival. The Central Station (PI. F, G, 1; Restaurant), a handsome and 
well-arranged structure, is decorated with frescoes by Pagliano, Induno, 
and Casnedi, and with sculptures by Vela, Strazza, Magni, and Tabacchi. 
Omnibuses from most of the hotels are in waiting (fare 1-172 fr.). Fiacre 
from the station to any part of the town I1/4 fr. (also at night), each article 
of luggage 25 c. Tramway into the town 10 c. Porterage to the town for 
luggage under 100 lbs. 50 c, according to tariff. — Station for Erba, 
Laveno, etc., near the Piazza d'Armi (PI. C, 4; no hotel omnibuses). 

Hotels (all those of the first class have lifts). *Geand Hot. de la 
Ville (Pl.^a; F, 5), Corso Vittorio Emanuele, R 4-12, L. 1, A. 1, B. I1/2, 
dej. 41/2, D. 6, pens. 15 fr.; *Cavour (PI. b; F, 3), in the Piazza Cavour; 
*Grand Hotel Milan (PL c; F, 3,4), Via Alessandro Manzoni 29, R. 4-5, 
L. 1, A. 1, B. I1/2, dej. 3V2, D5, pens, from 10, omn. lfr., electric light 
1, heating 1 fr. ; 'Continental (PL e; E, 4), Via Alessandro Manzoni, 
with electric lighting, R., L., & A. 4-8, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens, from 
10, omnj 1 fr. — The following are somewhat less expensive : *Gran Bre- 
tagna & Reichmann (PL d ; D, E, 6), Via Torino 45, R., L., & A. 4-6, B. 
I1/2, dej. 2 J /2, D. 4, pens. 9, omn. 1 fr. ; *Metropole, in the Piazza del 
Duomo, with lift, R. 21/2-4, A. 3 / 4 , L. 3 / 4 , b. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 41/2, pens. 
81/2- 12 fr. ; *Rebecchino (PL p; E, 5), Via S. Margherita. with trattoria 
(see p. 90), R. 3 5, L. s/ 4 , A. 3 / 4 , b. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 12, omn. 
I1/4 fr. — :: Edeopa (PL f; F, 5), Corso Vitt. Emanuele 9, R. from 21/2, 
L. 3 / 4 , A. 3 / 4 , B. H/2, dej. 3, D. 4, omn. 1, pens. 8-12 fr. ; -Manin (PL k ; F, 2), 
Via Manin, near the Giardini Pubblici, R. from 2 1 /*, L. 3 /4, A. 3 /4, dej. 2 ! /2, 
D. 4, pens, from 91/2, omn. 1 fr. ; : Roma (PL g; F, 5), Corso Vitt. Emanuele 
7 (with restaurant, no table d'hote), R. 2'/ 2 , A. 3 / 4 , L. 3 / 4 , B. IV2, dej. 3, 
D. 41/2, pens. 9-11, omn. 1 fr. ; Nazionale, Piazza della Scala 4, R., L., 
& A., 21/2-31/2, B. I1/2, dej. 21/2, P. 4, pens. 10, omn. 1/2 fr., well spoken 
of. — ^Pozzo (PL 1; E, 6), Via Torino, R., L., & A. 21/2-31/2, B. I1/4, dej. 
21/2, D. 4, pens. 9, omn. 1 fr.; *Francia (PI. in; F, 5), R. 2-2i/ 2 fr., L. 60, 
A. 60 c, dej. 3, D. incl. wine 41/2, pens. 8-10, omn. 3 /4 fr. ; "Central St. 
Maec (PL h; E, 6), Via del Pesce, R., L., & A. from 2'/a, B. I1/4, dej. 3, 

90 Route 17. MTL7STN. Tramways. 

D. 4, pens, from 8, omn. 3 /4 fr - '■> *Bella Venezia (PI. i; E, F, 5), Piazza 
S. Fedele, R. 3, omn. 1, A. s/ 4 , L. s/ 4 fr. ; Ancora (PI. n; F, 5), Via Agnello 
and Corso Vitt. Emanuele; *Angioli, Via S. Protaso, R., L., & A. 2i/s, 
B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4, omn. s/ 4 f r . • -Lion et Tkois Sdisses (PI. o; G, 4, 5), 
Corso Vittorio Emanuele, at the corner of the Via Durini, R. l!/2-2 fr. , L. 
60, A. 60 c, B. 1V4, dej. 21/2, D. 3 l /2, pens. 7, omn. 3 /i fr. ; S. Michele, 
Via Pattari, near the cathedral, R. from IV2 fr. — Italian hotels, with 
trattorie: Hotel-Pension Suisse, Via Visconti, R., L., & A. 2-3, B. li/ 4 , 
dej. 2V2, D. with wine 4, pens. 7 fr. ; Falcone, Via del Falcone, well 
spoken of; Passaeella, Via Passarella, R., L., & A. 2 x /2, B. 1, dej. 2, 
D. 3V2, pens. 7V2, omn. 3 U fr. ; Biscione & Bellevue, Piazza Fontana 
(PI. F, 5), R., L., & A. 21/2-3V2, B. IV2, dej. 21/2, D. 31/2, pens. 8, omn. 
1/2 fr. ; Pens. Viviani, Via Silvio Pellico 8 (PI. E. 5), pens. 6-7 fr., A. 25, 
L. 30 c, all near the Piazza del Duomo; Agnello, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 2; 
Hotel du Noed, Albeego Como (with a pleasant garden), Albekgo S. 
Gottaedo, all these near the central station. — Pension Levi, 1 Via Gabrio 
Casati, off Via Dante. 

Restaurants (Ristoranti, Trattorie). "Biffi, Gnocchi, in the Galleria Vitt. 
Emanuele (see below) ; Cova (see below) ; Guffanti (formerly della Bona), 
Via S. Giuseppe 2, near the Scala, with a garden; '■' Rebecchino (p. 89), 
Via S. Margherita, near the Piazza del Duomo, founded in 1699, with good 
Italian cooking. The above-mentioned second-class hotels are also restau- 
rants. Fiaschetteria Toscana, behind the E. branch of the Galleria Vitt. 
Emanuele; good Tuscan wine. 

Cafes (comp. p. xviii). "Cova, with a garden, Via S. Giuseppe, near the 
Scala, concerts in the evening (10 c. added to the charge on each refresh- 
ment); *Biffi (concerts in the evening), ''Gnocchi, and Campari, all in the 
Galleria Vitt. Emanuele; Gaffe Anlille, Via Alessandro Manzoni, opposite 
the Hotel de Milan; Martini, Caffe-Rist. delV Accademia, Piazza della Scala; 
Carini, Piazza del Duomo, D. with wine 2^2-4 fr. ; several cafes in the 
Giardini Pubblici (p. 109); delle Coloane, Corso Venezia 1. Beer in glasses 
may be procured at most of the cafes (tazza, 30c. ; tazza grande, 50 c). — 
Panetone is a favourite kind of cake, chiefly used during the continuance 
of the Carnival. 

Beer. Birreria Nazionale, a large establishment in the Via Carlo 
Alberto, on the W. side of the Piazza del Duomo (Vienna beer) ; Birreria 
Svizzera, Via Cappellari, near the Hotel Metropole, much frequented; 
"Trenlc, Galleria de 1 Cristoforis (p. 109), cold meat, etc., in the evening 
(wine-room belonging to the same proprietor in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, 
adjoining the Gall, de 1 Cristoforis); Borghetli, Via Principe Umberto 29; 
Culmbacher Bierhalle, Via Mercanti 5 ; Naef, Via Silvio Pellico 6 ; Birreria 
della Scala, Piazza della Scala ; Al Cambio, Via Al. Manzoni, Munich beer. 

Baths. Corso Vittorio Emanuele 17, clean and not expensive; Via 
Annunziata 11; Bagni Dufour, Via S. Vittore; Via Pasquirolo 11, etc. — 
Swimming-Baths: ''Bagno di Diana (PI. H, 2), outside the Porta Venezia 
(1 fr., including free conveyance from the Sala d'Aspetto in the Piazza 
del Duomo); Bagno Nazionale (PL D, 8), outside the Porta Ticinese. 

Cabs C Broughams' ; a tariff in each vehicle). Per drive by day or 
night lfr. ; from the station to the town l l /4fr. ; half-hour lfr., per hour 
l'/2 fr. ; each article of luggage 25 c. 

Omnibuses in various directions from the Piazza del Duomo (fare 10c). 

Tramways from the Piazza del Duomo to most of the city-gates, and 
to the station (fare 10 c); also round the town. — Milan is also the centre 
of a network of Steam Teamwats , extending over almost the whole of 
Lombardy. The following are the principal lines diverging from Milan : 
1. To Monza (p. 112; 1 hr.), starting from the church of S. Babila, Corso 
Venezia (PL G, 4); inside 80 c, outside 60 c (From Monza to Bergamo via, 
Trezzo, see p. 113). — 2. Tramway Interprovinciale , station in the Strada 
di Circonvallazione, outside the Porta Venezia (PL G, 1); lines to Monza 
and Barzand, to Vimercate, and to Vaprio (with branch from Villafornace 
to Treviglio, p. 148, and thence to Bergamo, p. 148) ; to Lodi (p. 259); and to 
Caravaggio (p. 145). — 3. To Magenta (p. 50) and Castano, starting outside 
the Porta Magenta (PI. A, 4, 5). — 4. To Seregno (p. 113), and thence on the 

Shops. MILAN. 17. Route. 91 

one side to Carafe (p. 119), on the other to Giussano, starting from the Porta 
Volta (PI. D, 1); continuation to Bellagio projected (comp. p. 116). — 
5. To Melegnano (p. 259) and Lodi (p. 259), starting outside the Porta Ro- 
mana (PI. H, 8). — 6. To Pavia, see p. 140. — 7. To Saronno and Como, 
see p. 111. — 8. To Saronno and Tradate (p. 128) and to Oallarate (p. 130), 
starting from the Foro Bonaparte, at the corner of the Via Cusani (PI. D, 4). 

Post Office (PL E, 6), Via Rastrelli 20, near the cathedral, at the back 
of the Palazzo Reale, open from 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. — Telegraph Office (PI. 
E, 5), near the Borsa, Piazza dei Mercanti 19, ground-floor. 

Theatres. The Teatro della Scala (PI. E, 4), the largest in Italy after 
the S. Carlo theatre at Naples, was built in 1778, and holds 3600 spectators. 
The opera and ballet are, excellent, but performances take place during 
the Carnival only, the interior is worthy of inspection (V2fr.). Teatro 
Manzoni (PI. E, 5), near the Piazza S. Fedele, elegantly fitted up, perform- 
ances sometimes in French. Teatro Dal Verme (PI. D, 4), operas and 
ballets, sometimes used as a circus ; Teatro Filodrammatico (PI. E, 4), Via 
S. Dalmazio, operas ; Teatro Fossati, Corso Porta Garibaldi , melodrama 
and popular pieces ; Teatro Milanese, Corso Vittorio Emanuele, plays in 
the local dialect. — Eden Theatre of Varieties, Via Sempione (PI. D, 4). 

Bankers. Mack, Wiegel, & Keutzer , Via Brera 19 (PI. E, 4); Mylius 
& Co., Via Clerici 4 (PI. E, 4)-, Ulrich & Co., Via Bigli 21 (PI. F, 4); Weill, 
Schott Figli, & Co., Via S. Andrea 6 (PI. F, G, 4). — Money-Changers : Mino- 
letti, Piazza Mercanti (PI. E, 5), Strada, Via Manzoni, etc. 

Booksellers. F. Sacchi <£ Figli, Via S. Margherita; Dumolard, Corso 
Vitt. Emanuele 21; Gius. Galli, Galleria Vitt. Emanuele 17&80; Schiltze- 
nau & Rocehi, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 34, in the Hotel de la Ville ; Hoepli, 
Corso Vitt. Emanuele 37. — Newspapers. Perseveranza (10 c.) ; Corriere 
delta Sera; Lombardia; Secolo ; etc. 

Shops. The best are in the Corso and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele. 
The Alle Citta d' 'Italia, Piazza del Duomo, is an establishment in the style 
of the large Magasins at Paris. The Silk Industry of Milan, in which 
upwards of 200 considerable firms are engaged, is very important. The 
following are noted retail-dealers: Vernazzi, Corso Vitt. Emanuele, ad- 
joining the Hotel de la Ville; Osnago, Via S. Radegonda, to the N. of the 
Cathedral. — Marbles : Bianchi, Galleria Vitt. Emanuele. — Antiquities : 
Vedova Arrigoni, Via Senato; Erei, Via Monte Napoleone. — Optician: 
Duroni, Gall. Vitt. Emanuele 9. — Fancy Goods : Guglianetti, Corso Vitt. 
Emanuele, at the corner of the Via S. Paolo. 

Cigars. The Spaccio Normale , or government shop , is at Corso 
Venezia 1, where genuine havanas are also sold (PI. F, 4, 5). 

Physicians. Dr. John Hill, Via Principe Umberto 17; Dr. Francis 
Cozzi, Via Monforte 6; Dr. Lindner, Via Senato Pa; Dr. Fornoni, Corso 
Vitt. Emanuele 26. Private Hospital: Casa di Salute Parapini, Via La 
Marmora, near the Porta Romana. — Chemists : Valcamonica & Introzzi, 
Corso Vitt. Eman. 4; Zambelletti, Piazza S. Carlo, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 
(PL F, 4, 5); Talini, Via Alessandro Manzoni, opposite the Hot. de Milan. 

Cook's Tourist Office, Piazza del Duomo 45. — Goods Agents. Fratelli 
Gondrand, Via Tre Alberghi 3 (PL E, 5), with railway ticket-office. 

Permanent Art Exhibition, in the Palazzo della Societa per le Belle 
Arti, Via Principe Umberto 32. 

Italian Alpine Club, Milan section, Via Silvio Pellico 6, first floor 
(3.30-5 and 8-10.30 p.m.). 

English Consul, /. Whitmore, Esq., Via Principe LTmberto 17. Ameri- 
can Consul, Geo. W. Pepper, Esq., Via Monte Napoleone 7. 

English Church Service, Via Andegari 8, at 11 and 5 ; chaplain, Rev. Ed- 
ward Rook, Via Montebello 16. — Waldensian Church, S. Giovanni in Conca. 

Principal Attractions. 1st day, in the morning: 'Cathedral, 'ascend 
to the roof; Galleria Vittorio Emanuele; Piazza de 1 Mercanti; Brera (pic- 
ture-gallery); in the afternoon: S. Maria delle Grazie and Leonardo da 
Vinci's Last Supper; S. Ambrogio, the oldest of the churches; in the 
evening: walk in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele and Piaaza del Duomo, or in 
summer in the Giardini Pubblici. — 2nd day, in the morning: S. Lorenzo; 
S. Satiro; Ambrosiana (pictures); Museo Poldi Pezzoli; in the afternoon; 

92 Route 17. MILAN. History. 

New Cemetery. — Excursion to the Certosa di Pavia (R. 25); to Monza 
(p. 112; steam-tramway). 

Milan (390 ft.), Ital. Milano, surnamed t lagrande\ the Medio- 
lanum of the Romans, which was rebuilt after its total destruction 
in 1162 by the Emp. Frederick Barbarossa, is the capital of Lom- 
bardy, the seat of an archbishop, the headquarters of an army- 
corps, the chief financial centre of Italy, and one of the wealth- 
iest manufacturing and commercial towns in the country, silk and 
woollen goods, gloves, carriages, machinery, and art-furniture being 
the staple commodities. It also exports a considerable amount of 
cheese, butter, eggs, poultry, and other country produce. The town 
is situated on the small river Olona, which, however, is navigable 
and is connected by means of the Naviglio Grande (p. 50) with the 
Ticino and Lago Maggiore, by the Naviglio di Pavia with the 
Ticino and the Po, and by the Naviglio delta Martesana with the 
Adda, the Lake of Como , and the Po. It is 7 M. in circum- 
ference , and contains, including the suburbs, 414,500 inhab., 
ranking next to Naples and Rome in point of population. There are 
numerous German and Swiss residents. 

The favourable situation of Milan in the centre of Lombardy, near 
the beginning of several of the great Alpine passes, has always secured 
for it a high degree of prosperity. Under the Romans it was one of 
the largest cities in Italy (p. 88), but owing to its repeated destruction 
hardly a trace of that period has been left. In the 11th cent, it 
contained 300,000 inhabitants. Its heroic struggles against the German 
emperors are well known. With the exception of S. Ambrogio and a few 
other churches , the city was totally destroyed in 1162 by the emperor 
Frederick Barbarossa , but in 1167 it was rebuilt by the allied cities of 
Brescia, Bergamo, Mantua, and Verona. It was afterwards ruled by the 
Visconti (1312-1447), then by the Sforza family (1447-1535). Under the 
supremacy of the latter it attained the zenith of its reputation as a patron 
of art, having been the residence of Bramante from 1476 to 1500, and of 
Leonardo da Vinci from 1494 to 1516. The most eminent of Leonardo's 
pupils who flourished here were Bernardino Luini, Cesare da Sesto, Giov. 
Ant. Boltraffio, Marco da Oggionno, Andrea Salaino, and Oaudenzio Ferrari. 
— Milan with the rest of Lombardy afterwards fell into the hands of the 
Spaniards , and in 1714 fell to Austria. In 1796 it became the capital ol 
the '■Cisalpine Republic', and then (down to 1815) that of the Kingdom of 
Italy. The bloody insurrection of 17th May, 1848, compelled the Austrians 
to evacuate the city, and the patriotic agitations which ensued were 
happily ended by the desired union with the new kingdom of Italv 
in 1859. 

No town in Italy has undergone such marked improvement as Milan 
since the events of 1859. — In the province of Art it has raised itself to 
the highest rank in the kingdom. Sculpture is here carried on to such 
an extent as to have become almost a special industry. The Milanese 
Sculptors take great pride in their technical skill, and in effective 
imitations of nature. Among the best known sculptors are Barzaghi, Argenti, 
Calvi, and Barcaglia. — Painting is represented by Hieron, Induno, Bianchi, 
Pagliano, Bouvier, Steffani, Didioni, and others, but most of these artists 
seem to cultivate the modern Parisian style, and to be entirely oblivious 
of their glorious old national traditions. 

The old part of the town, a portion of which consists of narrow 
and irregular streets, is enclosed by canals, beyond which suburbs 
(borghi), named after the different gates (Porta Yenezia, Garibaldi, 
Sempione, etc.), have sprung up. 

Cathedral. MILAN. 17. Route. 93 

The focus of the commercial and public life of Milan is the 
*Piazza del Duomo (PI. E, 5), which has recently been much ex- 
tended, and is now enclosed, by imposing edifices designed by Men- 
goni (p. 95). It is a centre for omnibuses and tramways. 

The celebrated **Cathedral (PI. E, F, 5) , dedicated 'Mariae 
NascenW, as the inscription on the facade announces, and as the 
gilded statue on the tower over the dome also indicates, is regarded 
by the Milanese as the eighth wonder of the world, and is, next to 
St. Peter's at Rome and the cathedral at Seville, the largest church 
in Europe. This huge structure covers an area of 14,000 sq. yds. (of 
which about 2400 sq. yds. are taken up by the walls and pillars), and 
holds about 40,000 people. The interior is 162 yds. in length, the 
transept 96 yds. in breadth, the facade 73 yds. in breadth; nave 
157 ft. in height, 18 yds. in breadth. The dome is 220 ft. in height, 
the tower 360 ft. above the pavement. The roof, marble like the rest 
of the building, is adorned with 98 turrets, and the exterior with 
upwards of 2000 statues in marble. The stained-glass windows in 
the choir are the largest in the world. The structure, which was 
founded by the splendour-loving Gian Galeazzo Visconti in 1386, 
perhaps after the model of the Cologne cathedral, progressed but 
slowly owing to the dissensions and jealousies of the Italian and 
Northern architects, whereby it was impossible to attain uniformity 
in the execution. Heinrich von Gmiind, Marco da Campione, Simone 
da Orsenigo, and Andrea Orcagna are named among the architects of 
the cathedral, but without any positive proof. The general style of the 
building is Gothic, but there are many divergencies from the main 
plan. About the year 1500 Francesco di Giorgio of Siena and 
Ant. Omodeo appear to have been associated in the superintendence 
of the building, and after them the work was conducted by Cara- 
dosso Bramantino, Solari, and Fusina. The crypt and the baptistery, 
the style of which is quite out of harmony with the general design 
of the building, were added in the second half of the 15th cent, by 
Pellegrini, who also laid down the marble pavement and designed a 
Baroque facade. The church was consecrated by S. Carlo Borro- 
meo on Oct. 20th, 1577. The dome was begun in 1759 by the ar- 
chitects Croce and Merula, and was finished in 1775. The facade re- 
mained uncompleted, until in 1805 Napoleon (whose marble statue, 
in antique costume, is among those on the roof) caused the works 
to be resumed, according to Pellegrini's plan, with modifications by 
Amati. The facade is about to be restored according to the plan of 
the young architect Giuseppe Brentano (d. 1889), whose design won 
the first prize in an open competition in 1888. 

The church is cruciform in shape, with double aisles and a tran- 
sept, the latter also flanked with aisles. The Interior is supported 
by fifty-two pillars, each 12 ft. in diameter, the summits of which 
are adorned with canopied niches with statues instead of cap- 
itals. The pavement consists of mosaic in marble of different colours. 

94 Route 17. MILAN. Cathedral. 

Interior. By the principal inner portal are two huge monolith col- 
umns of granite from the quarries of Baveno (see p. 136.). The hand of 
hrass in the pavement close to the entrance indicates the line of the 
meridian. Right Aisle : Sarcophagus of Archhishop Arihert (1018-1045), 
above which is a gilded crucifix of the 11th century. Monument of Otto 
Visconti (d. 1295) and Johannes Visconti (d. 1354), both archbishops of 
Milan. Gothic monument of Marco Carelli (d. 1394). Tomb of Canon 
Vimercati, by Bambaja. Right Transept (W. wall) : Monument of the 
brothers Giacomo and Gabriele de 1 Medici, erected by their brother 
Pope Pius IV. (1564) , the three bronze statues by Leone Leoni (Aretino). 
Tickets for the roof (25 c, see below) are obtained near this monument; 
the staircase leading to the dome is in the corner of the side-wall. The 
altar of the Offering of Mary (E. wall of S. transept) is adorned with fine 
Reliefs by Bambaja, with a relief of the nativity of the Virgin by Tan- 
tardini at the foot. Adjacent is the Statue of St. Bartholomew by Marco 
Agrate (end of 16th cent.) , anatomically remarkable, as the saint is 
represented flayed, with his skin on his shoulder, and bearing the 
modest inscription 'non me Praxiteles sed Marcus finxit Agrates 1 . 

The door of the S. Sacristy (to the right, in the choir) is remarkable 
for its richly sculptured Gothic decorations. The * Treasury here (adm. 
1 fr.) contains silver statues and candelabra of the 17th cent. ; the 
enamelled Evangelium of Abp. Aribert ; a diptych of the 6th cent.-, book- 
covers adorned with Italian and Byzantine carving of tbe early middle 
ages ; ivory vessel belonging to Bishop Godfrey : a golden Pax by Caradosso ; 
and lastly a statue of Christ by Cristofano Solari. 

In the ambulatory, a little farther on, is a sitting figure of Martin V. 
by Jacopino da Tractate (1421). Then the black marble Monument of 
Cardinal Marino Carracciolo (d. 1538), by whom Emp. Charles V. was 
crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1520, by Bambaja. The fourth of the 
handsome new Gothic confessionals is for the German, French, and English 
languages. The stained glass in the three vast choir- windows, comprising 
350 representations of scriptural subjects, were executed by Alois and 
Giov. Bertini of Guastalla during the present century; most of them are 
copies from old pictures. Before the N. Sacristy is reached , the Statue 
of Pius IV. is seen above, in a sitting posture, by Angelo Siciliano. The 
door of this sacristy is also adorned with fine sculptures in marble. 

In the centre of the N. Transept is a valuable bronze "Candelabrum, 
in the form of a tree , executed in the 13th cent. , and decorated with 
jewels, presented by Giov. Batt. Trivulzio, in 1562. 

Left Aisle : Altar-piece, painted in 1600 by Fed. Baroccio, represent- 
ing S. Ambrogio releasing Emp. Theodosius from ecclesiastical penalties. 
Upon the adjoining altar of St. Joseph, the Nuptials of Mary, by F. Zuc- 
cari. The following chapel contains the old wooden Crucifix which S. 
Carlo Borromeo bore in 1576, when engaged, barefooted, in his missions 
of mercy during the plague. Adjacent, the Monument of Abp. Arcimboldi 
(ca. 1550), and by the wall the statues of eight Apostles (13th cent.). Not 
far from the N. side-door is the Font , consisting of a sarcophagus of S. 
Dionysius, but appropriated to its present use by S. Carlo Borromeo. 

In front of the choir, below the dome, is the subterranean Cappella 
S. Carlo Borromeo (p. 131), with the tomb of the saint; entrance opposite 
the doors to the sacristy, to the N. and S. of the choir (open in summer 
5-10, in winter 7-10 a.m.; at other times lfr.; for showing the relics of 
the saint 5fr.). 

The traveller should not omit to ascend to the *Koof and 
Tower of the Cathedral. The staircase ascends from the corner of 
the right transept (ticket 25 c. ; open till an hour before sunset, in 
summer from 5 a.m.), where an excellent panorama of the Alps by F. 
Bozzoli may also be bought (^also at Pirolas, Piazza della Scala 6 ; 
1 fr.). As single visitors are not now admitted, except when other 
visitors are already at the top, a party of two or more must be 

Galleria Vitt. Eman. MILAN. 17. Route. 95 

made up. The well-informed guide demands 1 fr. per person for 
his services. The visitor should mount at once to the highest gallery 
of the tower (by 194 steps inside and 300 outside the edifice). A 
watchman, generally stationed at the top, possesses a good telescope. 
View. To the extreme left (S.W.), Monte Viso, then Mont Cenis 
(p. 2); between these two, lower down, the Superga (p. 37) near Turin; 
Mont Blanc, Great St. Bernard; Monte Rosa, the most conspicuous of all; 
to the left of the last the prominent Matterhorn ; then the Cima di Jazzi, 
Strahlhorn, and Mischabel ; N.W. the Monte Leone near the Simplon ; 
the Bernese Alps; N. the summits of the St. Gotthard and Spliigen, 
and E. in the distance the Ortler. S. the Certosa of Pavia (p. 141) i3 
visible, farther E. the towers and domes of Pavia itself, in the back- 
ground the Apennines. 

To theS., opposite the cathedral, stands the Palazzo Reale (PI. 
E, F, 5, 6), built on the site of a palace of the Visconti in 1772, 
adorned with frescoes by Appiani, Luini, and Hayez, and contain- 
ing several handsome saloons. In the street to the left, beyond 
the palace, are visible the tower (1336) and apse of the fine half- 
Romanesque church of 8. Gottardo, formerly the chapel of the 
Visconti. ■ — Adjacent, on the E., is the large Archiepiscopal Pal- 
ace (Arcivescovado ,■ PI. F, 5), by Pellegrini (1565), containing a 
handsome court with a double colonnade and marble statues (Moses 
and Aaron) by Tantardini and Strazza. The second court, on the 
side next the Piazza Fontana, is embellished with Corinthian col- 
umns of the 15th century. — The W. side of the Piazza del Duomo 
is skirted by the Via Carlo Alberto (see p. 102), beyond which, to 
the N.W., lies the Piazza de' Mercanti (p. 102). 

On the N. side is the imposing palatial facade (finished in 1878) 
which forms the entrance to the ** Galleria Vittorio Emanuele 
(PI. E, 5), connecting the Piazza del Duomo with the Piazza della 
Scala. This is the most spacious and attractive structure of the 
kind in Europe. It was built in 1865-67 by the architect Gius. 
Mengoni, one of the most gifted of modern Italian architects, 
who unfortunately lost his life by falling from the portal in 1877. 
The gallery, which is said to have cost 8 million fr. (320, 000^.), 
is 320 yds. in length, 16 yds. in breadth, and 94 ft. in height. 
The form is that of a Latin cross, with an octagon in the centre, 
over which rises a cupola 180 ft. in height. The decorations are 
well-executed and bear testimony to the good taste of the Milanese. 
The octagon is adorned with frescoes, representing Europe, Asia, 
Africa , and America , while the frescoes on the entrance-arches 
are emblematic of Science, Industry, Art, and Agriculture. The 
gallery contains handsome shops, and is fitted with electric light. 

The gallery is adorned with 24 statues of celebrated Italians : at the 
entrance from the Piazza del Duomo, Arnold of Brescia and G. B. Vico ; 
in the octagon, on the right, Cavour, Emmanuel Philibert (p. 31), Vittore 
Pisano, Gian Galeazzo Visconti (p. 83) ; Roma^nosi (p. 260), Pier Capponi, 
Macchiavelli, Marco Polo ; Raphael, Galileo, Dante, Michael Angelo ; Volta, 
Lanzone, Giov. da Procida, Beccaria ; at the right lateral exit Beno de' 
Gozzadini and Columbus, at the left lateral exit Ferruccio and Monti; 
at the entrance from the Scala, Savonarola and Ugo Foscolo. 

96 Route 17. MILAN. Museo Poldi-Pezzoli. 

The Piazza della Scala (PI. E, 4) is embellished with the 
*Monument of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) by Magni, erected 
in 1872. The statue of the master in Carrara marble, over life-size, 
stands on a lofty pedestal, surrounded by Marco da Oggiono, Cesare 
da Sesto , Salaino , arid Boltraffio , four of his pupils , and adorned 
with copies of his principal works in relief. — In the piazza, to the 
W. of the statue, is the Teatro della Scala (p. 91). To the S.E. is 
the large Palazzo Marino (PL E, 4), in which the Municipio has 
been established since 1861 , erected in 1555 from designs by Ga- 
leazzo Alessi. The main facade, towards the Piazza della Scala, was 
completed in 1890 from the designs of Beltrami. The court is 

Behind the Pal. Marino is the Jesuit church of S. Fedele (PI. E, F,4) 
in the Piazza of that name, erected by S. Carlo Borromeo in 1569 
from designs by Pellegrini, containing a sumptuous high-altar. In the 
same piazza is a monument to Al. Manzoni (p. 115). The adjoining 
Palazzo del Censo ed Archivio, formerly the Jesuit college, contains 
part of the government archives, chiefly documents relating to the 
history of Milan. — To the N. of this point is the Via degli Omenoni 
with the palace of the same name (No. 1), erected by Leone Leoni 
and adorned with Caryatides. The Via degli Omenoni ends in the 
Piazza Belgiojoso, which contains the Palazzo Belgiojoso (No. 2) 
and Manzoni's house (No. 3). 

Adjacent, Via Morone, No. 10 (PL F, 4), is the *Museo Poldi- 
Pezzoli, bequeathed to the town by Cavaliere Poldi-Pezzoli in 1879 
and exhibited in the tastefully-furnished house formerly occupied 
by the founder. The collections are open to the public daily 9-4, 
on holidays 11-3 (adm. 1 fr. ; for artists etc. comp. p. 97; cata- 
logue 1 fr.). 

First Floor. The first two rooms contain nothing of importance. 
Sala Doeata (to the right). In the cases at the window to the left, 
antique gold ornaments and silver plate, goldsmith's work of the 16-18th 
cent. ; in the centre-cases, Romanesque crosses and reliquaries, valuable 
vessels embellished with gems and enamelling; to the right, Roman and 
Oriental bronzes, antique glass, etc.; below the mirror, cloisonne - enamel 
from China, Persian weapons. Among the pictures the following are most 
noteworthy : ; 21. Piero della Francesco, (?), Portrait of a woman ; 19. Vine. 
Foppa, Portrait; 20. Crivelli, Christ and St. Francis; *17. Botticelli, Ma- 
donna; 18. Qirolamo da Santa Croce, Portrait; ; 16. Luini, Betrothal of St. 
Catharine. The room also contains fine wood-carvings, carpets, Dresden, 
Chinese, and Sevres porcelain, etc. — Sala Neba. Pictures : 23. Early Flemish 
Master, Annunciation; 31. V. Foppa, Madonna; 24. Signorelli, Saints; 25. 
Borgognone, St. Catharine ; Andrea Solario, 26. John the Baptist (.1499), 29. 
St. Catharine. Also a marble statue by Bartolini, representing Reliance 
upon God. — Stanza da Letto. Pictures: 33. Bertini, Portrait of Cav. 
IVldi-Pezzoli; 35. Imitator of Botticelli, Descent from the Cross. Venetian 
glass. — I. Stanza a C^uadei : 62. Marco Palmezzano, Portrait; 56. Dome- 
nichino, Cardinal; 57. Elsheimer, Diana. — II. Stanza a Qdadki: Luini, 
s4. Tobias, 85. St Jerome; 106. A. Solario, Ecce Homo; above, Solario, 
SS. Jerome and Antony; '-'109. Boltraffio, Madonna; above, " Cima da Go- 
negliano, Angel's head; 111. Lor. Costa, Saints. — 111. Stanza a Quadei : 
122. Mantegna, Madonna; ''127. Carpaccio, Venetian senator; *130. A. So- 
jario, Flight into Egypt (1515); 138. School of Leonardo da Vinci, Ma- 

Brera. MILAN. 17. Route. 97 

donna; "139. Mariolto Albertinelli (not Fra Bartolommeo) , Small altar- 
piece, with the Madonna and saints within and the Annunciation without 
(1503) ; *142. Romanino (not Moretto), Madonna with saints in an attrac- 
tive landscape ; 150. Pietro Perugino, Madonna with angels ; 146. Cavpaccio, 
Samson and Delilah ; 149. Venetian School (signature Giov. Bellini is 
forged), Descent from the Cross. — We now return and enter the Aemouky 
to the right. 

The Via Alessandro Manzoni leads hence to the right to the Via 
Bigli, in which (No. 1 1) stands the Casa Taverna or Ponti, with a 
fine portal and an admirably restored court of the 16th century. 

We next proceed from the Piazza della Scala to the N. by the 
Via S. Giuseppe (PI. E, 4) and Via di Brera to the Brera. In the 
Via del Monte di Pieta, the second side-street on the right, is the 
handsome new Cassa di Risparmio, or savings-bank, by Balzaretti. 

The *Brera (PI. E, 3), or Palazzo di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 
formerly a Jesuits' College , contains the Picture Gallery, the Li- 
brary founded in 1170 (300,000 vols., open daily except holi- 
days, 9-4 or 5, on Sun. 10-2), a Collection of Coins (50,000), the 
Observatory, a collection of Casts from the antique, and an Archaeo- 
logical Museum. 

In the centre of the handsome Court by Richini is a bronze 
statue of * Napoleon I., as a Roman emperor, by Canova, considered 
one of his finest works. By the staircase, to the left, the statue 
of the celebrated jurist Beccaria (d. 1794), who was the first to 
call in question the justice of capital punishment. The courtis also 
adorned with several other statues. 

The *Picture Gallery (Pinacoteca), on the first floor of the 
rear-building, is open daily from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. (on holidays 
from 12; in Nov., Deo., and Jan. till 3); admission 1 fr., Sun., 
Thurs., and holidays gratis (catalogue l^fr.). Artists etc. may 
obtain permessi (oflice on the ground-floor, to the right) entitling 
them to free admission to view this collection , Leonardo's Last 
Supper (p. 103), and also the Museo Poldi-Pezzoli. 

The gem of the collection is Raphael's Sposalizio (No. 270), 
the chief work of his first or Umbrian period. The numerous 
pictures of the Lombard school, and particularly the frescoes sawn 
out of churches, are also very valuable. The authenticity of the 
Head of Christ (No. 267) ascribed to Leonardo is open to consider- 
able doubt. Among the oil-paintings, No. 265 by Bernardino Luini 
is a very meritorious work, and among the frescoes, Nos. 47 and 52, 
by the same master. The most interesting works of the early Italian 
school are Nos. 264, 273, and 282 by Mantegna. The collection 
also affords an instructive survey of the progress of Carlo Crivelli 
(who flourished in 1468-93; 2nd room), a master who connects 
the Paduan school with that of Venice. The most notable works of 
the latter school are No. 166 by Gentile Bellini, Nos. 284 and 261 
by Giovanni Bellini, and No. 300 by Cima da Conegliano ; and of 
a later period No. 209 by Bonifazio, No. 248 by Titian, and Nos. 
253, 254, 255 (7th room) by Lorenzo Lotto, rivalled by Giov. Bait. 

Baeukkkk. Italy I. 9th Edit. 7 

98 Route 17. MILAN. Brera. 

Moroni (No. 214) of Bergamo. No. 456 by Domenichino, and No. 
331 by Guercino, represent the Italian masters of tbe 17th century. 
The most important works of foreign schools are No. 447 by 
Rubens, Nos. 442 and 446 by Van Dyck, and No. 449 by Rem- 
brandt. Each picture bears the name of the painter. 

I. and II. Ante-Chambees : 2-70. Frescoes by Bernardino 
Luini, some of them approaching the genre style (Nos. 2, 11, 13), 
scenes from the life of Mary (5, 19, 42, 43, 51, 63, 69, 73), 
*Madonna with St. Anthony and St. Barbara (47), God the Father 
(48), Angels (14, 26, 45, 49,54,68), and *St. Catharine placed in her 
sarcophagus by angels (52; with the inscription 0. V. S. Ch., i.e. 
' Catharina Virgo Sponsa Christi') ; Bramantino (4) ; Marco da 
Oggiono (15, 20, 33); Foppa, St. Sebastian (71); Qaudenzio 
Ferrari, Adoration of the Magi (25). To the left from this room is 
the Gai/eria Oggioni ('Appendice al Vestibolo') : on the entrance- 
wall of the 2nd Room, Coronation of the "Virgin; above, Descent 
from the Cross, both by Carlo Crivelli; to the right, 24. Bern. 
Luini, Madonna. — We return to the ante-chamber and enter — 

Room I. Opposite the entrance, 75. Borgognone, Coronation 
of the Virgin (1522); *87. Bernardino de' Conti, Madonna, with 
the four great church-fathers, SS. Jerome, Gregory, Augustine, 
and Ambrose, and the donors, Lodovico Moro, his wife Beatrice, 
and their two children (a drawing of one of the children's heads, 
now in the Ambrosiana, is attributed to Leonardo da Vinci, p. 103); 
88. Salaino, Madonna with saints ; 96. Marco da Oggiono, Fall of 
Lucifer; 98. B. Luini, Madonna with saints; 107. G. Ferrari, 
Martyrdom of St. Catharine; on the entrance-wall, 139. Nuvolone 
(17th cent.), The artist's family. To tbe left is — 

Room II. To the right of the entrance, 159. Gentile daFabriano, 
Coronation of the Virgin ; 162. Ant. and Giov. da Murano, Madonna 
with saints; *167. Bart. Montagna, Madonna enthroned, with 
angels and saints, one of the artist's master-pieces (1499). 

*168. Gentile Bellini, Preaching of St. Mark at Alexandria. 

In this piece we 'perceive that the art of Gentile (brother of Giovanni) 
on the eve of his death was better than it had ever been before. . . . The 
composition is fine, the figures have the individuality which he imparted, 
and the whole scene is full of stern and solid power. — 'History of Paint- 
ing in North Italy" 1 , by Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

172. Talma Vecchio, Adoration of the Magi (completed by Ca- 
riani?); 180. Niccolb (Alunno) da Foligno, Madonna with angels; 
175. Giac. Francia, Madonna and saints; 176. Niccolb Rondinelli 
(not Carrari), Madonna enthroned with four saints ; *179. Ercole 
de" Roberti (not Stefano da Ferrara), Same subject; 181. Giac. 
Francia, Madonna and saints ; 177. Rondinelli, John the Evangelist 
appearing to Gall a Placidia (p. 306); 186. Garofalo, Pieta; *187. 
Fra Carnevale (or more probably Piero delta Francesca?), Madonna 
with saints arid Duke Federigo da Montefeltro ; 188. Giov. Santi 
(Raphael's father), Annunciation; 189. C. Crivelli, Christ on the 

Brera. MILAN. 17. Route. 99 

Cross; *191. Cima da Conegliano, SS. Peter Martyr, Augustine, 
and Nicholas of Bari ; 190, 194. Gentile da Fabriano, Two saints ; 
*193. C. Crivelli, Madonna and Child; 195. TimoteoViti, Annun- 
ciation, -with John the Baptist and St. Sebastian. 

Room III. To the left, *206. Moretto, Madonna on clouds, SS. 
Jerome, Anthony Abbas, and Francis of Assisi, a work of lively 
and intellectual expression and vigorous colouring (the Madonna 
injured) ; *209. Bonifazio the Elder (d. 1540), Finding of Moses in 
the ark of bulrushes, jn the style of Giorgione ; 212. Paris Bordone, 
Baptism of Christ ; *213. P. Veronese, Christ at the house of Simon 
the Pharisee; 215. Bonifazio II., Christ at Emmaus ; 217. Tintoretto, 
Pieta; *214. Moroni, Navagiero, Podesta of Bergamo (1565); 218. 
Moroni, Assumption of the Virgin ; P. Veronese, *219. SS. Gregory 
and Jerome, *220. Adoration of the Magi, *221. SS. Ambrose and 
Augustine; 230. Tintoretto, SS. Helena, Macarius, Andrew, and 
Barbara; 226. Bonifazio, Adoration of the Magi; 225. Calisto 
Piazza da Lodi, Madonna and saints; *227. Paolo Veronese, SS. 
Anthony Abbas, Cornelius, and Cyprian, a monk, and a page, 
the finest 'conversazione' piece (see p. 206) by this master; 
234. Oirol. Savoldo, Madonna and saints. 

Room IV. To the left, Moretto, 235. St. Francis of Assisi, 
239. Assumption of the Virgin ; 242. Paris Bordone, Madonna and 
saints; 244. Lor. Lotto, Pieta; *248. Titian, St. Jerome^ a char- 
acteristic example of his later style (about 1560). 

Room V., which lies beyond an antechamber with engravings, 
contains the chief treasures of the collection. To the left, 279. 
Gentile da Fabriano, St. Dominic; *261. Giov. Bellini, Madonna 
(an early work, with Greek inscriptions); 288. Vitt. Carpaccio, St. 
Stephen and the scribes (1514); *262. Luca Signorelli, Scourging 
of Christ (an early work) ; 263. Cesare da Sesto, Madonna; 100. 
Giov. Pedrini, Mary Magdalene; *264. Mantegna, Large altar-piece 
in twelve sections, at the top Madonna and St. John weeping over 
the dead body of Christ, below St. Luke and other saints, painted 
in 1454, and a proof of the early maturity of the artist, then 23 
years old; *265. Luini, Madonna in an arbour of roses; 266. A 
sketch after Michael Angelo (original at Windsor); **267. Leon, da 
Vinci (?), Head of Christ. 

**270. Raphael's far-famed Sposalizio, or the Nuptials of the 
Virgin, painted in 1504 for the church of S. Francesco in Citta di 
Castello, where it remained till 1798. 

The composition closely resembles that of the Sposalizio of Perugino 
(now at Caen), in whose studio Raphael then worked. 'In both paintings 
the top is rounded, and in both a small polygonal temple, a charming 
forecast of Bramante's buildings, rises in the background. The central 
part of the foreground is occupied by the long-bearded high-priest, who 
joins the hands of the bridal pair-, Mary is attended by a group of graceful 
virgins, while near Joseph stand the rejected suitors, the most passionate 
of whom breaks his shrivelled wand. A closer examination of Raphael's 
work, however, divulges so many points of divergence, as to make the 


100 Route 17. MILAN. Brera. 

observer almost oblivious to its Peruginesque character. The transposition 
of the bride and bridegroom with their attendant groups to opposite 
sides of the canvas is a purely external difference and one of little signi- 
ficance, but the conception and drawing of the individual figures and the 
more delicate disposition of the grouping reveal the original and peculiar 
genius of the younger artist'. — 'Rafael und Michelang elo\ by Prof. An- 
ton Springer. 

263bis. Franc. Napoletano (a little known pupil of Leon, da 
Vinci), Madonna; *272. Giotto, Madonna, the central part of an 
altar-piece of which the wings are at Bologna (p. 295). 

273. Mantegna, Pieta, painted about 1474. 

'It is a picture in which Mantegna" s grandest style is impressed, 
foreshortened with disagreeable boldness, but with surprising truth, 
studied from nature, ana imitating light, shade, and reflection with a 
carefulness and perseverance only equalled by Leonardo and Durer; dis- 
playing at the same time an excess of tragic realism, and a painful un- 
attractiveness in the faces of the Marys.' — G. & C. 

280. Andrea Solario, Portrait; *282. Mantegna, Madonna in a 
nimbus of angels' heads, a work of surpassing beauty; 182. Fit. 
Mazzola, Portrait; *106. Solario, Madonna with SS. Joseph and 
Jerome (1495); no number, G. Ferrari, Madonna; 315. Liberate 
da Verona, St. Sebastian; 281. Luca Signorelli, Madonna (an early 
work) ; 274. Gentile da Fabriano, St. Jerome. 

Room VI. Over the door, Girol. da Treviso, Pieta; *283. C. 
Crivelli, Madonna and saints (1482) ; *284. Giov. Bellini, Pieta, 
an early and genuinely impassioned work ; 286, 289. Cima da 
Conegliano, Saints ; 287. Stefano da Zevio, Adoration of the Magi 
(signed, 1435); 290. Palma Vecchio, SS. Helena and Constantine, 
Rochus and Sebastian; 296. Franc. Morone (not Moroni), Madonna 
enthroned; *297. Giov. Bellini, Madonna (a late work); Cima, *300. 
SS. Peter, Paul, and John the Baptist, 302. St. Jerome. 

Room VII. No number, Torbido, Portrait,- 306. Franc. Verla, 
Madonna with saints and angels ; Vitt. Carpaccio, 307. Presentation 
in the Temple, 309. Marriage of the Virgin; between them, 232. 
Giov. Batt. Moroni, Madonna in the clouds, with two saints. 

Lorenzo Lotto, *253. Portrait of a woman, *254, *255. Portraits 
of men. 

'The fine-chiselled features (of No. 253), extremely pure in drawing, 
charm by their mild expression. A delicate but healthy complexion is 
displayed in warm sweet tones of extraordinary transparence ; and masterly 
transitions lead the eye from opal lights into rich and coloured shadows. 
A half length in the same collection represents a man of lean and bony 
make with a swallow-tailed beard, a grey eye, close set features, and a 
grave aspect. ... A third half length, companion to these, offers another 
variety of type and execution. A man stands at a table in a pelisse with 
a fox skin collar; he is bare-headed and bearded. His right hand rests 
on the table and grips a handkerchief. The ruddy skin of the face is 
broken with touches now warm now cold by which the play of light and 
reflections is rendered with deceptive truth'. — C. & G. 

Room VIII : 324. Guido Reni, SS. Paul and Peter ; 326. Franc. 
Albani, Dance of Cupids; 328. Lor. Costa, Adoration of the Magi 
f 1499) ; 331. Guercino, Abraham andHagar; *333. IDosso Dossi, 
St. Sebastian ; 334. Fr. Francia, Annunciation (retouched). 

Museo Archeologico. MILAN. 17. Route. 101 

Room IX : 345. A. Oovaerts, Forest landscape, with Abraham 
and Isaac (1615); 352, 353. Bernardino Bellotto (Canaletto), 
Landscapes (from the environs of Varese) ; 346. Jan van der Meer 
of Haarlem (not Hobbema~), Forest landscape ; 367. Jan Brueghel, 
Village street (1607); 370, 381. J. Fyt, Game; 384. Snyders, Stag- 
hunt; *449. Rembrandt, The artist's sister (1632); *446. A. van 
Dyck, Portrait. 

Room X: 390. Velazquez (?), Dead monk; 391. Salvator Rosa, 
St. Paul the Hermit; .*447. Rubens, Last Supper; 442. A. van 
Dyck, Madonna and Child, with St. Anthony of Padua; 443. Jacob 
Jordaens, Abraham's sacrifice; 428bis. Giulio Campi, The Vir- 
gin enthroned, between two saints and the donor (1530); 424. 
L. Cambiaso , Adoration of the Shepherds; 426. C. Boccaccino, 
Virgin in a glory with four saints; 423. Castiglioni, Exodus of the 
Israelites ; 432. Raphael Mengs, Annibali the musician (1752) ; 
415. Sassoferrato, Madonna; 402. Pletro da Cortona, Madonna and 
saints; 401. Gasp. Poussin, Forest landscape. 

Room XI : on the light, 486. Bagnacavallo, Betrothal of St. 
Catharine and Peter Martyr; on the left, 479. Luca Longhi, Ma- 
donna with St. Paul and St. Anthony of Padua (1538) ; 463. Ann. 
Carracci, Christ and the woman of Samaria ; 456. JDomenichino, 
Madonna with St. John the Evangelist and St. Petronius. 

Room XII : By the window, Busts ofManzoni by Strazza and 
Hayez by Argenti; by the wall, bust of Longhi by Pacetti. 

To the left, farther on, are several rooms (usually closed) containing 
modern pictures, sketches of academicians, casts from the antique, Re- 
naissance and modern sculptures. (An annual exhibition of art takes 
place in these rooms, generally in September.) — Room XX: Cnnova, 
Vestal Virgin; Thorvaldsen, The Graces and Cupid. — Room XXIV con- 
tains a copy of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper by Marco da Oggiono. — 
The last but one of the rooms with modern pictures contains portraits, 
the best of which are those of Xiccolini by Ussi, Cavour and Manzoni by 
Hayez, and D'Azeglio by Sala. 

The Museo Archeologico on the ground-floor (admission daily 
12-3, 50 c. ; Sun. and holidays free ; entrance in the small Piazza 
di Brera, or through a passage to the right on the ground-floor) 
contains a rich but imperfectly arranged collection of antique, 
mediaeval, and modern works of art, including some fine Renais- 
sance sculptures. 

I. Room. Wall of the door (right) : Sculptures from Porta Tosa 
(12th cent.) below a terracotta arch; by the last pillar, late-Greek tomb- 
relief; adjoining it a Renaissance 'putto 1 between inscriptions and sculp- 
tures. Window-wall : Mediaeval sculpture from the tympanum of a church; 
J. Gothic bell of 1352; in the middle, four ancient porphyry columns from 
S. Cristoforo. Next wall : Roman and mediaeval architectural fragments. 
Fourth wall : Portions of the monument of Gaston de Foix (who fell at 
the battle of Ravenna in 1512, see p. 309), from the monastery of S. 
Marta, the most important being (*E.) a recumbent figure of the hero by 
Bambaja. D. Monument of Lancino Curzio (d. 1513), by the same master. 
F. Marble frame-work of a door from the Palazzo Medici, with the arms 
and portraits of Francesco Sforza and Bianca Maria Visconti , attributed 
to Michelozzo, the builder of the palace. In the corner, C. Monument of 
Bishop Bagareto by And. Fusina (1517). — By the pillars to the right, and 

102 Route 11. MILAN. Bibl. Ambrosiana. 

between them : Ancient Roman sarcophagus; T. Roman cippus. Last pillar: 
Fragment of a cippus, a youth leaning on a staff (Greek) ; to the left, Head 
of Zeus (nose modern). B. Monument of Regina della Scala, wife of Ber- 
nabo Visconti; bust of a lady (15th cent.). In the centre: A. Large mon- 
ument of Bernabo Visconti, erected by himself during his lifetime (1354), 
resting on twelve columns, and richly gilded; on the sarcophagus are 
reliefs, in front the four Evangelists, at the back the coronation of Mary; 
at the sides the Crucifixion and a Pieta; above, the equestrian statue of 
Visconti. — II. Room. Above the door, Statuettes from the Porta Orient- 
ale ; on the right , suits of armour and bronze implements from the 
graves of Gauls discovered near Sestri Calende in 1867; in the cabinets, 
relics from tombs excavated in the Euovo Giardino Pubblico, terracottas, 
crystal, ivory-carvings; in the corner, bronzes, including a head by Mi- 
chael Angelo; sculptures in marble and ivory; majolica; medieeval gold- 
smith's work; Egyptian antiquities. 

A little to the S.W., in the Piazza del Carmine, is the Gothic 
church of S. Maria del Carmine (PI. D, 3, 4) of the 15th cent., 
now modernised, containing a Madonna in fresco by Luini. In the 
adjacent Via Clerici (PL E, 4) is the Palazzo Clerici, now a law- 
court, with the fine rococo Sala del Tiepolo (always open). — To 
theN.W. of theBrera is the church of S. Simpliciano (PI. D, 3), a 
line Romanesque structure, containing a triumphal arch adorned 
with 'putti'hy Luini, and a Coronation of the Virgin by Borgognone 
(in the apse). — Farther on, in the direction of the Porta Garibaldi, 
is the church of S. Maria Incoronata (PL D, 1), with four aisles, 
built by Francesco and Bianca Sforza. The Cappella Bossi contains 
the tombs of Giov. Tolentino (1517) and Archbishop Gabr. Sforza. 

To the W. of the Piazza del Duomo , beyond the Via Carlo 
Alberto (p. 95), lies the *Piazza de' Mercanti (PL E, 5), the 
central point of the mediaeval city, and formerly provided with 
five gates. In the centre of the Piazza is the building which 
was formerly the Palazzo della Ragione , a large hall erected in 
1228-33 by the podesta (or mayor) Tresseno , to whom an eques- 
trian relief was placed on the S. side with the inscription, 'qui 
solium struxit, Catharos ut debuit uxit' (the Cathari were the Wal- 
densians). The ground-floor is now the corn-exchange, above which 
is the Archivio Notarile. On the N. side of the piazza is the ancient 
Palazzo dei Giureconsulti with a tower , erected by Vine. Seregni 
(1564), with the exchange and telegraph-office on the ground-floor; 
on the S. side are the Loggia degli Osii, erected in 1315, and the 
Collegio dei Nobili (1625). 

We proceed hence to the S.W., through the archway and the 
Via dei Ratti, to the Via and Piazza della Rosa. 

The celebrated *Biblioteca Ambrosiana (PL D, E, 5), open on 
week-days 10-3 o'clock from Nov. 12th to Aug. 31st; to strangers 
occasionally at other times (fee 50c.-lfr.; entrance, Piazza Rosa2; 
picture-gallery, or Pinacoteca, open to the public in summer on Wed., 
10-2.30; at other times from 10 a.m., fee 50 c. ; entrance from the 
reading-room to the right in the court), contains 160,000 vols, of 
printed books, and 8000 MSS. and palimpsests, or codices rescripti, 

Pal. Borromeo. MILAN. 17. Route. 103 

some of them very valuable. Director: Cav. Sacerdote Ceriani, the 

The Biblioteca contains among other treasures the "Codice Atlantico, 
being a collection of original drawings and MSS. of Leonardo da Vinci; 
Virgil with marginal notes by Petrarch; fragments of a MS. of Homer 
illuminated, of the end of the 4th cent. ; the Fragmenlum Muratori, im- 
portant for church history; a number of miniatures; letters of S. Carlo 
Borromeo, Tasso, Galileo, Liguori, etc. Then, Christ crowned with thorns, 
al fresco, Bernardino Luini; Cupid in marble, R. Schadow ; several reliefs 
(fragments of the monument of Gaston de Foix, p. 101) and bust of Byron 
by Thorvaldsen; mosaics, goins, old woodcuts, and drawings by celebrated 
masters. — First Floor. First door on the left — 

Cabinet of Bronzes, containing busts of Canova and Thorvaldsen, the 
latter by the master himself, and pictures of no great value: 46. Raphael 
Mengs, Pope Clement XIII. ; 41. Venetian Master, St. Sebastian ; 30. Marco 
Basaiti, Eisen Christ ; 24. Lorenzo Lotto (?), Madonna. — Second door to 
the left : entrance to the — 

'Pinacoteca. I. and II. Rooms: Engravings. — III. Room. Opposite the 
windows: 52. Savoldo, Transfiguration (copy; original in the Palazzo degli 
Uffizi, p. 367); ::: 54. Ambrogio Borgognone, Madonna enthroned, with saints 
and singing angels ; 72. S. Botticelli, Madonna and angels ; above, Baroccio, 
Nativity; on the end-wall, 96. Cariani, Bearing ot the Cross. — To the 
right is Koom IV. : 312. Giov. Batt. Moroni, Portrait (1554) ; also landscapes 
by /. Brueghel and Brill. — V. Room : Paintings of the 17th century. — 
We return through the III. Room, to the VI. Room. On the sides of the 
entrance, 260, 261. Boltraffio (not Da Vinci), Large portrait-heads of a man 
and a woman, in chalk; 262. G. Ferrari, Marriage of the Virgin. On the 
wall to the right : *23l. Bonifacio Veronese (ascribed to Giorgione), Holy 
Family, with Tobias and the angel; above, Jac. Bassano, Adoration of 
the Shepherds. On the window-wall are drawings of the School of Leo- 
nardo, and a few small specimens from his own hand. Opposite is ^Ra- 
phael's Cartoon of the 'School of Athens', which should be carefully studied. 
The dilapidated condition of the fresco in the Vatican makes this cartoon 
of great interest and value, since here only we gain the full key to the 
artistic motives of the painter. The deviations of the fresco from the 
cartoon, with the exception of the additions of the sitting figure at the foot 
of the staircase, the temple-colonnade, and the portrait of Raphael himself, 
are unimportant. 

On the next wall : Bramantino, 272. Madonna with saints, 273. Adora- 
tion of the Holy Child (an early work); 277. Giov. Pedrini, and 274. Marco 
da Oggiono, Madonnas; 279 . Boltraffio , Portrait; 281. B. Luini, Holy Family 
(after Da Vinci's cartoon in London) ; *282. Leonardo da Vinci (?), Portrait 
(unfinished) ; *283. Luini, Youthful Christ in an attitude of benediction ; 
284. Luini, John the Baptist ; *285. Leonardo da Vinci (? more probably 
Ambrogio de Predis ?), Portrait of a girl. — VII. Room: Drawings of the 
Lombard School, including some of La Vinci's celebrated caricatures (the 
portrait of himself is a forgery, comp. p. 28) ; also several by Diirer. 

At the back of the library is the venerable church of S. Sepolcro 
(PI. D , 5), dating from the 11th century, with a few pictures by 
Giov. Pedrini in the sacristy. The Via del Bollo leads hence to the 
W. to the Piazza S. Borromeo, in which are situated the small 
church of S. Maria Podone, a statue of S. Carlo Borromeo, and also 
the Palazzo Borromeo. On the first story of the palace is a *Picture 
Gallery (Pinacoteca) containing some important paintings and a 
few sculptures, chiefly of the Lombard School (adm. Tues. and 
Frid. 2-4). 

I. Room. Madonna with John the Baptist and St. Sebastian, an alto- 
relief by Marco da S. Michele (1525). Giulio Cesare Procaccini, Madonna 
and a saint-, copies of ancient paintings, etc. — II. Room. 'Lombard School, 

104 Route 17. MILAN. Monast. Maggiore. 

Madonna with the donor (King Francis I.?), alto-relief of the 16th cent.; 
Besiderio da Settignano (?), Child's head; 141. B. Luini (?), Head of the 
Virgin (fragment of a fresco) ; 155. Bernardino de' Conti, Portrait of Ca- 
millo Trivulzio (d. 1525); 209, 214. Zuccarelli, Pastel portraits of girls. 
This room also contains some miniatures upon copper. — III. Room con- 
taining the chief works of the collection. 3. Marco da Oggiono (?), Michael 
the Archangel : 4. Giov. Pedrini, St. Catharine ; 5. Pedrini (? more probably 
Marco da Oggiono'l), Mater Dolorosa; Ambrogio Borgognone, 'Madonna 
enthroned. Christ in an attitude of blessing, and Madonna with the hedge 
of roses; Borgognone (V), Portrait of Andrea de' Novelli, bishop of Alba; 
B. Luini, Daughter of Herodias with the head of John the'Baptist; "Luini, 
Susanna (half-length); G. Ferrari, Madonna with SS. Joseph and Anthony 
Abbas; Q. Ferrari, SS. Rochus and Sebastian; 23. Crespi, Transfiguration 
of St. Ambrose; 30. Luca Giordano, Last Supper; Lor. Lotto, Christ; 
Lotto (?), St. Catharine (half-length); 42. Boltraffw, Youthful Christ (half- 
length); Cesare da Sesto, Adoration of the Kings (early work); Butinone, 
(?, more probably Fil. Mazzola, Portrait; 51. Lombard School (not Leon, 
da Vinci), Madonna; Pedrini, Fertility; School of Padua, Bearing of the 
Cross; "Pinturicchio, Bearing of the Cross (1513); 66. Moronity, Portrait. 
— IV. Room. 11. A. van der Neer, Landscape ; Guil. Ces. Procaccini, 
Michael the Archangel. In this room are also miniatures of the 15-16th 
cent., drawings, autographs, etc. 

The Via S. Borromeo and the Via S. Maria alia Porta next lead 
to the Conso Magenta, in which, to the right, is the Palazzo Litta 
(PL C, 5), with an imposing rococo facade and a handsome court, 
now occupied by the Amministrazione delle Ferrovie dell' Alta 
Italia. Opposite, on the left, rises the small *Chiesa del Monastero 
Maggiore (PL 0, 5) or 8. Maurizio, erected in 1503-1519 by Giov. 
Dolcebuono, a pupil of Bramante. 

The Interior contains numerous frescoes. Second last "Chapel on the 
right: Scourging of Christ and scenes from the martyrdom of S. Catha- 
rine, painted by Luini about 1525. The high-altar-piece, with the Adora- 
tion of the Magi, is by Antonio Campi. The 'Frescoes at the sides are by 
Luini: above in the centre the Assumption of the Virgin; below to the 
left SS. Cecilia and Ursula at the sides of the tabernacle, with a beauti- 
ful figure of an angel. In the lunette above is a kneeling figure of the 
donor, Alessandro Bentivoglio (d. 1532 ; expelled from Bologna and buried 
here), with SS. Benedict, John the Baptist, and John the Evangelist. 
Above, martyrdom of St. Maurice. Below to the right, SS. Apollonia and 
Lucia at the sides of the tabernacle, with a pieta; in the lunette, Ippolita 
Sforza, wife of Bentivoglio, with SS. Scholastica, Agnes, and Catharine. 
Above, King Sigismund presents a model of the church to St. Maurice. 
The frescoes in the chapels at the sides of the entrance-door are by 
Aurelio Luini and his pupils. — Behind the high -altar lies the Nuns' 
Choir, of-the same size as the church itself. At the high-altar is a 
series of 9 "Frescoes of the passion; below, the life-size figures of SS. 
Apollonia, Lucia, Catharine, Agatha, Sebastian, and Rochus, all by Luini. 
Inside between the arches are 20 medallions of saints, by Borgognone. In 
the arches of the gallery above are "26 medallions of holy women, of the 
school of Leonardo da Vinci, probably by Boltraffio. 

Farther on in the Corso Magenta, not far from the Porta Magenta, 
on the right, is situated the church of *S. Maria delle Grazie (PL 
B, 5), an abbey-church of the 15th cent., the Gothic nave of which 
alone belongs to the original structure. The choir, transept, and 
dome are attributed to Bramante, 

The 4th chapel on the left contains frescoes by Gaudenzio Ferrari 
(on the right the Crucifixion, on the right Christ crowned with thorns, 
Christ scourged), executed in 1542, his last works; on the dome, angels 
with the instruments of the passion; and an altar-piece (Descent from 

S. Ambrogio. MILAN. 17. Route. 105 

the Cross) by Caravaggio. In the 6fh chapel, frescoes by Flamingo. To 
the right, on the organ above, a Madonna by Luini. In the N. aisle John 
the Baptist by ^Bugiardini. The choir-stalls and some of the monuments 
also deserve rfbtice. The sacristy contains two frescoes by Luini, and good 
wood paintings on the cabinets. 

A large door marked 'Cenacolo', to the W. of this church, 
is the entrance to the refectory of the suppressed monastery of 
Sta. Maria delle Grazie (now a cavalry-barrack) , containing the 
celebrated **Last Supper of Leonardo da Vinci (shown daily 9-4, 
admission 1 fr. ; on Sundays, 12-3, and Thursdays gratis; for ar- 
tists, see p. 97). The picture is unfortunately in bad preservation, 
chiefly from having been painted on the wall in oils (before 1499). 
Contemporaneous Copies are to be seen at Ponte Capriasca (p. 12), 
Revellu (p. 55), in the Brera (p. 101), and in the Ospedale Maggiore. 
The two last will shortly be transferred hither. A fresco by Giov. 
Donato Montorfano (Crucifixion) of 1495, opposite the Last Supper, 
is in much better condition. The kneeling figures of Duke Lodo- 
vico il Moro (p. 89) and his wife Bianca Maria with their children 
are by Leonardo da Vinci, the trace of whose hand is still distinctly 

Deplorable as is the condition of the Last Supper, the chief work 
executed by Leonardo during his stay at Milan, the original alone ex- 
hibits to its full extent the emotrons which the master intended to ex- 
press, and which even the best copies fail to reproduce. The motive of 
the work has been well explained by Goethe: 'The shock- by which the 
artist represents the company at the sacred repast as deeply agitated has 
been produced by the Master's words, One of you shall betray me. They 
have been pronounced; the whole party is in dismay, while he himself 
bows his head with downcast eyes. His whole attitude, the motion of 
his arms and hands , all seem to repeat with heavenly resignation, and 
his silence to confirm, the mournful words — It cannot be otherwise. 
One of you shall betray me! 1 Comp. also p. lii. 

The Via delle Oche and the Via S. Vittore (omn. from the 
Piazza del Duomo to S. Vittore) lead hence to the S.E. to the Piazza 
S. Ambrogio, with the church of — 

*S. Ambrogio (PL C, 6), founded by St. Ambrose in the 4th 
cent, on the ruins of a temple of Bacchus, and dating in its present 
Romanesque basilica form, with its peculiar galleries, from the 12th 
century. The fine atrium in front of the church, containing ancient 
tomb-stones, inscriptions, and half-obliterated frescoes (probably by 
Zenale), seems, like the facade, to have preserved the architectural 
forms of the original building. The gates of this church are said to 
be those which St. Ambrose closed against the Emp. Theodosius 
after the cruel massacre of Thessalonica (389). There is a portrait 
of the saint on the left side of the principal entrance. The Lom- 
bard kings and German emperors formerly caused themselves to be 
crowned here with the iron crown , which since the time of Fre- 
derick Barbarossa has been preserved at Monza (p. 1 12). The ancient 
pillar at which they took the coronation-oath before being crowned, 
is still preserved under the lime trees in the piazza. 

Interior. To the right of the entrance, a marble statue of Pius IX. 
1880). In the 1st chapal of the left aisle an : Ecce Homo , fresco by B. Luini. 

106 Route 17. MILAN. S. Lorenzo. 

— On the right and left of the side-entrance in the right aisle: frescoes 
by Oaudenzio Ferrari, representing the Bearing of the Cross, the three 
Maries, and the Descent from the Cross. 2nd Chapel on the right (Cap- 
pella delle Dame) : a kneeling *Statue of St. Marcellina, by Pacetti. 5th 
Chapel on the right : *Legend of St. George, frescoes by Bernardino Lanini. 
The second door to the left in the large 6th chapel leads to the Cappella 
S. Satiro with mosaics of the 5th century. In the chapel to the right of 
the choir is an altar-piece by B. Luini, Madonna and saints (very dark); 
in front, to the right, Lombard School, Madonna and two saints. — The 
■'High-altar still retains its original decoration intact, consisting of reliefs 
on silver and gold ground (in front), enriched with enamel and gems, 
executed in the Carlovingian period by Volfoinus, a German (covered, 
shown only on payment of 5 fr.). The *Canopy over the high-altar, which 
is adorned with reliefs of the 9th cent., recently gilded, is borne by four 
columns of porphyry. The choir contains an ancient episcopal throne. In 
the Tribuna *Mosaics of the 9th cent., earlier than those of St. Mark's at 
Venice : Christ in the centre, at the sides the history of St. Ambrose. — 
At the N. entrance to the Crypt, Christ among the scribes, a fresco by 
Borgognone; opposite, the tomb-stone of Pepin, son of Charlemagne. The 
modernised crypt contains the tombs of SS. Ambrose, Protasius, and 
Gervasius. — By the pulpit are a bronze eagle, a figure of St. Ambrose (10th 
cent. ?), and an early Christian sarcophagus of the 6th century. — Adjacent 
to the left aisle is an unfinished cloister, designed by Bramante, and after 
wards rebuilt, with capitals of blackish-green marble. 

A little to the S.E. is situated the spacious Macello Pubblico 
or slaughter-house (PI. B, 6, 7). 

The Via Lanzone (with the Palazzo Visconti on the left) leads 
hence to the Corso di Porta Ticinese, in which we proceed to the 
right in the direction of the gate. On the left we soon perceive a 
large ancient ^Colonnade (PI. D, 7) of sixteen Corinthian columns, 
standing detached from other buildings, the most important relic of 
the Roman Mediolanum, near which is the entrance to — 

*S. Lorenzo (PL D,7), the most ancient church in Milan. Whether 
the handsome interior once formed the principal hall of the thermae, 
or of a palace of Maximian (4th cent.), to which the above-mentioned 
colonnade belonged, or a very ancient Christian place of worship, 
like S. Vitale at Ravenna, is uncertain. It was subsequently altered 
at least three times , the last time by Martino Bassi in the 16th 
century. It is octagonal in form, and covered with a dome. On 
the four principal sides are large semicircular apses in two stories, 
each borne by four columns alternately octagonal and round, and 
the whole structure is simple and dignified. At the back of the 
high-altar is the Cappella S.Ippolito, containing the tomb of Maria 
Visconti. — To the right of the church is the Chaptl of St. Aqui- 
linus, containing mosaics of the 6th and 7th cent. (Christ and the 
Apostles), and an ancient Christian sarcophagus supposed to be that 
of the founder, the Gothic king Ataulph (411-16). The entrance to 
the chapel is adorned with an antique marble *Coping. 

Farther S. is the Porta Ticinese, originally intended to com- 
memorate the Battle of Marengo but inscribed in 1814 'Paci Popu- 
lorum Sospitee'. Adjacent rises the ancient church of S. Eustor- 
gio (PL D, 8), founded in the 4th cent., re-erected in the Gothic 
style by Tosano Lombardi in 1278, renewed in the bad taste of the 

8. Alessandro. MILAN. 77. Route. 107 

17th cent, by Richini, and recently again restored. The facade is 

1st Chapel to the right, Mural monument of Giac. Stefano Brivio 
(d. 1484); 4th Chapel to the right, Monument of Stefano Visconti; 6th 
Chapel, Monuments of Gaspare Visconti and his wife Agnes (d. 1417). 
Farther on, on the same side, the Cappella de 1 Magi, containing a relief 
of 1347 and a late-Romanesque sarcophagus, in which the 'hones of the 
Magi 1 were preserved until they were presented to the city of Cologne hy 
Frederick Barbarossa after the conquest of Milan in 1162. By the high- 
altar are reliefs of the Passion , dating from the 14th century. At the 
back of the choir is the. ''Cappella Portinari, with a fine cupola and a 
charming frieze of angels , by Michelozzo (after 1462). It contains the 
magnificent Gothic tomb of St. Peter the Martyr by G. Balduccio of Pisa 
(1339) ; the walls are adorned with frescoes of the four Fathers of the 
Church, by Vine. Foppa. 

S. Maria presso S. Celso (PI. E, 8), near the Porta Lodovica, 
possesses a handsome atrium attributed to Bramante, and a *Facade 
the fine upper part of which was constructed by Oaleazzo Alessi. On 
the right and left of the portal are Adam and Eve by Stoldo Lorenzi. 

In the Interior is a picture by Paris Bordone, St. Jerome adoring the 
Child (2nd altar on the right); Gaudenzio Ferrari, Baptism of Christ (be- 
hind the high-altar) ; Borgognone, Madonna adoring the Child, surrounded 
by John the Baptist, St. Rochus, and the donors of the picture (1st cha- 
pel on the left) ; above it, Sassoferrato, Madonna. The 2nd chapel on the 
left contains a sarcophagus with the relics of St. Celsus. In the sacristy 
are some fine specimens of goldsmith's work. 

Adjacent to this church is S. Celso, a Romanesque edifice, 
partly removed in 1826 and now possessing few remains of the ori- 
ginal structure. 

The Corso S. Celso (PI. E, 7, 8) leads back from this point 
to the interior of the city. To the right in the Piazza 8. Eufemia 
is the church of that name (PI. E, 7), dating from the 5th cent., 
but entirely modernised. A little to the S. is the church of S. 
Paolo, a richly ornamented and characteristic building of the 
middle of the 16th century. The architectural decorations not only 
of the facade but also, and particularly, of the interior, already il- 
lustrate the principles of the later baroque style. 

The frescoes are by the brothers Giulio, Antonio, and Vincenzo Campi 
of Cremona, who, as precursors of the Bolognese school, introduced 
eclecticism into painting. At the high-altar, Birth of Christ by Ant. 
Campi (1580). 

Farther towards the N. is situated S. Alessandro (PI. E, 6 ; 
in the Via Amedei, to the right), erected in 1602; it is a reduced 
and in the interior successful copy of St. Peter's at Rome, with two 
W. towers. It is the most sumptuously decorated church in Milan, 
but destitute of works of art. High-altar adorned with precious 
stones. • — ■ Adjacent is the Palazzo Trivulzio, containing a fine art- 
collection in which the most noteworthy objects are a portrait by 
Antonello da Messina, a Madonna by Mantegna (1497), and the 
tomb of Azzo Visconti (d. 1329) from S. Gottardo. The extensive 
library contains a MS. of Leonardo da Vinci. 

"We return by the Via Lupetta and the Via Torino to the Piazza 
del Duomo. To the right in the Via Torino is the small church of 

108 Route 17. MILAN. Ospedale Maggiort. 

S. Satiro (PL E, 5, 6), founded in the 9th cent., and re-erected 
by Bramante and his pupil Bramantino, in the 15th century. The ap- 
parent choir is only painted in perspective. The octagonal *Sacristy 
(off the right transept) is also by Bramante, and has a beautiful 
*Frieze by Caradosso Foppa, putti, and heads in medallions. At the 
end of the left transept is a curious little building with a cupola, 
belonging, like the belfry, to the original structure ; it contains 
a Descent from the Cross, in terracotta, by Caradosso (covered). 

The church of S. Giorgio al Palazzo (PL D, 6), in the Via 
Torino, contains in the 1st chapel on the right, a St. Jerome by 
Gaud. Ferrari; in the 3rd chapel on the right, *Frescoes by Luini: 
above the altar, Entombment and Crowning with thorns ; at the 
sides, Scourging and Ecce Homo ; in the dome, Crucifixion. — 
Farther to the N., in the Piazza Mentana, is a Monument by Luigi 
Belli, erected in 1880 in memory of the Italians who fell at Mentana. 

To the S. in the Piazza del Duomo, opposite the cathedral, are 
the Palazzo Reale and the Archiepiscopal Palace, both already men- 
tioned (p. 95). The Piazza Beccakia (PL F, 5), near the Piazza 
Fontana which adjoins the Pal. Arcivescovile on theE., is adorned 
with a statue of Beccarla (d. 1794 ; comp. p. 97) by Grandi, erected 
in 1871. Adjacent is the Palazzo di Giustizia (PL F, 5), built by 
Vine. Seregni; on the portal is a tablet commemorating the Italian 
patriots committed by the Austrians to the fortress of Spielberg in 

The Via Brolo leads hence to the S. to the Piazza S. Stefano, 
with the simple Renaissance church of that name (PL F, 6). The 
Via dell' Ospedale leads S.W. to the Corso di Porta Romana. 

The *Ospedale Maggiore (PL F, 6), a vast and remarkably fine 
brick structure , half Gothic and half Renaissance in style, begun 
in 1457 by Antonio Filarete of Florence , is one of the largest 
hospitals in existence , and contains no fewer than nine courts. 
The extensive principal court, surrounded by arcades, is by Richini 
(17th cent.); the court to the right of it is ascribed to Bramante. 
The edifice is entirely covered externally with terracotta, in a style 
frequently observed in other Milanese buildings, but its facade, 
with its rich window-mouldings , is superior to any other structure 
of the kind at Milan. A copy of Leonardo's Last Supper (see p. 105), 
by Ant. de Gessate (150(5), was discovered here in 1890 on the first 
floor. In the chapel are two paintings by Francesco de Vico, con- 
taining portraits of Francesco and Bianca Maria Sforza, the founders 
of the hospital. 

Farther on, to the S. (entrance in the Corso Porta Romana), is 
the church of S. Nazaro (PL F, 6, 7), with a large fresco by Ber- 
nardino Lanini, *Martyrdom of St. Catharine, painted in imitation 
of the similar picture in the Brera by Lanini's master Gaud. 
Ferrari; a handsome carved altar; and ancient Swiss stained-glass 
windows to the right of the main entrance. A side-passage leads 

Giardini PubblicL MILAN. 17. Route. 109 

to the octagonal sepulchral chapel of the Trivulzi (1519), built by 
Oirolamo della Porta. 

On the N.E. side of the cathedral begins the broad and bustling 
*Cobso Vittorio Emanuele (PI. F, G, 4, 5), which, with its pro- 
longation, the Corso Venezia, leads to the Giardini Pubblici and the 
station. This is the principal business-street in Milan, containing 
the best shops. At No. 22 is an antique statue, known as 'L'uomo 
di pietra'. Farther on, to the left, is the church of — 

S. Carlo Borromeo (PL F, 4) , a rotunda in the style of the 
Pantheon at Rome, consecrated in 1847. The adjacent Galleria de 
Cristoforis, now occupied with shops, was erected by Pizzala in 

To the right, farther on, at the corner of the Via Monforte , is 
the small church of S. Babila (PL G, 4), which is supposed to oc- 
cupy the site of an ancient temple of the sun. Adjacent is an old 
Column with a lion , the cognizance of this quarter of the town. 
In the Via Monforte is situated the Palazzo di Prefettura (PI. G, 
H, 4), with a modern facade. — To the S. of this point, in the Via 
del Conservatorio, is the church ofS. Maria della Passione (PI. H, 5), 
with a spacious dome by Crist. Solari (1530), and a facade of the 
17th century. 

It contains a "Last Supper "by Gaud. Ferrari (left transept), a Pieta 
by Luini (behind the high-altar; with a predella, representing scenes 
from the life of Constantine and Helena, the earliest known work of 
this master, in the style of Bramantino), and the tomb of Abp. Birago 
by Fusina (1495; right transept). The 14 pilasters are adorned with 
figures of saints by Daniele Crespi, a pupil of Procaccini. The ceiling of 
the sacristy was painted by Arnbrogio Boygognone. 

The Conservatoire of Music occupies the old monastery buildings. 

In the vicinity is the church of 8. Pietro in Gessate (PI. G, 5), 
re-constructed in the 15th cent., and containing frescoes of the 15th 
cent, and the monument of Senator Grifo (d. 1493). The Palazzo 
del Senato contains the provincial archives. 

The Corso Vittorio Emanuele is prolonged to the Porta Venezia 
by the Cokso Venezia (PL G, H, 2, 3, 4). On the left, on this 
side of the canal, is the Archiepiscopal Seminary (PI. F, G, 4), with 
a fine court by Gius. Meda (16th cent.). In the Via del Senato, which 
diverges to the left, is the Permanent Art Exhibition mentioned at 
p. 91, with a colossal equestrian statue of Napoleon III., by Bar- 
zaghi, in the court. Then in the Corso Venezia, more to the left, 
Nos. 59-61, the Pal. Ciani (PL G, 3), completed in 1861, with rich 
ornamentation in terracotta. Farther on, on the right, is the Pal. 
Saporiti (PL G, 3), another modern building, with Ionic columns, 
and reliefs by Marchesi. 

The *Giardini Pubblici (PI. F, G, 2, 3), between the Porta Venezia 
and the Porta Nuova, and the horse-chestnut avenue of the Bastione 
di Porta Venezia, which skirts the gardens and extends to the Porta 
Nuova, are the favourite promenades of the Milanese, especially on 

110 Route 17. MILAN. Museo Civico. 

Sunday afternoons. Towards sunset they are the scene of a fashionable 
'Corso'. Electric light. A broad flight of steps ascends to the older 
part of the gardens, opened in 1785, in the centre of which is the — 

Salone (PI. F, G, 4), a square building containing the muni- 
cipal Mxjseo Artistico and a small collection of relics of the struggle 
of 1848 (open daily 1-4, adm. i/ 2 fr -> Sun. & Thurs. free; artists 
etc. p. 97). 

Galleky and Room I. : Drawings by early and modern masters. To 
the left of the entrance to Room II., *15. Sodoma, Leda, in red chalk. — 
Room II. : Works of the Milan school of the 17th cent. ; the large town 
banner of St. Ambrose; coins, chiefly Milanese from the Roman period 
onwards ; fine medals. — Rooms III. and IV. ; Cabinets, wood-carving, 
etc. — Room V. : Ceramic collection, old and modern fayence, porcelain, 
glass, woven fabrics. — Room VI. : Old paintings. To the left, *52. Paul 
Potter, Two pigs; 55. A. van Dyck, Henrietta Maria, consort of Char- 
les I. of England; 67. P. Neefs, Interior of a Gothic church; 81, 82. 
Zuccarelli, River-scenes ; *83. Lor. Lotto, Portrait of a youth; 88. Licinio 
Pordenone, Portrait of a woman ; *95. Antonello da Messina, Portrait ; 106. 
Cariani (in Lotto^s manner). Lot and his daughters; 122. Andrea Schiavone, 
Venus on a dolphin; 134-137. Bellotto, Landscapes; 162. Procaccini, St. 
Gregory carried up by angels on clouds; *200. Foppa, Madonna; "216. 
Correggio, Madonna with the Child and the youthful St. John (an early 
work). — Room VII. To the right, Borgognone, large altar-piece, Ma- 
donna between SS. Sebastian and Jerome; Sassoferrato, Madonna; Giov. 
Pedrini, St. Mary Magdalene. On the opposite wall are remains of frescoes 
of the Milanese school of the 16th century. — Room VIII. Modern pictures. 

The new part of the Giardini Pubblici, between the Via Palestro 
and Via Manin, is adorned with a statue of the Milanese poet Carlo 
Porta and an Italia, both by Puttinati. — In the Piazza Cavour, 
outside the S.W. entrance , rises a bronze *Statue of Cavour by 
Tabacchi on a lofty pedestal of granite; the figure of Clio in front 
is by Tantardini (1865). — The Villa Reale (PI. G, 3) , a plain 
modern building in the Via Palestro, contains a few works of art. 

In the Via Manin, to the W., is the Museo Civico (PI. F, 2; 
admission from the Giardino Pubblico, 11-4, 50 c, Sun. & Thurs. 
gratis), containing natural history collections : on the 1st floor 
palaeontology and ethnography (also a phrenological collection); on 
the 2nd floor zoology, comprising one of the finest collections of 
reptiles in Europe, founded by Jan (d. 1866). At the entrance are 
busts of Jan and Cristoforis, former directors. — Opposite stands 
the Palazzo Melzi, containing paintings by Cesare da Sesto, etc. 

At the N.W. angle of the city lies the spacious Piazza d'Armi 
(PI. B, C, 3), 783 yds. long and 748 yds. wide, which is shortly to 
be laid out as a park, with the Castello, once the seat of the Visconti 
and the Sforza, and now a barrack. The corner-towers and part of 
the walls connecting them on the S.W. side are the sole remains of 
the original building (adm. to the Sala de Consiglio with permesso 
from the commandant, Via di Brera). On the N.E. side of the 
Piazza is the Arena (PI. C,2), a kind of circus for races, etc., which 
was constructed under Napoleon I., and can accommodate 30,000 
spectators (fee ife f r -)- 

SARONNO. IS. Route. 111 

Opposite the castle , on the N.W. side of the Piazza is the 
Arco del Sempione (PL B, 2; ascent 50 c.) , a triumphal arch in 
the Roman style constructed entirely of white marble from designs by 
L. Cagnola , begun in 1804 by Napoleon as a termination to the 
Simplon route (p. 3), and completed by the Emp. Francis in 1838. 
Most of the sculptures are by Pompeo Marchesi. 

To the N.W. of the city (comp. PL C, D, 1 ; tramway to Porta 
Volta, p. 90) lies the *Cemetery (Cimitero Monumentale), designed 
by C. Macciachini, 50 acres in area, enclosed by colonnades, and 
one of the finest 'campi santi' in Italy. (The guide, who speaks 
French, demands a fee of H/2 fr. for each person.) Fine view of 
the Alps. The numerous and handsome monuments, among which 
those of the Sonzogno, Turati, Brambilla, Verazzi, Nasoni, Pagnoni, 
and Cicogna families deserve special mention , form an admirable 
museum of modern Milanese sculpture. In the last section is 
situated the i Tempio di Cremazione\ for the burning of dead bodies 
(15-20 monthly), presented to the town in 1876 by a Swiss resident 
(custodian 50 c). The process of cremation occupies less than 1 hr. 
and the cost is 50 fr. Paupers are cremated without charge. 

18. From Milan to Como and Lecco. 

A. From Milan to Como via Saronno. 

28V2 M. Eailway in l 3 /4-2V4 hrs. (fares 3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 90 c. 
return [andata e ritorno], 5 fr., 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 25 c). — The trains start 
from the Stazione Erba, Foro Bonaparte (PI. C, 4). 

As far as (3 M.) Bovisa see p. 116. — 5 M. Novate; 6 M. Bol- 
late; 9^2 M. Garbagnate ; 11 M. Caronno. 

13 J / 2 M. Saronno (Albergo Madonna; Leon d'Oro, well spoken 
of), a large village on the Lura, with 7200 inhab., known in Italy 
for its excellent gingerbread (amaretti). — A quadruple avenue of 
plane-trees leads W. from the station to the *Santuario della 
Bbata Yergine, a celebrated pilgrimage-church, built at different 
times between the end of the 15th and the end of the 17th cent., 
chiefly in a pompous baroque style. It contains a series of ad- 
mirable frescoes. 

The paintings in the interior of the dome represent a concert of 
angels, and are by Oaudenzio Ferrari. Round the drum are several wooden 
statues by Andrea Fusina. The frescoes immediately below the drum are 
by Lanini, those in the next section by Cesare da Sesto and Bernard. 
Luini (SS. Rochus and Sebastian). The remaining frescoes are all by 
Luini, who, as the story goes, sought an asylum in the sanctuary of Sa- 
ronno after killing a man in self-defence, and had to work at the bidding 
of the monks. In the passage leading to the choir are depicted the Mar- 
riage of the Virgin and Christ among the doctors ; in the choir itself, 
the "'Adoration of the Magi and the *Presentation in the Temple. Above, 
in the panels and lunettes, are Sibyls, Evangelists, and Church Fathers. 
A small apse built out from the choir contains paintings of *S. Apollonia 
to the right, and *S. Catharine to the left, each with an angel. 

Saronno is a station on the line from Novara to Seregno (p. 50). 
— From Saronno to Laveno, see p. 128. 

112 Route 18. MONZA. From Milan 

151/2 M. Rovello; 17 M. Rovellasca; 19l/ 4 M. Lomazzo ; 20 M. 
Caslino; 2iy 4 M. Cadorago ; 23 M. Fino ; 233/ 4 M. Portichetto; 
25^2 M. Grandate; 27 V2 M - Camerlata , at tlie foot of a moun- 
tain-cone, bearing the ruined Castello Baradello, once a residence of 
Frederick Barbarossa (p. 114). — 2872 M. Como. The train stops first 
at Porta del Torre (p. 113), and then goes on to the Stazione Ferrovia 
Nord on the bank of the lake. 

B. From Milan to Como and Lecco via Monza. 

From Milan to Como , 30 M., railway in lVrl'A hr. (fares 5 fr. 40, 
3 fr. 80, 2 fr. 45 c. ; express, 6 fr., 4 fr. 55 c). Through-tickets may be 
obtained at the railway-station of Milan for Como, Tremezzo, Cadenab- 
bia, Bellagio, Menaggio, and Colico. — From Milan to Lecco , 32 M. , 
railway in l 3 /4-2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 80, 4 fr. 5, 2 fr. 60 c). 

The line traverses a fertile plain, luxuriantly clothed with vine- 
yards, mulberry-plantations, and fields of maize, and intersected 
by innumerable canals and cuttings for purposes of irrigation. 
— 2'/2 M. Greco; 472 M. Sesto-San Giovanni. 

8 M. Monza {Alb. del Castello, 8. Filippo, Falcone, near the 
station) is a town with 15,500 (incl. suburbs 28,000) inhabitants. 
Leaving the station and following the Via Italia to the right, we 
pass the church of 8. Maria in Istrada (2nd on the right), with a 
Gothic brick facade of 1327, and soon reach the *Cathedral, the 
chief object of interest. It was erected in the 14th cent, in the 
Lombard Gothic style by Marco da Campione on the site of a church 
founded in 595 by the Lombard queen Theodolinda, and contains 
double aisles and transept, flanked with chapels on both sides. 
Above the portal is a very curious relief representing Queen Theo- 
dolinda amid her treasures ; below, the Baptism of Christ. 

Interior. In in the E. transept is a relief representing the coronation 
of Emp. Charles IV. (1355). — The chapel to the right of the choir, re- 
cently restored by Beltrami, contains the plain sarcophagus of Queen 
Theodolinda (beginning of 14th cent.). A new Gothic altar has also been 
designed by Beltrami for the reception of the celebrated Iron Crown, 
with which 34 Lombard kings were crowned. This venerable relic was last 
used at the coronation of the Emp. Charles V., of Napoleon in 1805, and 
of Emp. Ferdinand I. in 1838. It consists of a broad hoop of gold adorned 
with precious stones, round the interior of which is a thin strip of iron, 
said to have been made from a nail of the true Cross brought by the em- 
press Helena from Palestine. In 1859 it was carried off by the Austrians, but 
after the peace of 1866 was restored to its former repository, and until 
lately preserved in tlie crypt. (Fee for seeing the crown, 5fr.) — The Trea- 
sury (fee 1 fr., 5 fr. for a party) contains several objects of historical in- 
terest : a hen with seven chickens in gold, representing Lombardy and its 
seven provinces, executed by order of Queen Theodolinda; the queen's crown, 
fan, and comb; two silver loaves, presented by Napoleon I. after his coro- 
nation; the cross which was placed on the breast of the Lombard kings at 
the moment of their coronation ; a richly-adorned book-cover with an in- 
scription of Theodolinda; reliquary, cross, and missals of Berengarius; 
goblet of sapphire, with a stem of Gothic workmanship; Gothic goblet of 
Gian Galeazzo Visconti; fine diptychs of the 4-6th cent. ; Gothic carvings 
in ivory; 'ampullae 1 from the Roman catacombs (vessels with a dark-red 
deposit supposed to be the blood of martyrs) ; Byzantine pilgrim-flasks from 
Palestine; model of the iron crown. A cabinet outside the church contains 
the mammy of one of the Visconti, who died in 1413. 

to Como. COMO. 75. Route. 1 1 3 

The handsome Gothic Municipio, or town-hall, dates from the 
13th century. The royal Summer Palace near Monza is a large 
building with an extensive and beautiful park , traversed by the 

Teamwat from Monza to Milan and to Barzanb, see p. 90. — Another 
tramway runs from Monza to Vimercale, and via, Trezzo (p. 115) to (2i/4hrs.) 

The lines to Como and Lecco divide at Monza. The former line 
runs to the N.W., affording pleasant views, to the right, of the 
fertile Brianza (p. 116)", with its numerous country-residences. The 
train passes through several tunnels. 11 M. Lissone- Muggio. 
To the right rises the long, indented Monte Resegone, to the left of 
which are the Monte Grigna and the mountains reaching to the 
Spliigen. — 12y 2 M. Desio. — 14i/ 2 M - Seregno, a town with 7600 
inhab., is the junction of branch-lines to Novara (p. 50), and to 
(25 M.) Bergamo (in l 1 ,^ hr.), "via, Usmate-Carnate (p. 115) and 
Ponte S. Pietro (p. 151). — From (18 M.) Camnago a branch-line 
diverges to Seveso S. Pietro (p. 116). 20 */ 2 M - Carimate ; 2U/ 2 M. 
Cantii-Asnago ; 24y 2 M. Cucciago; 28 M. Albate-Camerlata (p. 112). 
— 30 M. Como; omn. to the quay 30 c, included in through-tickets. 

Como. ■ — Arrival. The Slazione Mediterranean or principal station 
(St. Gotthard Railway), is V2 J I. from the quay. The Stazione Ferrovia 
Nord lies 200 yds. to the left from the quay (branch-lines to Saronno and 
Milan, p. Ill, and to Varese and Laveno, p. 129). 

Hotels. Hotel Volta, R., L., & A. 5-6, B. H/2, dej. 3V2, D- 5, pens. 
8-10, omn. 1 fr. ; Italia, R., L., & A. 21/2-4, B. li/ 2 , dej. 21/2, D. 4, pens, 
from 8, omn. V2 fr. ; Hotel-Pension Suisse, with cafe and restaurant, 
mediocre, R. 2, L. 1/2, A. s/ 4) b. I1/4, dej. 2, D. 31/2, pens. 8, omn. 3/ 4 fr.; 
Cappello, good Italian cuisine, R., L., & A. 3, B. iy 4 , dej. 3, D. 4 J /2, 
pens. 8 fr. ; Falcone. All these are at the harbour, where there are several 
Cafe's. — Restaurants. ~ Trattoria Frasconi, at the end of a street leading 
straight to the harbour, in the corner of the square. — Baths in the lake 
by the Giardino Pubblico, to the left, outside the pier. — Books, photographs, 
etc : Meyer & Zeller, in the Hot. Volta. — Carriage with one horse to 
Erba and Bellagio (5-6 hrs.), 25 fr. and fee of 3 fr. 

Como (705 ft.), the capital of a province, with 11,000 inhab. (com- 
mune 25,600), and large silk-factories, the birthplace of the elder 
and younger Pliny and of the electrician and philosopher Volta 
(1745-1826 ; whose Statue by P. Marches! is on the W. side of the 
.town near the quay), lies at the S. end of the S."W. arm of the Lake 
of Como, and is enclosed by an amphitheatre of mountains. It was 
the Roman Comum, and of some importance in the middle ages. 

The *Cathedral, begun in the Gothic style in 1396, and altered 
in the Renaissance style by Tommaso Rodari (choir, transept, 
outside of nave) in 1486, is built entirely of marble, and is one of 
the best in N. Italy. The S. portal is by Bramante; the dome is 
modern. The greater part of the sumptuous plastic ornamentation is 
by Rodari and other contemporary Lombard artists. Over the magni- 
ficent W. portal are reliefs (Adoration of the Magi) and statuettes 
(Mary with S. Abbondio, etc.). At the sides of the main entrance 
are statues of the elder and the younger Pliny, erected in 1498. 

Baedeker Ttniv T flfh V.AH. 8 

I 14 Route 18. COMO. 

Interior. The gaudy vaulting , restored in 1838 at a cost of 
600,000 fr. , destroys the effect of the fine proportions , which resemhle 
those of the Certosa near Pavia (p. 141). The windows of the portal 
contain good modern stained glass, representing the history of S. Abbon- 
dio ; there are others to the right of the entrance and in the choir. — To 
the right of the entrance is the monument of Cardinal Tolomeo Gallio , a 
benefactor of the town, erected in 1861. Farther on, to the right, 2nd 
*Altar, di S. Abbondio, with handsome wood-carving, and scenes .from the 
life of the saint; adjoining (1.) the "Adoration of the Magi, by Bern. Luini, 
and (r.) the Flight into Egypt, by Gaud. Ferrari. Over the (3rd) altar of 
St. Jerome a "Madonna by B. Luini. In the N. Transept the Altare del 
Crocefisso of 1498, with a fine statue of St. Sebastian. In the Choir the 
Apostles, by Pompeo Marchesi. The Sacristy contains pictures by Guido 
Reni, Paolo Veronese, etc. In the Left Aisle, the altar of the Mater Dolo- 
rosa with an Entombment by Tommaso Rodari (1498). At the Altare di 
S. Giuseppe: 1. G. Ferrari, Nuptials of the Virgin, in style resembling 
Raphael ; r. B. Luini, Nativity •, St. Joseph , a statue by P. Marchesi, and 
a basrelief below, the last work of this master •, by the third altar the 
busts of Pope Innocent XI. (Odescalchi) and Carlo Ravelli, bishop of Como. 

Adjoining the church is the Town Hall (Municipio), constructed 
of alternate courses of different-coloured stones, and completed in 
1215. Behind the cathedral is the Theatre, erected in 1813. In 
the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, which runs S. from the cathedral, is the 
rear of the church of S. Fedele, with a fine semicircular apse. The 
chief facade of the church , in the Piazza del Mercato, is as little 
worthy of attention as the completely spoiled interior. The Porta 
del Torre, a massive five-storied structure, is also worthy of note. 
— In the Piazza Yittoria is a bronze Statue of Garibaldi, by Vela. 

On the promenade outside the town is the church Del Cro- 
cefisso, of the 17th cent., richly decorated with marble and gold; 
i/^hr. farther, to the left, on the slope of the mountain, is the fine 
old Basilica S. Abbondio, a Lombard structure of the 8th cent., 
afterwards frequently altered. Beneath it the remains of a church of 
the 5th cent, have been found. — The Castello Baradello (p. 112), 
reached by a tolerable footpath in 1^2 h r -> is an excellent point 
of view. 

Excursions. On the E. bank a beautiful new road leads along the 
hillside, high above the lake , affording a variety of charming views, to 
(4V2 M.) Torno (p. 119). — High above Como, to the N. E., lies the village 
of Brunate (2405 ft.), the home of itinerant barometer-vendors, enjoying 
a beautiful view towards the W., as far as Monte Rosa. It is reached in 
l J /z hr. by a zigzag-road to the N. of the suburb of Borgo S. Agostino. 

From Como to Lugano, see p. 14; to Varese, see p. 129. 

From Como to Lecco, 26 M., railway in 274-272 hrs. (4 fr. 75, 3 fr. 
35, 2 fr. 15 c). — 3 M. Albate-Camerlata, see p. 112; 5 M. Albate-Trecallo; 
772 M. Cantii; 10 M. Brenna-Alzate , between the villages of these names; 

II M. Anzano del Parco. To the left lies the Logo d'Alserio. — 1372 M. 
Merone-Pontenuovo , the junction of the Milan and Erba line (p. 116). — 
15 M. Mojana; 15 3 /4 M. Casletto-Rogeno , on the S. bank of the Lago di 
Pt/siano; 17 M. Motteno ; I872 M. Oggiono , at the S. end of the Lago 
d'Annone. The train then runs along the E. bank of this lake to (22 M.) 
Sala al Barro, the starting-point for an ascent of Mte. Baro (p. 115), which 
rises to the E. The Lago d'Annone is connected with the Lake of Lecco 
by the Ritorto, the course of which we follow beyond (2272 M.) Civate. 
The Mte. Re^egone is prominent to the E. — 2372 M. Valmadrera. The 
train then penetrates a tunnel, crosses the wide Adda by a new bridge, 
and reaches (26 M.) Lecco (p. 115). 

LECCO. 18. Route. 1 1 5 

The Railway from Monza to Lecco skirts the S.E. slopes of the 
beautiful range of hills of the Brianza (p. 116), studded with num- 
erous villas of the wealthy Milanese. — l^ 1 /^ M. Arcore. From 
(15Y2 M.) Vsmate-Carnate, also a station on the line from Seregno 
to Ponte 8. Pietro and Bergamo (p. 113) , an omnibus runs in 
3 / 4 hr. to Monticello (Hotel Monticello), a summer-resort a little to 
the N.W. — From (19 M.) Cemusco - Merate a pleasant excursion 
may be taken to the lofty Montevecchia, situated towards the N.W. 
(IY2 hr. ; the church of Montevecchia commands an excellent view 
of the Lombard plain, Milan, Cremona, Novara , and part of the 
Brianza, etc.; good wine, but a poor inn; pleasant return-route by 
Missaglia, with a guide, H/4 hr. ; thence by carriage to Merate; 
fine views). The village of Merate (Albergo del Sole), 1 M. from 
the station, was formerly fortified ; pretty villas. — 21 M. Olgiate- 
Molgora ; then a tunnel, beyond which a view of the valley of the 
Adda is obtained to the right. The train descends, crosses the river 
by an iron bridge, and joins the Lecco and Bergamo line at (27 ^ M.) 
Calolzio. — 30 M. Maggianico. 

32 M. Lecco. — Croce di Malta ; Italia, both in the Italian style ; 
Leone d'Oeo; Doe Torri, well spoken of; Albergo-Ristorante Maz- 
zoleni, at the pier. — Rail. Restaurant, clean. — Omn. between the station 
and the pier 50 c. 

Lecco is an industrial town with 8000 inhab. and silk, cotton, 
and iron manufactories, at the S. end of the Lake of Lecco or E. arm 
of the Lake of Como (p. 122), from which the Adda here emerges. A 
statue of Garibaldi, by Confalonieri, was unveiled in the piazza in 
1884. The same artist is engaged on a statue of Alessandro Man- 
zoni (b. in Milan 1785, d. 1873), the poet and head of the romantic 
school. The pedestal is decorated with reliefs from Manzoni's cele- 
brated romance 'I Promessi Sposi'. Pleasant walks, admirably de- 
scribed in 'I Promessi Sposi', to the hill of 8. Gerolamo, with a pil- 
grimage-church and a ruined castle (% hr.), etc. The Ponte Grande, a 
stone-bridge of ten arches, constructed in 1335 by Azzone Visconti, 
and furnished with fortified towers at the extremities, leads S. 
from Lecco to Pescate , where the road divides : the right branch, 
passing the village of Malgrate (with many silk-factories) to the "W. 
of Lecco, leads to Como (p. 113), the left branch southwards to 
Milan. To the N. of Malgrate is the promontory of 8. Dionigio. 

From Lecco we may ascend via Pescate to (2 hrs.) the top of Monte 
Baro (3150 ft.), which may also be ascended from Sala al Barro (p. 114). 
About two-thirds of the way up is an inn. The top affords a fine *View 
of the Brianza. 

Below Lecco the Adda expands into the Lago di Oarlate, and further 
down, into the small Lago d' Olginate. A navigable canal connects Trezzo 
(p. 113) with Milan. — From Lecco to Bergamo, see p. 151. 


19. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza. 

Railway from Milan to (27 M.) Incino-Erba (station, PI. C, 4) in IV2- 
l3/ 4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 25, 2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 55 c. ; return-tickets 6 fr. 80, 4 fr., 
2 fr. 80 c). — High-road from Erba to Bellagio. 

Brianza is the name of the undulating, grassy, partially wooded, and 
extremely fertile tract, 12 M. in length, 6 M. in hreadth, extending be- 
tween the Seveso and the Adda, and stretching to the N. to the triangular 
peninsula which divides the (Jomo and Lecco lakes. The soil is very 
fertile, and the whole district studded with villas peeping out from vines, 
orchards, and mulberry plantations. In the centre are several small lakes 
(Lago d Annone, Pusiano, Alserio, Segrino, and Montorfano). 

The Railway from Milan to Incino-Erba traverses a well- 
cultivated and well-watered plain. As far as (2^2 M.) Bovisa it 
coincides with the line to Saronno (p. 111). 4y 2 M - Affori; 5 M. 
Bruzzano ; b^fe M. Cormanno. The train now crosses the small 
Seveso. 6 M. Cusano; 7'^ M. Pademo ; 9 M. Palazzolo. Beyond 
(10 M.) Varedo the tTain again crosses the Seveso and reaches 
(11 M.) Bovisio. 12 M. Cesano- Maderno. From (14 M.) Seveso 
S. Pietro a branch-line diverges to (IV4 M.) Camnago (p. 113), a 
station on the Monza - Como railway, which our line crosses near 
(15 M.) Meda. 16 M. Cabiate; 17 1/3 M. Mariano. Near (18y 2 M.) 
Carugo-Qiussano the country becomes hilly. 20 M. Aroslo, pleas- 
antly situated amid vine-clad hills, some of which are crowned with 
villages and country-houses. 21 M. Inverigo, a pretty village, in the 
valley of the Lambro. On an eminence rises the *Rotonda, one of 
the finest villas in the Brianza , with a park and admirably-kept 
garden, and commanding an extensive view. The Villa Crivelli is 
famous for its cypresses. The train now ascends the valley of the 
Lambro. 23 M. Lambrugo; 25y 2 M. Pontenuovo , the junction of 
the Lecco and Como line (p. 114). The Lago d' Alserio is passed 
on the left and the Lago di Pusiano on the right. The train enters 
the charming plain of Erba (Pian d'Erba). 

27 M. Incino-Erba , the station for the village of Incino and 
the small town of Erba. Incino, the ancient Liciniforum, contains 
a lofty Lombard campanile. Erba (1020 ft. ; Albergo) lies a little 
to the N., on the road from Como to Lecco, which here traverses 
the fertile and terraced slopes of a small hill. It contains several 
handsome villas , among which is the Villa Amalia, on the N.W. 
side, commanding a charming view of the Brianza. 

From Erba to Bellagio , about 15 M. ; a highly interesting 
excursion. — We at first follow the road to Lecco (p. 115), which 
before reaching the Lambro crosses the road from Seregno (p. 113) 
to Bellagio. The latter leads to the N., following the course of 
the Lambro. It soon enters a mountainous district, and the scenery 
becomes more attractive. Caslino , possessing considerable silk- 
factories (filatoje), rises picturesquely on the slope of the hill. 

4 M. Canzo (Croce di Malta) is almost contiguous to (l^M.) 
Asso, the two numbering together 3200 inhabitants. At the entrance 
of Asso is a large silk-manufactory. 

■ M. stxu wurs 

LAKE OF COMO. 20. Route. 1 17 

The road now gradually ascends for a considerable distance in 
the picturesque valley of the Lambro, the Vall' Assina, the slopes 
of which are well wooded; it passes through (2 M.) Lasnigo, (2 M.) 
Barni, and Magreglio, where it becomes steeper; first view of "both 
arms of the Lake of Como from the eminence near the (1 M.) Chapel. 

Delightful *Survey of the entire E. arm to Lecco and far "be- 
yond, from the hack of the first church of (iy 4 M.) Civenna (Inn), 
with its graceful tower. The road now runs for 2M. along the shady 
brow of the mountain,, which extends into the lake at Bellagio. 
Beyond the chapel , adjoining which is the tomb of the Trotti fam- 
ily , good views are obtained of the W. arm of the lake (of Como), 
the Tremezzina with the Villa Carlotta and Cadenabbia, the E. arm 
(Lake of Lecco), a large portion of the road on the E. bank, the 
entire lake from the promontory of Bellagio to Domaso (p. 124), 
and the rising ground with the Serbelloni park. 

The road winds downwards for about 3 M., finally passing the 
Villa Qiulia (p. 121) on the right. From Civenna to the hotels at 
Bellagio on the lake (p. 120) 2 hrs. walk. 

A longer route, which will reward the pedestrian, is by the Monte 
S. Primo (5585 ft.). Ascent from Canzo with a guide in 4-5 hrs., descent 
to Bellagio 3 hrs. (fatiguing , over debris). Magnificent panorama from 
the summit, comprising the Brianza as far as Milan, and the Lake of 
Como to the N. as far as the Alps from Monte Rosa to the Splugen. 

20. Lake of Como. 

Plan of Excursion. The Lakes of Como and Lugano (p. 126) and the 
Lago Maggiore (R. 23) may be visited from Milan most expeditiously as 
follows : train or tramway in l 3 /4-2 hrs. to Como (Cathedral) ; proceed by 
steamboat in the afternoon in l x /2 hr. to Cadenabbia or Bellagio, the latter 
the most beautiful point on the Lake of Como, and spend the night there. 
In the evening and next morning visit Villa Carlotta and Villa Serbelloni ; 
by steamboat in V* hr., or by rowing-boat, to Menaggio; thence by rail- 
way in 1 hr. to Porlezza, in time for the steamboat which starts for Lugano 
(p. 127) , arriving early enough to leave time for the ascent of Monte S. 
Salvatore. From Lugano by steamboat in l'/4 hr. to Ponte Tresa and thence 
by steam-tramway in 3 /t hr. to Luino; steamboat from Luino in l 1 /? hr. 
to the Borromean Islands, thence in 1 hr. to Arona. Railway from Arona 
to Milan, see p. 130. The Circular Todr Tickets (see p. xvii) issued 
for this excursion are economical and convenient. 

Steamboat thrice daily from Como to Colico in 372-5 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 70, 
2fr. 60 c.) ; five times daily from Como to Bellagio, eight times to Torriggia; 
twice daily from Como to Lecco in 3!/2-4 hrs.; thrice daily from Lecco 
to Colico in 3V2-4V« ^ rs - Stations between Como and Colico : Cernobbio 
(pier), Blevio, Moltrasio (pier), Torno, Urio, Curate (pier), Palanzo, Pognana, 
Torriggia, JVesso, Argegno (pier), Sala, Campo & Lezzeno, Lenno, Azzano, 
Tremezzo & S. Giovanni (pier), Cadenabbia (pier), Bellagio (pier), Menaggio 
(pier), Varenna (pier), Gittana & Regoledo, Bellano (pier), Acquaseria, Rez- 
zonico, Dervio, Cremia , Musso , Bongo (pier) , Gravedona (pier), Domaso, 
Colico (pier). Embarkation and landing free (the tickets have a coupon 
which is given to the boatman). Those who embark at intermediate 
stations must procure a ticket at the pier; otherwise they are liable to 
be charged for the whole distance from Como or Colico. Some of these 
stations are often passed without stopping, and the advertised hours are 
not rigidly adhered to. Some of the boats are handsome saloon-steamers, 
with good restaurants on board. 

118 Route 20. 


Rowing-boats (barca). First hour IV2 fr. for one rower, 3 fr. for two, 
and 4y 2 fr. for three, each additional hour i fr. each rower. From Bel- 
lagio to Cadenabbia (Villa Carlotta) and back , each rower 2 1 /z fr. ; Bel- 
lagio to Tremezzo, Bellagio to Menaggio, and Bellagio to Varenna also 
2V2 fr. each rower; Bellagio to Villa Melzi, Villa Carlotta, and back, each 
rower 3 fr. — One rower suffices, unless the traveller is pressed for time; 
a second may be dismissed with the words 'basta uno ! ' When travellers 
are not numerous , the boatmen readily reduce their demands. In addi- 
tion to the fare, it is usual to give a i buonamano' of V2fr. or 1 fr. accord- 
ing to the length of the excursion. 

The *Lake of Como (700 ft.), Italian Lago di Como or II Lario, 
the Lacus Larius of the Romans , is extolled by Virgil (Georg. ii. 
159), and is in the estimation of many the most beautiful lake in 
N. Italy. Length from Como to the N. extremity 30 M. ; greatest 
width between Menaggio and Varenna nearly 2^ M. ; greatest depth 
1930 ft. At Bellagio (p. 120) the lake divides into two branches, 
called respectively the Lakes of Como (W.) and Lecco (E.). The 
Adda enters at the upper extremity and makes its egress near 
Lecco. The "W. arm has no outlet. Numerous villages and the gay 
villas of the Milanese aristocracy, surrounded by luxuriant gardens 
and vineyards, are scattered along the banks of the lake. In the 
forests above, the brilliant green of the chestnut and walnut con- 
trasts strongly with the greyish tints of the olive, which to the 
unaccustomed eye bears a strong resemblance to the willow. The 
mountains rise to a height of 7000 ft. — The industrious inhabi- 
tants of the banks of the lake are much occupied in the production 
and manufacture of silk. Tasteful articles in olive-wood are made 
at Bellagio. — The lake abounds in fish, and trout of 20 lbs. weight 
are occasionally captured. The 'Agoni' are small, but palatable. 

The prospect from the quay at Como is limited , but as soon as 
the steamer has passed the first promontory on the E., the Punta 
di Geno, the beauty of the lake is disclosed to view. 

Lake of Go mo. 

W. Bank. 

Borgo Vico , the N.W. suburb 
of Como , with the * Villa dell' 
Olmo, formerly Villa Raimondi, 
at the N. end, the largest on the 
lake, belonging to the Duke of 
Visconti-Modrone, with splendid 
halls and fine park (strangers ad- 

Villa Tavernola, beyond the 
mouth of the Breggia. VillaGon- 
zalez ; Villa Cima, in a beauti- 
ful park. 

Cernobbio. — *Grand Hotel 
Villa d'Este et Reine d'Angle- 
xekke, pens. 7-10 fr., with pleasant 

E. Bank. 

Borgo S. Agostino , the N.E. 
suburb of Como. A road has been 
constructed along the lake(comp. 
p. 114). Numerous wine-cellars. 
On the hill above is the village of 
Brunate (p. 114), commanding a 
fine view. 

Blevio, with its numerous 
villas, including those of Mylius, 
Ricordi, and Taglioni , with a 
Swiss cottage, formerly the prop- 
erty of the famous danseuse. 
Villa Pasta was the residence of 
the celebrated singer (d. 1865). 


20. Route. 1 1 9 

W. Bank. 

grounds, frequented by English* and 
Americans; *Alb. Milano, Italian; 
Hot. de la Reine Olga et Cernobbio, 
R., L., & A. 3-5, B. IVz, dej. 3, D. 4, 
omn. 1 fr. 

Cernobbio is a considerable 
village, surrounded by handsome 
villas : Belinzaghi, Baroggi, and 
others. High above lies the church 
of Rovenna. 

Villa Volpi, formerly Pizzo, on 
a promontory extending far into 
the lake. 

Villa Cavallini. 

Moltrasio (Alb. Caramazza), in 
a beautiful situation , with the 
factory-like Palazzo Passalacqua, 
rising above its terraced garden. 

TJrio; then Carate (Hot. -Pens. 
Lario), with the Monte Bisbino 
(4390 ft. ; fine views) in the back- 
ground. — Villa Colobiano. The 
lofty pyramid was erected to the 
memory of Dr. Frank, a professor 
of Pavia (d. 1851), with money 
left by him for the purpose. 

Laglio, with Villa Vitali, for- 
merly Antonglna. — Oermanello. 

Torrigia (Ristor. Oasarico) ; on 
the promontory the Villa Elisa. 

Brienno , embosomed in laurels . 

Argegno (Alb. & Ristor. Telo; 
Alb. Barchetta), at the mouth of 
the Intelvi Valley, in which lies 
(8 l /2 M., by road) Lanzo d'' Intelvi 
(p. 126). 

Colonno ; then Sala, with the 
small island of S. Giovanni, or 
Comacina, frequently mentioned 
in the annals of mediaeval war- 
fare, now occupied by a small 
church. Monte Legnone, and 
Monte Legnoncino (p. 123) are 
distinctly visible towards the N.E. 

Campo lies in a bay formed by 

E. Bank. 
Villa Taverna, with fine gar- 

Torno (Alb. Bella Venezia) has 
a pretty church and is surrounded 
by villas. 

Villa Pliniana , in the bay of 
Molina , at the entrance of a 
narrow gorge, erected in 1570 by 
Count Anguissola, is now the 
property of the Marchesa Trotti. 
It derives its name of Pliniana 
from a neighbouring spring which 
daily changes its level, a pe- 
culiarity mentioned both by the 
younger and the older Pliny. 
The passages are inscribed on 
the walls of the court. 

Riva di Palanzo and Pognana ; 

then Quarsano and Careno. 

The attractive ascent of Monte 
S. Primo may be made by a steep 
path via- Zelbio in 4 hrs. (comp. 
p. 117). Descent to Bellagio, see 
p. 121. 

Nesso, at the mouth of the Vol 
di Sessa , which ascends to the 
Piano del Tivano (3800 ft.), with 
a high waterfall in a narrow 
gorge, frequently dry in summer. 

Beyond La Cavagnola we ob- 
tain the first view of Bellagio. 

Near Lezzeno is one of the 
deepest parts of the lake. 

Villa Besana. 

S. Giovanni , with the Villa 
Trotli (fine garden, visitors ad- 

120 Route 20. 



W. Bank. 

the promontory oiLavedo, which 
here projects far into the lake. 
On its extremity ( 3 /4 M. from 
Campo or Lenno) glitters the Villa 
Arcomati, formerly Balbianello, 
with its colonnade (visitors ad- 
mitted ; fine view). 

In the bay lie Lenno and Azza- 
no. On the slope above, Mezzegra. 

Tremezzo. — *Alb. Bazzoni, 
cheaper than the large hotels in Ca- 
denabhia and Bellagio. 

Tremezzo, practically forming 
with Cadenabbia one place in- 
cluding the Villa Carlotta (see 
below), is situated in the Tre- 
mezzina, a beautiful district just- 
ly called the garden of Lombardy. 

Interesting excursion (there 
and back, 3-4 hrs.) by Lenno to 
*S. Maria delSoccorso, a pilgrim- 
age church with beautiful view 
(the sacristan sells refresh- 
ments) ; return by Mezzegra. 

Cadenabbia. — *Bellevue, ad- 
joining the Villa Carlotta, with shady 
grounds on the lake (Engl, church 
service in summer); : Belle-Ile, R., 
L., & A. 2-4, B. li/4, dej. 21/4, D. 
472, pens. 7-10 fr. ; *Beitannia, R. 2- 
4, L. s/ 4) A. 1/2, B. IV2, dej- 3, D. 
4V2, pens. 7-12, omn. 1 fr. ; Hotel- 
Pension Cadenabbia. Cafi Lavezari. 
— Hotel-omnibuses at the pier. 

Cadenabbia, in a sheltered sit- 
uation halfway between Oomo and 
Colico, is now a favourite resort 
of the English. In the vicinity 
(S.W.), in a garden sloping down 
to the lake, stands the celebrated 
*Villa Carlotta y or Sommariva, 
from the count of that name to 
whom it formerly belonged. In 
1843 it came into the possession 
of Princess Albert of Prussia, from 
whose daughter Charlotte (d. 
1855) it derives its present ap- 
pellation. The widower of the 

E. Bank. 

Villa Trivulzi, formerly Poldi, 
contains the mausoleum of the 
last of the Gonzagas, in the form 
of a round Romanesque temple. 
Fine view. Visitors are admitted 
to the beautiful garden. 

Villa Melzi, erected by Alber- 
tolli in 1810-15, for Count Melzi 
d'Erile , who was vice-president 
of the Italian Republic in 1802, 
and was made Duke of Lodi by 
Napoleon in 1807. It possesses 
numerous works of art and a 
splendid garden (adm. Thurs. & 
Sat., 1 fr. and fee to the atten- 
dant). The Villa Melzi is 1/2 M. 
to the S. of Bellagio. 

Bellagio. — "Grande Beetagne ; 
frequented by the English, and 
*Grand Hotel Bellagio, R., 31/2-6, 
L. & A. 2, B. I1/2, dej. 3»/2, D. 5, 
pens. 10-16, omn. s/ 4 fr., both well 
fitted up, and the property of com- 
panies, beautifully situated on the 
lake, with corresponding charges; 
Geand Hotel & Pension Villa See- 
belloni, on the hill in the beauti- 
ful park mentioned below, com- 
manding a fine view, a dependance 
of the Grande Bretagne, with the same 
charges, but inferior in comfort, 
pens. 12-14 fr. -, *Genazzini, also 
beautifully situated on the lake, R., 
L., & A. 21/2-5, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 41/2, 
pens. 8-10 fr. — Of less pretension: 
*Hotel & Pension Flobence, R., L., 
& A. 21/2-4, B. I1/2, dej. 21/2, D. 4, 
pens. 7V2-9, omn. 1/2 fr. : Pension 
Suisse, R. li/ 2 -2, L. 1/2, A. 1/2, B. 1, 
dej. 21/2, D. 31/2, pens. 6-7 fr. ; Pens. 
des Etkangees, dej. 21/2, pens. 7- 
11 fr. ; Albekgo del Vapoke, all on 
the lake. — Beer at the Cafi-Rest. 
des Etrangers, see above ; Rest, de 
V H6t. de Florence. — The large hotels 
send omnibuses to meet the steamers. 

Lace, Silk Goods , and Olive-wood 
Carvings at numerous shops. 

Rowing Boats, see p. 118. 

English Church. 

Bellagio (710 ft.), a small town 
with 3235 inhab. , at the W. base 

of Como. 


20. Route. 121 

W. Bank. 

latter, Duke George of Saxe-Mei- 

ningen, is the present proprietor. 

Visitors ring at the entrance to 

the garden and ascend the broad 

flight of steps (accessible from 8 

to 5 ; fee to steward and gardener 

Y2 ft- eacn P er pers., parties 1- 

11/2 ft.). 

Interior. The Marble Hall con- 
tains a frieze decorated with cele- 
brated **Reliefs by Thorvaldsen, re- 
presenting the Triumph of Alexan- 
der (for which a sum of nearly 
375,000 fr. was paid by Count Som- 
mariva); also several statues by 
Canova (Cupid and Psyche, Magda- 
lene, Palamedes, Venus) 5 Paris by 
Fontana; bust of Count Sommariva-, 
Mars and. Venus, by Acquisti; Cupid 
giving water to pigeons , by Bien- 
aimi , etc. The Billiard Room 
contains casts , and a small frieze 
in marble on the chimney-piece 
representing a Bacchanalian pro- 
cession , said to be an early work 
of Thorvaldsen. — In the Garden 
Saloon several modern pictures {Ha- 
yez , Romeo and Juliet \ Lordon, 
Atala), and a marble relief of Na- 
poleon when consul, by Lazzarini. 

The 'Garden, which stretches to 
the S. to Tremezzo, and to the N. 
towards the Hotel de Bellevue, con- 
tains the most luxuriant vegetation ; 
on the S. side of the Villa is a 
splendid magnolia ; pleasant view 
towards Bellagio. 

B^»d Cadenabbia rises II 
Sasso S) Martino , a rock on 
which stands the Madonna di S. 
Martino, a small church , com- 
manding a beautiful view; ascent 
IY2 nr - ( we proceed via Griante 
to the small chapel of S. Rocco 
and then follow the paved track). 

The Monte Crocione (5600 ft.), a 
more lofty mountain to the W., com- 
mands a striking view of the Monte 
Rosa chain, the Bernese Alps and 
MontBlanc, the lakes and the plain of 
Lombardy (a fatiguing ascent of 6- 
7 hrs. ; guide 5 fr. ; in order to avoid 
the heat the traveller should start at 
2 a.m.). 

From Cadenabbia to (2 M.J 
Menaggio, good road, with views. 

E. Bank. 
of the promontory which sep- 
arates the Lake of Como from the 
Lake of Lecco, is perhaps the 
most delightful point among the 
lakes of Upper Italy. 

Higher up stands the *Villa 
Serbelloni (now Hotel and Pen- 
sion, see above) , the park of 
which commands an exquisite 
View (admission for those not 
residing in the hotel 1 fr.). 
The path ascends by the Hotel 
Genazzini and reaches the top in 
25 minutes. Charming glimpses 
of Varenna, Villa Balbianello, 
Carlotta, etc. 

The belvedere of the Villa 
Belmonte, the property of an 
Englishman, commands another 
fine view (admission Y2 fr-)- 

About 1 M. to the S. of the 
lower entrance to the Villa Ser- 
belloni , beyond the cemetery, 
we reach a small blue gate on 
the left, leading to the *VilIa 
Giulia, the property of Count 
Blome of Vienna, with beautiful 

•Gardens (fee V2-I &•)• — Ex- 
cursion to the Monte S. Primo, an 
ascent of 4 hrs., see p. 119. 

122 Route 20. 



Here, at the Punta di Bellagio, the S.W. and S.E. arms of the 
lake unite. The latter, the Lago di Lecco, though inferior to the 
other in picturesqueness and luxuriance of vegetation , presents 
grander mountain scenery. The E. hank is skirted by a road (rail- 
way in progress) constructed in 1832 in continuation of the SteMo 
road (p. 124), and carried along the rocks at places with the aid 
of tunnels and embankments. Steamers ply on the lake twice a 
day from (Como) Bellagio to Lecco and back, and thrice a day from 
Colico to Lecco and back (comp. p. 117). The steamboat-stations 
are Lierna, Limonta, Vassena, Onno, Mandello, Abbadia, and Lecco 
(p. 115), some of which are not always called at. 

On the chief arm of the Lake of Como, as we proceed towards 
Colico, the first steamboat-stations are Menaggio and Varenna. 

W. Bank. 

Menaggio. — *Grand Hotel 
Victoria, R., L., & A. 47 2 , B. I1/2, 
dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 8-il fr. (English 
Church Service); *H6t. Menaggio, 
Italian, R., L., & A. 3V2-5Vz, B. IV2, 
dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 8-11 fr., both 
beautifully situated, with gardens on 
the lake; Corona, Italian, second 
class. — Hotel-omnibuses meet the 

Menaggio (1300 inhab.), with 
an extensive silk manufactory, 
has two steamboat-piers , one 
near the Hotel Victoria and the 
other, to the S., near the Hotel 
Menaggio , for the Steam Tram- 
way to Porlezza (Lugano ; see 
p. 127). Fine view of Bellagio. 
On the lake, to the S. of the vill- 
age , is the handsome Villa My- 
lius. — A good road, diverging 
to the right from the Cadenabbia 
(Como) road, ascends in windings 
to (!/'2 hr.) Loveno Superior e, near 
the church of which stands the 
Villa Vigoni, formerly Mylius, 
commanding a magnificent *View 
of Bellagio, Menaggio, and of the 
three arms of the lake (apply to 
the gardener; fee 1 fr.). The 
garden-saloon contains two ad- 
mirable reliefs by Thorvaldsen 
(Nemesis) and Argenti. A still 
more extensive view is obtained | 

E. Bank. 
Varenna. — *Albergo Reale, 

R., L., & A. IV2-21/2, B. I1/2, dej. 
21/2, D. 41/2, pens. 7-9, omn. 1/2 fr. ; 
Maecionni, R., L., & A. 2-3, B. 2, 
dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 7-9, omn. 1/2 fr. 

Varenna is charmingly sit- 
uated on a promontory , sur- 
rounded by gardens (Isimbardi, 
Lelia, Venini), at the mouth of 
the Vol d'Esino, commanded by 
the lofty ruins of the Torre di 
Vezio, with a small village and a 
beautiful view (ascent ^ nr 0- 
In the vicinity , especially to- 
wards the N., some tunnels have 
been hewn in the rock for the 
passage of the Stelvio road. Most 
of the marble quarried in the 
neighbourhood is cut and pol- 
ished in the town. 

About 3/ 4 M. to the S. of Va- 
renna the Fiume Latte ('milk 
brook', from its colour) is preci- 
pitated in several leaps from a 
height of 1000 ft. , forming an 
imposing cascade in spring, but 
sometimes dried up in summer 
(50 c). 

The *Monte Grigna (7905 ft.; 8hrs.) 
is a very fine point. From Varenna 
a bridle-path leads on the right bank 
of the Esino via Perledo to (2'/2 hrs.) 
Esino (*Alb. Monte Godeno, moder- 
ate), prettily situated. Thence (guide 

of Como. 


20. Route. 123 

W. Bank. 

from a conspicuous chalet outside 
the park. Adjacent are the Villa 
Azeglio, containing paintings by 
the late owner Marchese Massimo 
d'Azeglio (d.1866), and the Villa 
Garoviglio , containing archaeo- 
logical collections. 

The steamer next passes a 
wild, yellowish-brown cliff, the 
Sasso Rancio ('orange -rock'), 
which is traversed by a danger- 
ous footpath. 

S. Abbondio. — Mastenna. 

Rezzonico , with Villa Litta, 
and a restored chateau of the 
13th century. 

Cremia, with the handsome 
church of S. Michele (altar-piece 
*St. Michael, by Paolo Vero- 
nese) ; then Pianello. 

On rocks rising precipitously 
above Musso are situated the 
ruins of three castles, Rocca di 
Musso , the residence of Giov. 
Giac. de' Medici in 1525-31, 
'the Castellan of Musso', who from 
this spot ruled over the entire 
Lake of Como. 

Bongo (Alb. Dongo) , a large 
village in a sheltered situation, 
at the mouth of a valley of the 
same name. Above it, to the 
N.W., lies Oarzeno, whence a 
path crosses the Passo di S. Jorio 
(6420 ft.) to (9 hrs.) Bellinzona. 

Gravedona (Alb. Gravedona, 
Alb. del Lauro) is picturesquely 
situated at the mouth of a gorge. 
The handsome Palazzo del Pero 
with four towers, at the upper 
end, was built by the Milanese 
Cardinal Gallic Adjoining the 
venerable church of S. Vincenzo 
rises the Baptistery of St. Maria 
del Tiglio, an interesting build- 

E. Bank. 

desirable; 9 fr.) to the Alp Gainallo 
IVz, Alp Prada I1/2, Club Hut of the 
Italian Alpine Club {Capanna diMon- 
codine; 6150 ft.) V2 hr., aQ d to the top 
of the Grigna Settentrionale or Mon- 
codine in 2 hrs. more (the last part 
rather trying). Superb view of the 
whole Alpine chain from the Mte. Viso 
to the Ortler (the Mte. Rosa group 
particularly fine), and of the plains 
of Lombardy to the distant Apen- 
nines. We may descend to the W. 
(steep) to the new club-hut Capanna 
di Releggio (5840 ft.) in the Veil Neria 
and to Mandello, or to the E. to 
Pasturo in the Vat Sassina (see below). 

Gittana is the station for the 
hydropathic establishment of 
Regoledo, situated 500 ft. above 
the lake (cable-railway from the 
quay to the hotel). 

Bellano (Roma ; Bellano), with 
3000 inhab. and considerable 
factories , lies at the mouth of 
the Vol Sassina , which is tra- 
versed by a bridle-path to Taceno 
(thence road to Lecco via In- 
trobbio). The Pioverna forms a 
waterfall (195 ft.) before reach- 
ing the lake [Orrido di Bellano; 
fee). By the pier is a monument 
to Tom. Grossi , the poet , who 
was born at Bellano in 1790 (d. 
1853), by Tantardini. 

Bervio, at the mouth of the 

Varrone, is situated at the base 

of the abrupt Monte Legnone 

and its spur, the MonteLegnoncino 

(5680 ft.). 

Monte Legnone (8505 ft.), the high- 
est mountain of Lombardy, may be as- 
cended hence in 7 hrs. (with guide ; 
fatiguing but interesting). In the 
evening we mount to (2 hrs.) Sueglio, 
on the slope of Mte. Legnoncino, 
where tolerable quarters for the night 
are found; thence by Introzzo and 
Aveno to the (3 hrs.) Club But at the 
Porta del Merli, and the (I hr.) sum- 
mit, with magnificent view. — The 
ascent on the N. side , from Delebio 
(p. 124), is easier. A bridle-patb 
leads through the Val delta Lesina 

124 Route 20. 


W. Bank. 

ing of the 12th cent., containing 
two Christian inscriptions of the 
5th century. 

Domaso, charmingly situated, 
possesses several handsome vil- 
las, particularly the Villa Venini 
and Villa Miani. Finally Gera. 

E. Bank. 
to the (4 hrs.) Alp Cappello, and 
thence across the Bocchetta di Leg- 
none in 3 hrs. to the summit. 

Corenno, Dorio, and Ogliasca, 
all picturesquely situated , with 
ruined castles. — Piona. 

Colico (Isola Bella; Hotel Risi, 
well spoken of, R. 21/2, B. 1 fr. ; 
Ristoratore delta Posta), comp. 
p. 15. 

From Colico to Chiavenna, and over the Spliigen to Coire , see E. 4. 

Prom Colico to Sondrio and Bormio. 

From Colico to Sondrio, 25 j /2 M., railway in ls/ 4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 65, 
3 fr. 25, 2fr. 10 c); from Sondrio to Bormio, 41 M., diligence once daily 
(to Tirano, several times daily) in 10 hrs. 

The Val Tellina, which is now traversed by a railway, belonged to the 
Grisons down to 1797, then to Austria, and since 1859 has been united to 
Italy. The broad valley is watered by the Adda (p. 15), the inundations of 
which often cause considerable damage, and make the lower part of the 
valley marshy and unhealthy. An aromatic red wine is yielded by the 
vines on the slopes of the valley. 

5 M. Delebio, on the Lesina, which descends from Mte. Legnone (ascent 
of Mte. Legnone, see p. 123). — 8 M. Cosio-Traona , the latter place 
lying at the base of the mountains beyond the Adda. — 10 M. Morbegno 
(Ancora), with 4500inhab., is noted for its silk-culture and has a church 
of the 16th cent, with a few good pictures. — 12 M. Talamona. The line 
then crosses the Adda, here joined by the Masino, and skirts the base of 
the mountains to the north. 15 M. Ardenno-Masino; 19 V2 M. S. Pietro- 
Berbenno; 22'/2 M. Castione-Andevenno. Farther on the train skirts the hill 
of Sassella, noted for its wine and crowned with a church, to — 

2572 M. Sondrio (1140ft.; "Posta, with a garden; Maddalena), with 
6900 inhab., the capital of the Val Tellina, situated on the Malero, an 
impetuous torrent, at the mouth of the picturesque Val Malenco. A 
large building outside the town, once a nunnery, is now private property. 
The old residence of the bailiffs is now a barrack. 

Beyond Sondrio the churches of Montagna and Pendolasco rise on the 
left. Between S. Giacomo and Tresenda, about halfway up the N. slope 
of the valley, rises the ancient watch-tower of Teglio, which gives its name 
to the valley (Val Teglino). At Tresenda the road over the Passo d'Aprica 
diverges to the right (p. 164). The road next crosses the Poschiavino, which 
descends from the Bernina glaciers, and soon reaches Madonna di Tirano 
(*£>. Michele) , a small village with a large and handsome pilgrimage- 
church of the 17th century. Interesting fairs , lasting 3 days , are held 
here at Whitsuntide and at the end of October. The mountain-road which 
here diverges to the right leads to Poschiavo, and across the Bernina Pass 
to the Upper Engadine; see Baedeker's /Switzerland. The ' Confine Svizzero* 
is 3 A M. to the N.W. of Madonna di Tirano. About 1/4 hr. after leaving 
Madonna di Tirano we reach — 

I6V2 M. Tirano (1505 ft.; Albergo Italia, by the post-office; Posta; 
Stelvio, by the lower bridge), a small town with old mansions of the 
Visconti, Pallavicini, and Salis families, where inundations of the Adda 
have also frequently occasioned serious damage. 

The road now ascends more rapidly along the vine-clad slopes, pass- 
ing Sernio, Lovero, and Tovo. To the S.W. rises the precipitous Monte 

VAL TELLINA. 20. Eoute. 125 

Masuccio (9240 ft.), a landslip from which in 1807 blocked up the narrow 
channel of the Adda, and converted the populous and fertile valley into 
a vast lake. At Mazzo the road crosses to the right hank of the Adda, 
and at the large village of (IV2 M.) Grosotto (Leone d'Oro) it crosses the 
Eoasco, which here issues from the Val Grosina. To the right, at the mouth 
of the latter, is the imposing ruined castle of Venosta. Beyond (H/2 M.) 
Grosio the road recrosses to the left bank. In l 1 /? hr. more we reach — 

28V2M. Bolladore (2840 ft.; Posta; Hdtel des Alpes). On the hill on the 
other side of the river rises the picturesque church of Sondalo. Beyond 
Mondadizza we again cross the Adda. The valley now contracts ; to the 
E. lies Le Prese, at the mouth of the Val di Rezzo. We now enter the 
defile of Serra di Morignone, 'about 1 M. in length, which separates the Val 
Tellina from the ""Paese Freddo\ or 'cold region 1 , of Bormio. We cross 
the Adda for the last time by the Ponte del Diavolo. The road enters the 
green Valle di Sotto, passes the hamlets of Morignone and S. Antonio, and 
at Ceppina reaches the level, green valley of Bormio, enclosed by lofty 
mountains, the lower slopes of which are clothed with pines, and the 
upper in part with snow. The road traverses the valley, crosses at (2 M.) 
S. Lucia the muddy Frodolfo, just above its confluence with the Adda, 
and in 20 min. more reaches — 

41 M. Bormio, Ger. Worms (4020 ft.; ''Posta; "Alb. della Torre, Piazza 
Cavour), an antiquated little Italian town, with numerous dilapidated 
towers, picturesquely situated at the entrance to the Val Furva. — The 
diligence goes on hence, ascending in numerous windings, to (2 M.) the — 

*New Baths of Bormio or Bagni Nuovi (4380 ft.), a handsome building 
on a terrace commanding a fine survey of the valley of Bormio and the 
surrounding mountains (Engl, church service in summer) The Bagni 
Vecchi, or old Baths of Bormio, are a little higher up (4750 ft.), perched 
on the rocks below the road • a picturesque footpath, shorter than the 
road, ascends to them in 1 /t hr. Both baths are much frequented in July 
and August, and are closed in the middle of October (R. 3, D. 4 fr.) 
The springs, containing salt and sulphur (92-100° Fahr.), rise in the Dolo- 
mite cliffs near the old baths, whence the water is conducted to the new 
baths in pipes. They are mentioned by Pliny as known to the Romans. 
The old baths hewn in the rock are interesting. — From Bormio over 
the Stelvio to Meran or Innsbruck, see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

21. From Menaggio on the Lake of Como via Lugano 
to Luino on the Lago Maggiore. 

Steam Thamway from Menaggio to Porlezza in 1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 
45 c). Steamboat from Porlezza to Lugano in 1 hr. and thence to Ponte 
Tresa in 50 min. more (fares 4 fr. 50, 2 fr. 70 c). Steam Teamway from 
Ponte Tresa to Luino in 1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 45 c). Through-tickets 
9 fr. 80, 5 fr. 60 c. ; return, Sunday, and circular tickets at a reduced rate 
(to be had on board any of the steamers). — Swiss custom-house examin- 
ation on board the steamers in the Lake of Lugano, Italian custom-house 
at Porlezza or Ponte Tresa. 

Menaggio, see p. 122. The railway-station is at the S. end of 
the village; the ticket-office is in the Hotel Menaggio. The train 
waits for the steamer when the latter is late. The line at first as- 
cends rapidly (5 : 100) to the hills above the lake, then turns sharp- 
ly, and runs towards the N. Fine view to the right of the central 
part of the Lake of Como, with Bellagio in the middle. Farther on 
the line describes a wide bend, affording a view (right) of the Val 
Sanagra, with Loveno and the Villa Vigoni in the foreground 
(p. 122). We then thread a tunnel 110 yds. long. At stat. Grandola 

126 Route 27. OSTENO. From Menaggio 

(1260 ft.) we reach the highest point of the line, 610 ft. above the 
Lake of Como, whence the train descends rapidly (4 : 100), via, Bene- 
Orona (on the small Lago del Piano), Piano, and S. Pietro. It next 
crosses the Cuccione and Beggo, and reaches — 

Porlezza (Alb. del Lago, mediocre), on the N. arm of the Lake 
of Lugano, with the Italian custom-house for travellers in the other 
direction. The railway-station is close to the steamboat-pier. 

The *Lake of Lugano (890 ft.) , called by the Italians Lago 
Ceresio after its doubtful Latin name, is scarcely inferior in beauty 
to its more celebrated neighbours Como and Maggiore, though its 
scenery is of a somewhat severer cast. The steamer (poor restau- 
rant) proceeds towards Osteno, sometimes calling at Cima, at the 
foot of the steep hills on the N. bank. 

Osteno (Hotel du Bateau; Bist. delta Grotta), on the S. bank 
of the lake , is frequently visited from Lugano on account of its 
remarkable grotto (return-fare 2 fr. 35 c. ; ticket for the grotto, 
obtained on board the steamer, 75 a). 

The 'Grotto of Osteno (locally called the Orrido or Pescara, 'fisher- 
men's gorge') is 7 min. from the landing-place. We pass through the village; 
outside the gate we descend to the right before the stone-bridge, and cross 
the brook. The mouth of the gorge, in which there are two small water- 
falls, is near a projecting rock. Visitors embark in a small boat and enter 
the grotto, the bottom of which is occupied by the brook. The narrow 
ravine through which we thread our way is curiously hollowed out by the 
water. Far above, the roof is formed by overhanging bushes, between which 
glimpses of blue sky are obtained. The gorge is terminated by a waterfall. 
— The Tufa Grottoes of Rescia may also be visited before the steamer 
returns from Porlezza. Boat (with two rowers, there and back 2 : /2 fr.) 
round the promontory to the E. of Osteno in l /* hr. to the hamlet of Rescia; 
thence by a narrow path to the grottoes in 5 min. (torches 1 /2 fr.). The 
dome-shaped grottoes, encrusted with calcareous sinter and stalactites, 
are connected by a low passage (caution necessary). From the second is 
seen a pretty waterfall in a gorge. In the vicinity are tufa-quarries, con- 
taining interesting fossils. 

A road leads from Osteno to the S.W. to (6 M.) Lanzo d'Intelvi 
(3115 ft. ; Caffe Centrale , moderate, dej. 2 fr.-, J.1/4 M. above it is situated 
the "H6t. Belvedere, pens. 8-10 fr.), a pleasant spot for some stay (English 
Church Service in summer), with a fine view of the Lake of Lugano and 
the Alps with lite. Rosa. [Those whose destination is the Hotel Belvedere 
take the footpath to the right, about 3 /4 M. before reaching Lanzo, which 
soon joins the road ascending to the hotel,] A road also leads to it from 
(7 M.) Maroggia (p. 13), and another from Argegno on the Lake of Como 
(8Y2 M. ; see p. 119). Near Lanzo (20 min.) are the baths of Paraviso. 
Bridle-path to Mte. Oeneroso (p. 113), 5*/2 hrs. 

The steamer now steers obliquely across the lake, leaving to the 
right Cresogno and Loggio on the N. bank, to S. Mamette (Stella 
d Italia), beautifully situated at the mouth of the picturesque 
Val Soldo, with Castello high above it (p. 12). 

The finest part of the lake lies between S. Mamette and Lugano. 
Beyond Oria, with the Villa Bianci, the station for Albogasio, we 
enter Switzerland. Bellarma, to the right, is the first village on 
Swiss soil; the slopes of Mte. Caprino (p. 11), to the S., are also 
in Switzerland. The steamer touches at Gandria (p. 11), at the foot 
of Mte. Bre (p. 12), with its gardens borne by lofty arcades and its 

to Luino. PONTE TRESA. 21. Route. 127 

vine-terraces, and then turns into the pretty hay of Lugano, leav- 
ing Castagnola (p. 11) to the right. The Mte. S. Salvatore rises 
conspicuously on the S. side of the hay. 

Lugano, see p. 8. The station of the St. Gotthard Railway 
lies high above the town, 1 M. from the steamboat-quay (cable- 

As we leave Lugano we enjoy a fine retrospect of the town, with 
Mte. Bre (p. 12) to the N. The steamer rounds the promontory of 
S. Martino , the spur of Monte S. Salvatore, on the right; to the 
left rises Monte Caprino (p. 12). On some trips the steamer calls 
at Campione, an Italian enclave in Swiss territory. To the left rise 
the steep flanks of Mte. Oeneroso (p. 13). The arch of the viaduct 
(p. 13) through which the boat now passes, with lowered funnel, 
frames a picturesque glimpse of scenery. The vessel touches at 
Melide on the W. and sometimes at Bissone on the E. bank. 

At this point a fine view is obtained of the arms of the lake 
opening to the S.E. and the S.W., with Mte. S. Giorgio (3590 ft.) 
rising between them. The steamer enters the S.W. arm and stops 
at Morcote, a small town with arcaded houses, picturesquely situat- 
ed on the vine-clad slopes of Monte Arbostora and commanded by a 
church and a ruined castle. 

Brusin-Arsizio, on the E. bank, and Porto Ceresio, the port of 
Varese (p. 129), situated on Italian soil in a bay of the S. bank, 
are not called at by the express-steamers. Farther on the lake 
bends to the N. On the W. (Italian) bank lies Brusin-Piano, 
which is also left unvisited by the express-steamers. Opposite 
is Figino , to the N.E. of which Mte. S. Salvatore again comes 
into sight. 

Turning to the left, the vessel now steers through the Stretto 
di Lavena, a narrow channel leading into the westernmost bay 
of the lake, which is almost completely enclosed by mountains, 
with the village of Lavena on the left, and the sheer Monte Cas- 
lano (1710 ft.) on the right. At the "W. end of the bay is — 

Ponte Tresa, consisting of two villages, the larger of which is 
Swiss and the smaller Italian, divided by the river Tresa which 
issues from the lake here. The railway-station and steamboat- 
quay are on the Italian side. Italian custom-house examination. 

The Road from Lugano to Ponte Tresa (6 M.), which may be re- 
commended to pedestrians, ascends to the Restaurant du Jardin in Soregno 
(see p. 10), descends past the small Lake of Muzzcmo, and traverses the 
broad valley of the Agno. Crossing this stream, which flows into the W. 
arm of the L; ke of Lugano, we reach the small town of Agno, beyond 
which the road crosses the Magliaso and passes the church of Magliasina. 
Finally we pass through the Swiss part of Ponte Tresa, cross the bridge 
to the left, and reach the railway-station. 

The Steam Tramway from Ponte Tresa to Luino , at first 
ascending a little, follows the fertile green valley of the rapid and 
clear Tresa, which here forms the boundary between Italy and 
Switzerland. Several torrents are crossed, and numerous villages 


and churches are seen perched among the rocks. Beyond the 
station of (3y 2 M.) Cremenaga, the train passes through two tun- 
nels and crosses the river, the right bank of which is now also 
Italian. The valley contracts, and the banks become steeper. 6M. 
Creva, with important manufactories. Crossing finally the Bellin- 
zona-Novara line (p. 50; station to the left), we arrive at(7!/ 2 M.) 
Luino, where the station adjoins the LagoMaggiore steamboat-quay 
(see p. 133). 

22. From Milan to Laveno and Arona. 

1. From Milan to Laveno. 

a. Via SAR0NN0 and Yarese. — 45V2 M. Railway in 2y 2 -3 hrs. 
(fares 7 fr., 4 fr. 70, 2 fr. 80 c). 

From Milan to (1372 M.) Saronno, see p. 111. — The line fol- 
lows thence theMilan and Lavenoroad, passing(16 M.) Gerenzano, 
(I71/2M.) Cislago, (191/2 M.) Mozzate, (20i/ 2 M.) Locate, (217 2 M.) 
Abbiate Guazzone, and (22 V2 M.) Tradate. Then follow: 24'/ 2 M. 
Venegono Inferiore; 26 M. Venegono Superiore; 27*^2 M. Vedano. 

About IV2 M. to the W. of Venegono Superiore, and 3 /t M. to the 
S.W. of Vedano, is Castiglione d'Olona (Albergo S. Antonio, tolerable), 
with 1500 inhab. and some interesting works of art. The choir of the 
high-lying Collegiate Church contains ^Frescoes by Masolino of Florence 
(1428), master of Masaccio (p. 411) : at the sides of the windows scenes 
from the life of St. Stephen; on the vaulting, Birth of Christ, Annuncia- 
tion, Assumption of the Virgin, Marriage of the Virgin, Adoration of 
the Magi, and Angels playing musical instruments; on the left is the 
monument of Card. Branda Castiglione by Leonardus GHffus (1443). The 
sacristy contains some valuable church-furniture and an Annunciation on 
panel ascribed to Masolino. — The sacristan (1 fr.) conducts visitors across 
the court to the 'Baptistery, in which there are well-preserved frescoes 
by Masolino (1435). Outside, the Annunciation; within, on the right, 
the daughter of Herodias begging the head of John the Baptist and 
bearing it to her mother. The rocky cave in the background is the saint's 
tomb ; on the vaulting, early fathers ; farther to the right, John the Baptist 
in prison, and preaching before Herod. On the rear wall is a -Baptism 
of Christ (the three figures undressing themselves to the right are 
interesting indications of the awakening study of the human form); below, 
on the left, John preaching Christ as the Messiah; above, God the Father 
between angels. — In front of the Chiesa di S. Sepolcro, in the lower part 
of the town, stand two gigantic figures of saints. 

29 M. Malnate. 

32 M. Varese. — Hotels. *Grand Hotel Varese (Excelsior), a 
large establishment, formerly the Villa Recalcati, in an open situation 
outside the town, with a splendid view of the Monte Rosa and the whole 
chain of the W. Alps, R., L., & A. 4, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 8, omn. 
V4 fr. •, omnibus. — In the town : Europa ; Angelo ; Leone d'Oro; Gambero, 
well spoken of, R., L., & A. 1% fr. — Cafes: Siberia, Pini, etc., under the 
arcades in the main street. 

English Church Service in the Grand Hotel Varese. 

Varese (1250 ft.) is a thriving place with 13,500 inhab. (in- 
cluding the suburbs) and silk, paper, furniture, and other manu- 
factories. In summer the pleasant environs attract a number of 
wealthy Milanese families, who possess villas here and in the neigh- 

VARESE. 22. Route. 129 

bourhood. The church of S. Vittore, rebuilt about 1600, with a tower 
246 ft. in height, contains a St. George by Crespi, and a Mag- 
dalene by Morazzone. The Giardino Pubblico commands fine views. 
Among the villas maybe mentioned: Palazzo Veratti, known as La 
Corte, Via Luigi Sacco, now the property of the town ; Villa Ducale 
Litta, on the road to Biume Superiore ; Villa Ponti, to the N.E., on 
the road to Biume Inferiore ; then, near the latter village, Villa 
Litta Modignani, which still bears traces of a skirmish fought here 
on 26th May, 1859 ; Villa Taccioli, Poggi, and others. 

Walks. To the Cotle Campiglio, l l fe M. to the S. , on the road to 
Masnago and Laveno, commanding a fine view; thence via Masnago and 
Casciago (where the Villa Castelbarco affords a fine *View of the five 
lakes and the chain of Mte. Rosa) to Luinate, whence a beautiful view 
to the S.W. is obtained of the Lake of Varese and the small adjacent 
Lake of Biandrone, and also of the farther distant lakes of Monate and 
Comabbio. To S. Albino, l 3 /4 M. to the S. of Varese, with a view of the 
lake ; to the Lago di Varese (Osteria della Schiranna), 272 M. ; then, skirting 
the lake, to Gropello, Oltrona, Vollorre (where there is an old monastery 
of the Canonici Lateranensi with interesting Romanesque cloisters) , and 
Gavirate, 772 M. (see below). 

The most interesting excursion, however, is by S. Ambrogio and Fo- 
gliaro to the -Madonna del Monte (2885 ft.), a celebrated resort of pil- 
grims, 7'/2 M. to the N.E. (carriage -road to Prima Cappella, with two 
inns, then a bridle-path ; donkeys for hire, guide unnecessary). Fourteen 
chapels or stations of various forms, adorned with frescoes and groups in 
stucco, have been erected along the broad path by which the monastery 
and church on the mountain are attained. Several taverns adjoin the 
monastery. The view hence is not less celebrated than the peculiar 
sanctity of the spot. The small lakes of Comabbio, Biandrone, and 
Monate, that of Varese, two arms of the Lago Maggiore, part of the Lake 
of Como, and the expansive and fruitful plain as far as Milan are visible. 
— A far more comprehensive view, including the glacier-world also, is 
obtained (best by morning-light) from the Tre Croci (3965 ft.), 1 hr. to the 
N.W. of the Madonna. Comp. the Map, p. 130. 

From Vaeese to Como, I8V2 M. Railway in I1/4 hr. (3 fr. 10, 2 fr. 20, 
1 fr. 55 c). — The line crosses the Olona. At (3 M.) Malnate the line to 
Milan (p. 128) branches off to the right. — 6'/2 M. Solbiate. — 10 M. Olgiate 
is the highest point on the line (about 790 ft. above the Lake of Como), 
in a fertile region with numerous villas. — IIV2 M. Lvrate Caccivio; l2!/ 2 M. 
Civello; 14 M. Grandate; 15 1 /* Camerlata. Finally (17V2 M.) Como (Porta 
del Torre) and (I8V2 M.) Como (Stazione Ferrovia Nord, on the lake 5 
comp. p. 113). 

From Varese to Gallarate (Milan), see p. 130. 

Fkom Varese to Porto Ceresio , 772 M., diligence twice daily in 
I74 hr. (fares 372 or 3 fr. ; one-horse carr. 10, two-horse 20 fr.). This is a 
very picturesque drive. The road leads by Biume Inferiore, Jnduno (with 
the Villa Medici) and Arcisate to Bisuschio, where the Villa Cicogna, with 
a large park in the Italian style, commands a splendid view of the Lake 
of Lugano. It then crosses the Brivio, passes Besano, and soon reaches 
Porto Ceresio on the Lake of Lugano (p. 127). 

The next railway-stations beyond Varese are (34 M.) Casbeno 
and (37V2 M.) Barasso , with numerous villas. The train then 
passes near the N.W. extremity of the Lago di Varese and reaches 
(38V2 M.) Gavirate , near which are quarries of 'marmo majo- 
lica', a kind of marble used for decorative purposes. View of 
Monte Rosa. 40 ^ M. Coquio; 42 M. Gemonio. Farther on, the 
Boesio, which flows through the ValCuvio, is crossed, and, beyond 

Baedekeh. Italy I. 9th Edit. 9 

1 30 Route 22. ARONA. 

(43 M.) Cittiglio, its right bank skirted. The line then leads past' 
the S. hase of the Sasso del Ferro to — 

4572 -Laveno (p. 134), on the E. bank of the Lago Maggiore, a 
station on the Bellinzona and Genoa line (p. 51) and also a steam- 
boat-station. — Boat to the Borromean Islands, see pp. 131 , 135-137. 

b. Via Gallarate. — 451/2 M. Railway in 2-2 V4 hrs. (fares 8 fr. 25, 
5 fr. 80, 3 fr. 75 c). — Tramway to Gallarate (passing many of the rail- 
way-stations) in 2 3 /4 hrs. (fares 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 50 c.) ; to Saronno and 
Tradate in 2^2 hrs. 

Milan, see p. 89. — 4 M. Musocco ; 9 M. Rhb (p. 50), with 
the church of the Madonna dei Miracoli by Pellegrini ; llt/ 2 M. 
Vanzago; 15 M. Parabiago. 17^2 M. Legnano , where Frederick 
Barbarossa was defeated by the Milanese in 1176; the principal 
church contains a fine altar-piece , one of the best works of Luini. 
— 21 M. Busto Arsizio (Albergo del Vapore, clean), the church of 
which, designed by Bramante, contains frescoes by Gaudenzio 
Ferrari. Branch -line to Novara and Seregno (p. 50). — 25y 2 M. 
Gallarate, a town with 8000 inhab., at the S.E. base of a range of 
hills which form the limit of the vast and fruitful Lombard plain, 
planted with maize , mulberries , and vines. It contains a tech- 
nical school and carries on large manufactures of textile fabrics. 
The line to Arona (see below) diverges here. 

From Gallarate to Vakese, IH/2 M., railway in 40 min. (fares 1 fr. 
70, 1 fr. 5, 50 c). The train passes through a mountainous region. — 5 M. 
Albizzate; 2 l /-z M. Gazzada. — UV2 M. Varese, see p. 123. 

29!/ 2 M. Besnate; 3l!/ 2 M. Crugnola- Cimbro ; 35 M. Ternate- 
Varano , on the little lake of Comdbbio ; 38y 2 M. Pregano- Trave- 
dona , the latter being on the E. bank of the little lake of Monate ,• 
4OY2 M. Besozzo; 43y 2 M. San Giano. — 45V 2 M. Laveno, see 
p. 134. 

2. From Milan to Arona. 

42 M. Railway in 2-2'/2 hrs. (fares 7 fr. 60, 5 fr. 30, 3 fr. 45 c). 

From Milan to (25y 2 M.) Gallarate , see above. — 30i/ 2 M. 
Somma-Lombardo, where Hannibal overthrew P. Cornelius Scipio 
in B. C. 218. — 33 M. Vergiate. Tunnel. — 36 M. Sesto-Calende, 
junction of the line from Bellinzona to Genoa (p. 51). The train 
now crosses the Ticino, which issues here from Lago Maggiore, and 
then skirts the S. bank of the lake. 

42 M. Arona. — *Albergo Reale dTtalia & Posta, R., L., & 
A. 3-4, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 7-9, omn. 1/2 fr. ; *Alb. San Gottardo, 
R., L., & A. 2-21/2, B. li/.,, dej. 2»/2, D. 4, pens. 7 fr., Doth on the quay; 
Ancoua, behind the S. Gottardo. — Cafi, adjoining the Albergo Reale •, 
Cafi du Lac, near the quay ; Caffh delta Stazione. — Munich beer opposite 
the station. 

Arona (740 ft.), an ancient town on the W. bank, about 3 M. 
from its S. extremity, with 3720 inhab., extends upwards on the 
slope of the hill. In the principal church of S. Maria, the chapel 
of the Borromean family, to the right of the high-altar, contains 
the *Holy Family as an altar-piece, by Gaudenzio Ferrari (1510); 

LAGO MAGGIORE. 23. Route. 131 

it is surrounded by five smaller pictures, the upper representing 
God the Father, at the sides eight saints and the donatrix. The 
adjacent church contains a high-altarpiece by Ambr. Borgognone. 

On a height overlooking the entire district , Y2 nr - to the N. 
of the station and pier, is a colossal Statue ofS. Carlo, 70 ft. in 
height, resting on a pedestal 42 ft. high, erected in 1697 in honour 
of the celebrated Cardinal , Count Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of 
Milan (born here in 1538, died 1584, canonised 1610). 

The head, hands, and feet of the statue are of bronze , the robe of 
wrought copper. Notwithstanding its enormous dimensions, the statue is 
not devoid of artistic merit. The various parts are held together by iron 
cramps attached to a pillar of masonry in the interior. The enterprising 
visitor may enter the interior (50 c.) and climb to the head of the statue, 
which will hold three persons; but the ascent is far from pleasant. 

The adjacent church contains a few relics of S. Carlo. The 
• extensive building in the vicinity is an Ecclesiastical Seminary. 

From Arona to Oleggio (Novara), see p. 51. 

23. Lago Maggiore. 

Plan for a circular tour round the three lakes, see p. 117. The finest 
part of the Lago Maggiore is the W. bay, with the Borromean Islands, 
which are best visited from Pallanza, Stresa, or Baveno by small boat. 

Railways. — Fkom Bellinzona to Locarno, 14 M., in 3 /4 hr. (fares 
2 fr. 30, 1 fr. 60, 1 fr. 15 c). Through-tickets including the steamboat on 
Lago Maggiore are issued for Pallanza (5 fr. 90, 5 fr. 20, 3 fr. 15 c), etc. 
(comp. p. 135). 

From Bellinzona to Sesto-Calende via. Luino, 47 x /2 M., in 2-23/4 hrs. 
(fares 8 fr. 45, 5 fr. 95, 3 fr. 90 c.) ; to Luino in I1/4-I1/2 hr. (fares 4 fr. 
50, 3fr. 20, 2fr. 10 c). — Intermediate stations: 2V2 M. Giubiasco; 5V2 M. 
Cadenazzo; IOV2 M. Magadino; \1 x ji M. 8. Nazzaro; W/ 2 M. Ranzo-Oera; 
17 M. Pino, the first Italian station; 21 M. Maccagno; 25 M. Luino, with 
both the Italian and the Swiss custom-houses; 29 M. Porto Valtravaglia ; 
34 M. Laveno; 36 V2 M. Leggiuno-Monvalle ; 4OV2 M. Ispra; 43V2 M. Taino- 
Angera; 47 M. Sesto Calende. Stations on this line are denoted by a 
capital R. in the following description. 

From Luino to Lugano, see pp. 128, 127: from Laveno to Varese, see 
pp. 130-128. 

Steamboat twice daily in summer from Locarno to Laveno, and seven 
or eight times daily from Laveno to Intra, Pallanza, the Borromean Is- 
lands, Stresa, and Arona. From Locarno to Arona 5'/2 hrs., from Luino to 
Isola Bella 2 3 /4 (from Laveno IV4) hrs. ; from Isola Bella to Arona l 1 ^ hr. 
(fare from Locarno to Arona 5 fr. 85 or 3 fr. 20 c, from Luino to Isola Bella 
2 fr. 15 or 1 fr. 30 c, from Isola Bella to Arona 1 fr. 70 c. or 1 fr., landing 
and embarking included). The steamboat is the best and cheapest convey- 
ance to Isola Bella. Strict punctuality is not always observed. Some of 
the boats are saloon-steamers, with restaurants on board. — Stations 
(those in Italics not always touched at) : Locarno, Magadino, Ascona (small 
boat stat.), Gerra, Brissago, Cannobbio, Maccagno, Luino, Cannero, Oggeb- 
bio, Ghiffa (small boat stat.), Porto Valtravaglia, Intra, Laveno, Pallanza, 
Suna (small boat stat.), Feriolo (small boat stat.), Baveno, Isola Superiore, 
Isola Bella, Stresa, Belgirate, Lesa, Meina, Angera, Arona. 

Boat (barca). For 2 hrs., 2 J /2 fr. for each rower; for 1-3 pers. 2 rowers 
are required; 4-6 pers. 3, more than 6 pers. 4 rowers. More favourable 
terms may sometimes be obtained, and in every case a bargain should be 
struck before the boat is entered. A small fee is usually expected in ad- 
dition to the stipulated fare (comp. p. 118). 

From Bellinzona to Locarno (fares , see above). The train 


132 Route 23. LOCARNO. Lago Maggiore. 

follows the Lugano line (p. 8) as far as (2*/2 M.) Giubiasco , then 
diverges to the right and traverses the "broad lower valley of the 
Ticino. — 6 l /z M. Cadenazzo, the junction of the line skirting the 
E. bank of the lake to Luino, Novara, and Genoa (R. 10). — The 
Locarno branch crosses the Ticino below Cugnasco, and iheVerzasca, 
which dashes forth from a gorge on the right, beyond (10 M.) Oor- 
dola. It then skirts the Lago Maggiore to (14 M.) Locarno, where 
the railway- station is a few hundred paces from the steamboat-pier. 

Locarno. — *Grand Hotel Locarno, with garden, view of the lake, 
and English Chapel, R., L., & A. 3-6, B. iy 2 , dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 8-12y 2 fr.; 
*H6tel-PENsi0N Reber, with garden on the lake, moderate, pens. 6-7 fr. ; 
-■Corona, on the lake, R., L., & A. 1V2-3, B. iy 4 , dej. 21/2, D. 31/2, pens. 
6-7, omn. V2 fr- '■> ""'Hot. Suisse, in the chief piazza, R. 1V2-2, L. & A. 1, 
B. I-IV4 ■ D. 3, pens. 6-7, omn. V2 fr. •, Albergo S. Gottardo, near the 
station, R., L., & A. from iy 2 , B. 1, dej. incl. wine2V2, D- incl. wine 3, board 
4 fr. ; Ristorante Giardino, at the harbour, unpretending, R., L., & A. 
1 fr. 20 c. — Furnished rooms at Qiul. BorghetWs. — Rail. Restaurant. 

Locarno (680 ft. ; pop. 2800, Rom. Cath.) , suitable for a pro- 
longed stay, is situated at the mouth of the Maggia, the deposits 
of which have formed a considerable delta. Politically Locarno is 
Swiss, but the character of the scenery and population is thoroughly 
Italian. Great national festival on 8th Sept., the Nativity of the 
Yirgin. The Collegiate Church contains a few good pictures. The 
pilgrimage-church of *Madonna del Sasso (1170 ft.), on a wooded 
eminence above the town, commands a remarkably fine view (V2 Dr - 5 
steep paved path, with the 'stations'). The church contains an 
*Entombment by Ciseri. The view from Mte. delta Trinita, 10 min. 
higher up, is still more picturesque. The chapel contains a marble 
group of the Resurrection by Rossi. 

The *Lago Maggiore (645 ft.; greatest depth 2800 ft.), the Lacus 
Verbanus of the Romans , is about 37 M. long and averages 2-3 M. 
in width (area 81 sq. M.). The N. portion of the lake, also called 
the Lake of Locarno, belongs to Switzerland; the "W. bank beyond 
the brook Valmara, and the E. bank from Dirinella belong to Italy. 
Its principal tributaries are on the N. the Ticino (Tessin) and the 
Maggia, and on the W. the Tosa. The river issuing from the S. end 
of the lake retains the name of Ticino. The banks of the N. arm 
are bounded by lofty mountains, for the most part wooded, whilst 
the E. shore towards the lower end slopes gradually away to the 
level of the plains of Lombardy. The W. bank affords a succession 
of charming landscapes. The water is of a green colour in its N. arm, 
and deep blue towards the S. 

The names of the steamboat- stations are printed below in bolder 
type, but some of them are not always touched at (comp. p. 131). 
— Opposite Locarno , at the mouth of the Ticino , lies Magadino 
(R. ; Hotel Bellevue, on the lake), comprising two villages, Maga- 
dino Inferiore and Superiore. 

The W. bank of the lake , to the S. of Locarno , is -studded 
with country-houses, villages, and campanili. On the bank of 

Lago Maggiore. LUINO. 23. Route. 133 

the lake runs the road from Locarno to Pallanza. In an angle lies 
Ascona, with its castle and seminary ; higher up, on the slope, Ronco. 
Passing the two small Isole di Brissago, the steamer reaches Gera 
(R.) on the E. bank, and then, on the "W. hank, Brissago (Hotel 
Suisse), a delightful spot, with picturesque white houses, and a fine 
group of cypresses near the church. The slopes above are covered 
with fig-trees , olives , and pomegranates , and even the myrtle 
flourishes in the open air. Brissago is the last Swiss station. The 
Italian custom-house examination is made onboard the steamer. 

Opposite Brissago , on the E. bank , lies the Italian village of 
Pino (R.). 

S. Agata and Cannobbio (*H6tel Cannobbio, R. 172-3, pens. 
6fr. ; Albergo delle Alpi, moderate; *Villa Badia, l 1 /^^* to the S., 
260 ft. above the lake, pleasant and quiet, pens. 5-6 fr.) are also 
on Italian territory. The latter is one of the oldest and most pro- 
sperous villages on the lake, situated on a plateau at the entrance of 
the Vol Cannobbina, and overshadowed by richly- wooded mountains. 
In the church della Pieth, the dome of which is in the style of 
Bramante, is a *Bearing of the Cross, with a predella representing 
worshipping angels, by Gaud. Ferrari (about 1525). Pleasant walk 
of !/ 2 h*. up the beautiful Val Cannobbina to the hydropathic of 
La Salute (open from June to Oct.), and thence to the (20 min.) 
Orrido, a rocky chasm with a bridge and in spring a waterfall. 

The steamer now steers to the E. bank, and stops at Maccagno 
(R. ; Alb. della Torre), with a picturesque church and an ancient 
tower, whence we may visit the (2 hrs.) loftily situated Lago d'Eglio 
(2950 ft.; *Hotel; fine view). The viaducts and tunnels of the 
St. Gotthard Railway are now seen skirting the lake. Passing Cas- 
neda, in a wooded ravine, we next reach — 

LuinO (R.). — The Steamboat Pier adjoins the waiting-room (dej. 
incl. wine 3 , D. incl. wine 4 x /2 fr.) of the Steam Ti'amway to Ponte Tresa 
(Lugano; see p. 8). By passing to the left of this station and the statue 
of Garibaldi and following the wide new 'Via Principe di Napoli 1 we reach 
(10 min. ; omnibtis 40, trunk 50, smaller package 25 c.) the Stazione Inter- 
nazionale, the station of the Bellinzona and Genoa line, where the Italian 
and Swiss custom-house examinations take place ("Restaurant, dej. 3 fr.). 

Hotels. *Geand Hotel Simplon & Terminus, on the lake, to the S. of the 
town, with a garden, E., L., & A. 3-5, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 41/2, pens. 10, 
omn. 3/4 fr. ^ Hotel Suisse & de la Poste, R., L., & A. 2 1 /2-3 1 /2, B. l 1 /^ 
dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 8, omn. 3 /4 fr. ; Vittoeia, well spoken of, R., L., & A. 4, 
B. H/4, dej. 2V2, D. 4, pens. 8, omn. 3 /i fr. ; these two near the steam- 
boat-pier. — Near the Stazione Internazionale : Milano, R. IV4 , L. & A. 
1 fr., B. 80 c, dej. incl. wine 2, D. incl. wine 3, pens. 7 fr. ; Ancoea. 

Luino or Luvino, a busy little town with 2800 inhab., is situat- 
ed at the base and on the slopes of the mountain, a little to the N. 
of the mouth of the Tresa. It affords good headquarters for a pro- 
longed stay on account of its ample railway and steamer facilities. 
The Statue of Garibaldi, near the pier, commemorates his brave but 
futile attempt to continue the contest here with his devoted guerilla 
band after the conclusion of the armistice between Piedmont and 

134 Route 23. LAVENO. Lago Maggiore. 

Austria on Aug. 15th, 1848. The principal Church is adorned with 
frescoes by Bernardino Luini, a native of the place (c. 1470-1530). 
Among the numerous tasteful villas in the vicinity is the Palazzo 
Crivelli, to the N. , surrounded by pines. Pleasant walk to Maccagno 
(p. 133). — At the mouth of the Margorabbia, l J 2 M. to the S., 
lies Oermignaga, with the large silk-spinning ffilanda) and winding 
(filatoja) factories of E. Steheli-Hirt of Zurich. (Admission on ap- 
plication to Mr. Bodnier, the manager.) 

On the "W. bank rise two grotesque-looking castles (Castelli di 
Cannero), half in ruins, the property of Count Borromeo. In the 
15th cent, they harboured the live brothers Mazzarda, notorious 
brigands, the terror of the district. ■ — Cannero (Alb. Nizm; Alb. 
Cannero) is beautifully situated in the midst of vineyards and groves 
of chestnuts, which extend far up the slopes of the mountain. The 
W. bank is clothed with the richest vegetation, and studded with 
innumerable white houses and a succession of picturesque villages. 

The next stations are Oggebbio and Ghiffa (*H6tel Ghiffa) on 
the W. bank, and Porto Valtravaglia (R. ; Osteria Antica~) on the 
E. In a wooded bay beyond the last lies Calde, with the ancient 
tower of the Castello di Calde on an eminence. Then, to the E., — 

Laveno (R. ; Posta, R. 2, A. 1 / 2 , B. iy 4 , D. 3'/ 2 fr-, well spoken 
of; Moro\ a village of some importance, beautifully situated in a 
bay at the mouth of the Boesio, formerly a fortified harbour for the 
Austrian gunboats. The ruinous fort on a headland l 1 /^ M. to the W. 
commands a charming view of the lake and the mountains beyond. 
A mortuary and a small museum of local relics, both erected in 1889 
on the headland, commemorate a skirmish between the Austrians 
and the followers of Garibaldi in 1859. The station of the Sesto- 
Calende line (p. 131) is about 8/4 M. from the steamboat quay; 
the Varese (and Milan, p. 129) station adjoins the pier. 

Behind Laveno rises the green Sasso del Ferro (3485 ft.) , the most 
beautiful mountain on the lake, easily ascended in 2'/2 hrs., and com- 
manding a magnificent view of the lake, the plain as far as Milan, and 
the Monte Rosa chain. — Interesting excursion to the convent of S. 
Calerina del Sasso, l l /i hr. to the S. of Laveno , high above the lake. 
Imbedded in the vaulted roof of the church is a rock, which fell upon 
it in the last century and has remained there ever since. 

As the boat approaches Intra, the valley, which here opens to 
the W., suddenly discloses a view of the N. neighbours of Monte 
Rosa: first the Strahlhorn, then the Mischabel and Simplon. They 
are lost to view as the steamboat turns the point between Intra 
and Pallanza , but soon re-appear and remain visible until Isola 
Bella is reached. 

Intra (*H6tel de la Ville et Poste , Vitello e Leone d J Oro, now 
united, R. & A. 2y 2 -3 1 / 2 , B. iy 4 fr.; Hotel Intra; Agnello) , a 
flourishing town (5700 inhab.) with manufactories chiefly belonging 
to Swiss proprietors , is situated on alluvial soil , between two 
mountain-streams, the S. Giovanni and S. Bernardino. On the 

Lago Maggiore. PALLANZA. 23. Route. 135 

quay is a marble statue of Capt. Simonetta. • — The garden of the 
*Villa Barbo, or Franzosini, 1 M. to the N., contains a magnificent 
magnolia, 65 ft. in height, and 8/4 M. beyond it is the * Villa Ada 
of M. Oeriani, also noteworthy for its wealth of vegetation (palms, 
huge eucalypti, etc. J. On the promontory of Castagnola (see below), 
1^2 M. to the S., is the Villa S. Remigio, the residence of the 
Browne family (visitors admitted ; *View from the balcony). 

Pleasant walk from Intra to the N. by the new road (shaded short- 
cuts for walkers), via Arizzano to (3s/ 4 M.) Bee (1935 ft. ; ''Alb. Bee), with a 
fine view of Lago Maggiore, and to (3 M.) Fremeno (26C0 ft. ; '-'Hdtel- Pension 
Premeno, finely situated). Above it (10 min.) is the Tornico, a platform 
laid out in honour of Garibaldi, with a good spring and a beautiful view 
of the Alps. A few min. higher is the '- Bellavista, an admirable point of 
view, commanding the lake to the E., and the beautiful and fertile Val 
Intragna to the W., with its numerous villages. 

To the S. of Intra the Punta della Castagnola , with its wealth 
of luxuriant vegetation, stretches far into the lake. The finely sit- 
uated Hotel Eden, formerly Oaroni (see below), on the Punta, lies 
•U/2 M. from Intra, and ^ M. from Pallanza. At the foot of the 
hill is the Birreria della Castagnola. The little Isola S. Giovanni, 
near Pallanza, is one of the Borromean Islands. 

Pallanza. — *Grand Hotel Eden (see above), with extensive view, 
R., L., & A. 3 x /2-7, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 7-12, omn. lfr.; *Grand 
Hotel Pallanza, a large house, finely situated, 1 J2 M. from the landing- 
place, with the Villa Montebello and several other dependances, R. & L. 
21/2-6, A. 1, B. 11/2, dej. 3, D. 5, warm bath 2V2, lake-bath I1/2, board in 
summer 7 1 /2-12 1 /2, in winter l-10 l J2 fr. — *Posta, on the lake (Engl, land- 
lady), R., L., & A. 21/2-31/2, B. li/ 4 , dej. 21/2, D. 4, pens. 6-8, omn. 1/2 fr. ; 
Hot. Milan, also on the lake, B. l'/i, D. inch wine 3*/2 fr. ; Italia-, S. 
Gottardo ; *Pens. Villa Maggiore, R. 1V2-2 fr., L. 30 c, B. 1, de'j. 2, 
D. 3, pens. 5-6 fr. — Cafe" Bolongaro, at the steamboat pier. 

Diligence to Gravellona, 4 times daily, see pp. 3,4; the Hotel 
Pallanza also sends a private omnibus (1/2 fr.). 

Boat with one rower to the Isola Madre and back 2y 2 , with two 41/2 fr., 
to Isola Bella and back 31/2 or 6; to both islands and back 4 or 7; to 
Stresa and back 31/2 or 6; to Laveno and back 31/2 or 7, etc. The traveller 
should ask to see the tariff before embarking. The hotels also possess 
boats, for which the charges are similar. 

English Church Service in the Grand Hotel Pallanza. 

Pallanza, a thriving little town with 3200 inhab., delightfully 
situated opposite the Borromean Islands, commands a view of them, 
and of the lake. As the most sheltered and warmest spot on the 
Lago Maggiore, it enjoys a repute as a winter-resort, especially as 
an intermediate stage between the Riviera and more northerly 
climes. The banks of the lake are skirted by pleasant promenades. 
The mirsery gardens of Rovelli, Cerutti, and others deserve a visit. 

Pleasant walk by the shady avenue of chestnut-trees leading to the 
Madonna di Campagna; by the church to the right round the Monte Rosso 
(7220 ft.), and up the left bank of the £. Bernardino, to the picturesque 
bridge of Santino and the ancient Roman bridge between^ Cossogno (Inn, 
good wine) and Rovegro (2 hrs.), whence we may return via, Bieno, Cavan- 
done, and Suna. — A pleasant drive (2*/4 hrs. there and back, carr. 8 fr.) 
may be made to the Lake of Mergozzo and round Monf Orfano, past the 
marble quarries which yield the material for the cathedral of Milan. The 
road, which is shady at places, skirts both lakes and affords a succession 
of charming views. 

136 Route 23. BORRO MEAN ISLANDS. Lago Maggiore. 

The lake here forms a large hay to the W. , into which falls the 
impetuous Tosa (Toce). On the N.E. bank lies Suna (*Pens. Came- 
nisch), on the S.W. bank Feriolo. — Then 

Baveno. — Hotels. "Grand Hotel Bellevue, B.., L., & A. 5-7, D. 
5 fr., well managed, with garden-, *Grand Hotel Baveno, a large house 
below the Villa Clara, R,, L., & A. 31/2-41/2, B. V/ 2 , de'j. 3, D. 41/2, pens. 
8-10, omn. 3/ 4 f r . • 'Beaurivage, with garden; *H6tel-Pension Suisse 
(beer), E. from I.1/2, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 3, pens, from 5 fr. — Diligence to 
Gravellona, twice daily, see p. 4. 

Boats to the Borromean Islands, same charges as from Stresa (p. 137). 
Halfway between Baveno and Stresa is a ferry, where the charge for the 
short crossing (10 min.) is 1-2 fr. 

English Church in the garden of the Villa Clara. 

Baveno, a village with 2000 inhabitants, is adapted for a 
stay of some time. The extensive granite-quarries here, visible 
from the steamer, supplied many of the columns in Milan Cathedral, 
and in the church of S. Paolo fuori at Rome. The handsome * Villa 
Clara (proprietor Mr. Henfrey) was occupied by Queen Victoria 
for some weeks in the spring of 1879 and by the Crown Prince 
Frederick of Germany in Oct., 1887 (no admission at present). 

The most beautiful feature in this W. bay of the lake is formed 
by the *Borromean Islands, the scenery in the neighbourhood of 
which rivals that of the Lake of Como in grandeur and perhaps 
surpasses it in softness of character. The steamers touch regularly 
only at the most southern of these, the Jsola Bella, which with the 
Isola Madre is the property of the Borromeo family (adm. to both 
islands daily, except Mon., after 9 a.m., and when the proprietor 
is. at home, not after 5 p.m.). The westernmost, the Isola dei 
Pescatori or Superiore, is touched at occasionally. This little island 
is entirely occupied by a fishing-village, but commands some pic- 
turesque views. To the N. is the Isola S. Giovanni (p. 169). 

In the 17th cent. Count Vitaliano Borromeo (d. 1690) erected 
a chateau on *Isola Bella and converted the barren rock into beauti- 
ful gardens in the old Italian style, rising on ten terraces 100 ft. 
above the lake, and stocked with lemon-trees, cedars, magnolias, 
orange-trees, laurels, cork-trees, camphor-trees, eucalypti, magni- 
ficent oleanders, and. other luxuriant products of the south, while 
shell-grottoes, fountains (dry), and statues meet the eye in pro- 
fusion. The traveller coming from the N. cannot fail to be struck 
with the loveliness of the bank of the lake as seen from here, 
studded with innumerable habitations, and clothed with southern 
vegetation (chestnuts, mulberries, vines, figs, olives), the extensive 
lake with its deep blue waters and beautiful girdle of snowy moun- 
tains combining the stern grandeur of the High Alps with the 
charms of a southern clime. The Chateau is somewhat dispropor- 
tionate to the size of the island. The N. wing is unfinished. The 
view through the arches of the long galleries under the chateau is 
very striking. A servant shows the apartments (fee i/ 2 fr>, f° r a 
party 1 fr.), and a gardener shows the garden for a similar fee. 

Lago Maggiore. STRESA. 23. Route. 137 

The Picture Gallery, amidst its numerous copies, contains a few 
good Lombard pictures : Oiov. Pedrini, Lucretia and Cleopatra ; Gaud. Fer- 
rari, Madonna; Procaccini, Head of St. John; -'Boltrafflo, Portrait of a 
woman ; Borgognone, Christ blessing ; Gregorio Schiavone, Madonna between 
John the Baptist and St. Justina (an interesting work bearing the forged 
signature Bernardinus Betinonus). 

Adjoining the chateau are the *H6tel du Dauphin, or 
(R., L., & A. 3, D. 4, pens. 7 fr.), and the Ristor. del Vapore 
(tolerable). Boat to Isola Madre and hack -with two rowers, 3 fr. 

The *Isola Madre (not a steamboat-station) on its S. side re- 
sembles the Isola Bella, and is laid out in seven terraces with 
lemon and orange-trellises ; on the upper terrace is an uninhabited 
'Palazzo' (beautiful view). On the N. side there are charming 
walks in the English style, with most luxuriant vegetation (fee 1 fr.). 

Opposite Isola Bella, on the W. bank, lies — 

Stresa. — Hotels. *H6tel des Iles Borromees, 1/2 M. from the land- 
ing-place, comfortable, with beautiful garden, R. 2-41/2, L. s/ 4 , A. 1, B. I1/2, 
dej. 3, D. 5 fr., pens. 9-12, omn. 1 fr. ; ; H6tel Milan, with garden, near 
the steamboat-pier; Albergo Reale Bolongaro, Italian, R., L., & A. 272, 
B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 7 fr. ; Hot. dTtalie & Pens. Suisse, R., L., & 

A. 2-21/2, B. ii/4, dej. 21/2, D. 31/2, pens. 5 fr. (R. extra); S. Gottardo, R. 
from I1/2, pens. 5-6 fr. These three are well spoken of. — Ristorante 
Zanini, with beds. 

Boat (barca) with one rower 2fr. for the first hour, and 50c. for each 
additional 1/2 hr. ; to Isola Bella 2 fr. and fare by time for the stay there 
and for any prolongation of the excursion. 

Diligence to Gravellona twice daily (see p. 4). 

Photographs: C. Bacmeister, Alb. S. Gottardo. 

English Church Service in summer at the Hotel des Iles Borromdes. 

Stresa, cooler and more breezy than the other places on the 
lake , occupies a picturesque and attractive situation , and is a 
suitable spot for a lengthened stay during the summer months. The 
handsome Rosminian Monastery (875 ft.) above the town is now a 
school. The church contains the monument of Ant. Rosmini 
(d. 1855), with an admirable statue by Vela. Beautiful cypresses 
in the Churchyard. Among the finest villas in the environs are the 
Villa Bolongaro of the Duchess of Genoa, by the church, and the 
Villas Landriani, Lomellini, Amalia, Raisini, &nd.Imperatcri. Above 
the lake, i/ 2 M. to the S., is the beautifully situated Villa Palla- 
vicino and y 4 M. farther the Villa Vignolo , with fine gardens 
(visitors admitted). — Ascent of Monte Motterone, see below. 

As the boat steers its course along the ~W. bank , the con- 
struction of the high-road, in many places supported by piers of 
masonry, attracts attention. The banks become flatter, and Monte 
Rosa makes its appearance in the W. The next place on the W. 
bank is — 

Belgirate (Grand Hotel and Pension Belgirate, R., L., & A. 2, 

B. 1, dej. incl. wine 2, D. incl. wine 3'/9, board 5 fr.), with 700 in- 
hab., surrounded by the Villas Fontana, Principessa Matilda, and 
others. — Then follow Lesa and Meina (Albergo Zanetta), and, 
on the E. bank, Angera (R.), with a chateau of Count Borromeo. 

138 Route 24. MONTE MOTTERONE. 

Arona , and thence to j Milan, see p. 130 ; to Novara (Genoa, 
Turin), see pp. 50-48. 

24. From Stresa to Orta and Varallo. 

IVz Day. 1st Day: From Stresa over the Mte. Motterone to Orta, 
7-8 hrs. — 2nd Day: From Orta to Varallo, 472 hrs. — Carriage and pair 
from Stresa via. Gravellona to Orta, with stay, 30 fr. 

Stresa, see p. 117; Baveno, see p. 136. — The Lago Maggiore 
is separated from the Lake of Orta by the Monte Margozzolo or Mer- 
gozzolo , which may be crossed by a pleasant route from Stresa to 
Orta in 5-6 hrs. : road to (6 M.) Gignese (2525 ft. ; Alb. Alpino, 
frne view), whence the Mte. Motterone may be ascended in 2 hrs. ; 
thence with a guide (2-3 fr.) to Coiro in 2 hrs. ; descent from 
Coiro by a path, easily found, to ( 3 / 4 hr.) Armeno (see below). 

Farther on , to the N., this mountain culminates in the grassy 
*Monte Motterone or Mottarone (4890 ft.), a magnificent point of 
view, easily ascended from Stresa or Baveno in ^l^-k nrs - (guide 
4 fr., convenient; donkey with attendant 5 fr.). The route from 
Baveno leads by Romanico , Loita, and Campino , mostly through 
wood, to Someraro, where it joins the route from Stresa. The 
latter diverges to the left opposite Isola Bella, beyond a bridge over 
the broad channel of the Roddo, and ascends through wood to ( 3 /4hr.) 
Someraro (1500 ft.) and (25 min.) Levo (1915 ft; Hotel Levo, pens. 
6-7 fr., well spoken of). We emerge from the wood ^2 nr > farther 
on, and ascend across pastures past the Alpe del Giardino to the 
(1 hr.) chapel of S. Eurosia (3685 ft.), where we turn to the right. 
20 min. Alpe del Mottarone (milk); Y2 l ir - *Albergo Mottarone, kept 
by the brothers Guglielmina , 10 min. below the summit (4675 ft.; 
R., L., & A. 3, B. jU/2, de'j. 3^21 pens., inch wine, 9 fr.). 

The **View from the top, the 'Eigi of Northern Italy 1 , embraces the 
Alps from the Col di Tenda and Monte Viso on the W., to the Ortler 
and Adamello on the E. (panorama by Bossoli , in the hotel). The most 
conspicuous feature is the Mte. Rosa group; to the right of it appear the 
Cima di Jazzi, Strahlhorn, Rimpfischhorn, Allalinhorn, Alphubel, Misch- 
abel (Taschhorn, Dom, Nadelhorn), Pizzo Bottarello, Portjengrat, Bietsch- 
horn, Mte. Leone, Jungfrau, Helsenhorn, Fiescherhorner ; then more distant, 
to the E. of Ihe peaks of Mte. Zeda, the Eheinwald Mountains, Bernina, 
Disgrazia, Mte. Legnone, Mte. Generoso, Mte. Grigna. At our feet lie seven 
different lakes, the Lake of Orta, Lago di Mergozzo, Lago Maggiore, Lago 
di Monate , Lago di Comabbio , Lago di Biandrone, and Lago di Varese; 
farther to the right stretch the extensive plains of Lombardy and Pied- 
mont, in the centre of which rises the lofty cathedral of Milan. The 
Ticino and the Sesia meander like silver threads through the plains, and 
by a singular optical delusion frequently appear to traverse a lofty table- 
land. — The mountain itself consists of a number of barren summits, 
studded with occasional chalets, shaded by trees. At its base it is en- 
circled by chestnut-trees, and the foliage and luxuriant vegetation of the 
landscape far and wide impart a peculiar charm to the picture. 

On the W. side a path, rather steep at places (guide advisable), 
descends direct to (2 hrs.) Omegna (Alb. Manin, well spoken of), 
at the N. end of the Lago d'Orta (rail, stat., see p. 4). Travellers 
bound for Orta soon reach a broad bridle-path on the S. side of the 

ORTA. 24. Route. 139 

hill (guide unnecessary), descending by Cheggino (2120 ft.) to (2t/ 2 
hrs.) Armeno (1720 ft. ; Alb. dell' Unione) on the high-road, which 
they follow to the S. From (12 rnin.) the point where the road 
forks , the left branch leads to Miasino (p. 4) , the right by Car- 
cegna, crossing the railway to Gravellona to (4 M.) — 

Orta. — *H6tel Belvedere, on the Sacro Monte, R. & A. 3, D. 4 fr., 
see below; Albergo Orta, on the lake, well spoken of; Hotkl 
S. Giulio, kept by Ronchetli, in the market-place, R. & A. 4, B. IV2, IX 
4'/2 fr. ; Leon d'Oro, on the lake, unpretending. — Beer at the Cafe 
cTOrta, in the market. 

Orta (950 ft.), a little town , with marble-paved streets and a 
Villa of the Marchese Natta, picturesquely situted at the foot of the 
Sacro Monte (see below) , on a headland extending into the *Lake 
of Orta. Opposite Orta lies the rocky Isola S. Giulio (boat there 
and back l 1 /^ 1 ^; & ^ &0 steamboat-stat.) , with an ancient church, 
founded by St. Julius , who came from Greece in 379 to convert 
the natives, and frequently restored. It contains several good re- 
liefs, old frescoes, a fine Romanesque pulpit , and in the sacristy 
a Madonna by Gaudenzio Ferrari. On the hill is a seminary for 
priests, with a garden affording charming views of the lake. 

Above Orta rises the : Sacro Monte or Santuario (1315 ft. ; ascent in 
'/4 hr. from the market-place or through the garden of the Villa Natta: 
fee for opening the upper door), a beautifully wooded hill, laid out as a 
park. In the 16th cent. 20 chapels were erected here in honour of St. Francis 
of Assisi, each containing a scene from his history in painted life-size 
figures of terracotta, with a background 'al fresco'. Though of little art- 
istic value, these groups are on the whole spirited and effective. The best 
are in the 13th, 16th, and 20th chapels •, in the last is represented the canon- 
isation of the saint, with the assembly of cardinals. One of the 'Custodi 
del Monte 1 will open the chapels if required (1/2-I fr.) , but a sufficiently 
good view is obtained through the openings in the doors. Various points 
on the hill command charming surveys of the lake; to the W., above the 
lower hills, peeps the snowy Monte Rosa. On the W. side of the plateau 
are the *H6tel Belvedere and a small Cafe" -Restaurant. 

Picturesque excursions may be made from Orta to the (1 hr.) Madonna 
della Bocciola (1565 ft.) , situated on the hill above the station ; to the 
(l J /4 hr.) Torre di Buccione (1500 ft. ; an ancient watch-tower dating from 
Emp. Frederick Barbarossa) at the S. end of the lake (boat to Buccione 
l ! /2 fr. ; also steamer), both points commanding good views. By Pella 
(see below) to Q/2 hr.) Alzo, with extensive granite- quarries (branch- 
railway from Gozzano, see p. 5), and to (1 hr.) the Madonna del Sasso 
(2090 ft.), the pretty church of the hamlet of Bolelto, on a lofty cliff, 
commanding a fine survey of the entire lake. — Porter to the top of the 
Motterone (0 hrs.) 6 , donkey 10 fr. ; over the Motterone to Baveno or 
Stresa , 10 and 15 fr. 

Railway from Orta to Domo d^Ossola and Novara, see p. 4. 

From Orta over the Colma to Varallo, 4t/ 2 hrs., a beauti- 
ful walk (donkey 6, to the Colma 3 fr. ; guide, 5 fr., unnecessary). 
On the W. bank of the lake , opposite Orta , the white houses of 
Pella [Alb. del Pesce , unpretending) peep from amidst vines, 
chestnuts , and walnuts. (Boat from Orta 1 fr.) The path to the 
Colma crosses the Pellino at the upper end of the village, beside 
a paper-factory , and ascends steeply. At (12 min.) the fork we 
take the level path to the left to (20 min.) a mill , above which 

140 Route 24. VARALLO. 

we cross a brook descending on the right. A paved path now 
ascends steeply to (40 rnin.) Arola (2020 ft.), which commands a 
lovely view in the direction of the lake of Orta. We turn to the 
left 5 min. beyond the village, descend a little, and then keep on 
for y 2 nr - on t^ 6 same level, skirting the gorge of the Pellino, 
which here forms a pretty waterfall. "We next ascend through wood, 
between crumbling blocks of granite, to the ( 3 / 4 hr.) wooded Col di 
Colma (3090 ft.). The height to the left commands a splendid 
view , embracing Monte Rosa. In descending (to the right) , we 
overlook the fertile Val Sesia , with its numerous villages. The 
path leads through groves of chestnuts and walnuts to ( 3 / 4 hr.) 
Civiasco (2350 ft.; several Oantine), whence a fine new road (short- 
cut by the old path descending to the left) , the first part of which 
affords a magnificent view of Mte. Rosa, leads to ( 3 / 4 hr.) — 

Varallo (1480 ft.; pop. 3200; *Italia, R. & A. S% B. iy 2 , 
dej. 2 l /2) D. 3y'2, pens. 7-8, omn. y 2 fr. ; *Croce Bianca, good 
cuisine ; Posta), the capital of the Val Sesia, at the mouth of the 
Mastallone, here crossed by a stone-bridge. The Sesia, often nearly 
dry in summer, is crossed by a suspension-bridge near the railway- 
station. The Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, at the entrance to the town from 
the station, is embellished by a monument to Victor Emmanuel. 
Over the high-altar of the collegiate church is a Marriage of St. 
Catharine by Gaudenzio Ferrari (1471-1546), a native of the neigh- 
bouring Val Duggia; The churches of *S. Maria delle Grazie, S. 
Maria di Loreto , and S. Marco also contain frescoes by this master. 
A marble statue of Ferrari , by Vedova, stands at the beginning of 
the ascent to the Sacro Monte. 

The "Sacro Monte (Santuario di Varallo; 1995 ft.), rising in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the town, is ascended in 20 min. by a paved path 
shaded by beautiful trees, and commands a delightful view. On the top 
of the hill and on its slopes are a church and 4B Chapels, or oratories, 
containing scenes from the life of the Saviour in painted life-size figures 
of terracotta, beginning with the Fall in the 1st chapel, and ending with 
the Entombment of the Virgin in the 46th. This '•Nuova Gerusalemme nel 
Sacro Monte di Varallo'' was founded in 1486 by Bernardino Caloto, a Mi- 
lanese nobleman, with the sanction of Pope Innocent VIII.-, but as a 
resort of pilgrims it did not come into vogue until after the visits of 
Cardinal Borromeo (p. 131) in 1578 and 1584, from which period most 
of the chapels date. The hill now belongs to the town (Cafi-Restaurant 
at the top). 

25. From Milan to Voghera (Genoa) via Pavia. 

Certosa di Pavia. 

Railwat from Milan to Genoa via Pavia and Voghera, 92 ML, in 
3-7 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 5, 11 fr. 95, 7 fr. 65 c. •, express 18 fr. 85, 13 fr. 25 c.) ; 
from Milan to Pavia, 22i/ 2 ML, in s/ 4 -l hr. (fares 4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 85, 2 fr. 
5 c. ; express 4 fr. 50, 3 fr. 15 c). 

Steam Thamwat from Milan to Pavia (via Binasco) in ls/i-fyfa hrs. 
(fares 2'/2 or l ! /2 fr. ; tickets also at the Agenzia Pistnne in the Piazza del 
l.>uomo and the Galeria Vitt. Em. 92), starting every 3 hrs. from the Porta 
Ticinese (PI. D, 8; tramway thence from the Piazza del Duomo, p. 90), 
at Padua from the Piazza Petrarca and Porta di Milano. To the Certosa 

CERTOSA DI PAVIA. 25. Route. 141 

in l l /2-l 3 A hrs. (return-tickets 3 fr. 25, 2 fr. 30 c, Sun. and holidays 2 fr. 
40, 1 fr. 50 c)- The tramway-station for visitors to the Certosa is Torre di 
Mangano, on the Naviglio di Pavia, about 1 M. from the monastery (om- 
nibus from the station to the Certosa and back 1 fr.). 

Milan, see p. 89. The train to Pavia at first follows the Pia- 
cenzaline, and then diverges to the S.W. The country is flat ; under- 
wood and rice-fields are traversed alternately. Beyond (^fe M.) Rogo- 
redo the Cistercian church of Chiaravalle is seen on the right, a fine 
edifice of the 13th cent., with a domed tower. The interior is adorned 
with frescoes by Milanese painters of the 16th cent, and contains 
choir-stalls of 1465. — 9y 2 M - Locate; 1272 M. Villamaggiore. 

On the road, to the W. of the line, lies Binasco, a small town with 
an ancient castle, in which, on 13th Sept., 1418, the jealous and tyrannical 
Duke Fil. Maria Visconti caused his noble and innocent wife Beatrice 
di Tenda (p. 80) to be executed. 

17^2 M. Stazione delta Certosa (Fratelli Rizzardi's Restaurant), 
whence two routes lead to the entrance (W. side) of the Certosa 
(walk of y 4 hr. ; also omn. from the station, 50 c). A visit to the 
Certosa (*H6t.-Rest. Milano), which is open 8-5.30 in summer and 
9-4 in winter, occupies l 1 /^"^ hrs. (adm. 1 fr., Sun. gratis,- guide 
imperative, gratuities forbidden). 

The *Certosa di Pavia , or Carthusian monastery, the splendid 
memorial of the Milan dynasties, founded in 1396 by Gian Galeazzo 
Visconti (p. 93), and suppressed under Emperor Joseph II., was 
restored to its original destination in 1844 and presented to the 
Carthusians. Since the suppression of the Italian monasteries 
it has been maintained as a 'National Monument'. A vestibule, 
embellished with sadly -damaged frescoes by Bern. Luini (SS. 
Sebastian and Christopher) , leads to a large inner court, at the 
farther end of which rises the celebrated facade of the church. 

The **Facade, begun in 1473 by Arnbr. Borgognone and finish- 
ed in 1490-1498, mainly according to the design of Oiov. Ant. Ama- 
deo, is perhaps the most masterly creation of its kind of the 15th cen- 
tury. Its design, independent of the antique orders of architecture, 
is in the Lombard-Romanesque style of graduated church-fronts, with 
projecting pillars and transverse arcades, while within these well- 
defined structural features it embraces a wonderful and judiciously 
distributed wealth of ornament (Burckhardt). Thirty of the most 
distinguished Lombard masters from the 15th to the 17th cent, 
have had a share in its embellishment, the most eminent of whom 
are: Ant. Amadeo and Andr. Fusina (15th cent.); Qiacomo delta 
Porta and Agostino Busti, surnamed II Bambaja (to whom the princi- 
pal portal is ascribed), and Cristofano Solari, surnamed II Qobbo 
(16th cent.). The plinth is adorned with medallions of Roman em- 
perors, above which are reliefs representing Biblical history and 
scenes from the life of Gian Galeazzo. Below the four magnificent 
windows is a row of angel's heads, and above them are niches with 
numerous statues. This is unquestionably the finest decorative 
work of the kind in N. Italy, although inferior to the facades of the 

142 Route 25. CERTOSA DI PA VIA. From Milan 

cathedrals of Orvieto and Siena , especially as the upper part is 
wanting. The reliefs are on the whole superior to the statues. 

""Interior. The body of the church, begun in 1396 by Marco di 
Campione in the Gothic style, consists of a nave, supported by eight 
handsome pillars, with aisles and 14 chapels, large transepts with 
apsidal endings, and a long choir, and is sumptuously and tastefully 
fitted up. The dome above the crossing was added in the Renaissance 
period. The handsome coloured enrichments were probably de- 
signed by Borgognone; the fine mosaic pavement is modern. The 
transept and choir are separated from the rest of the church by a 
beautiful Screen of iron and bronze. The chapels and altars are 
richly adorned with valuable columns and precious stones. The 
dome can only be ascended with a special 'permesso', obtained at 
the prefecture in Pavia. 

We begin in the Left Aisle. The 2nd Chapel formerly contained a 
picture by Perugino in six sections, of which the central part, above, 
representing "God the Father, is alone original, the other parts being now 
in France and England. In the 6th Chapel : Borgognone, St. Ambrose 
with four other saints. Left Transept : Monuments of Lodovico Moro and 
his wife "Beatrice d'Este (d. 1497), by Crist. Solari; handsome bronze 
candelabrum (16th cent.). — The Old Sacristy, to the left of the choir, 
has a fine marble portal with seven relief portraits of the Visconti and 
Sforza families ; in the interior is a fine carved ivory altar-piece, in upwards 
of 60 sections, by Leon, degli Ubriachi of Florence (16th cent.). — The "Choir 
contains a fine marble altar with carving of the 16th cent.-, beneath, in front, 
is a charming small Relief-medallion of the Descent from the Cross, by 
Grist. Solari. — The *Choir-stalls are adorned with inlaid figures of apos- 
tles and saints, from drawings by Borgognone. The handsome bronze can- 
delabra on the marble altar-rail are by Libero Fontana. — The door to the 
right of the choir, handsomely framed in marble and with four relief- 
portraits of princesses of the Sforza family, leads to the Lavacro, which 
contains a rich fountain and the "Madonna and Child in fresco by Bern. 
Luini. To the right of the Lavacro is a small burial-place. — Eight 
Transept : magnificent monument of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, designed in 
1490 by Galeazzo Pellegrini, but executed chiefly by Antonio Amadeo and 
Giacomo delta Porta (before 1562). — The adjoining Sagrestia Nuova, or 
Oratorio, has a large altar-piece, an 'Assumption by A. Solario (restored), 
a late work showing the influence of Leonardo (the apostles on the wings 
are specially fine). Over the door, Madonna enthroned, with two saints 
and angels, by Bart. Montagna; the side-pictures by Borgognone. 

The front part of the *Cloisters (della Fontana) possesses slender 
marble columns and charming decorations in terracotta. Fine view from 
in front of the Refectory (W. side) of the side of the church and the right 
transept. — Around the large Cloisters, farther back, are situated 24 
small houses formerly occupied by the monks, each consisting of three 
rooms with a small garden. — We now re-enter the church. Right Aisle. 
In the 2nd Chapel: "Guercino, Madonna enthroned, with two saints (in- 
jured). 3rd Chapel: Borgognone, St. Sirus and four other saints. 4th 
Chapel : "Borgognone, Crucifixion. 6th Chapel : good altar-piece in six 
sections by Macrino d' Alba (!496). 

The battle of Pavia, at which Francis I. of France was taken 
prisoner by Lannoy, a general of Charles V., took place near the 
fJertosa on 24th Feb. 1525. 

22 ! / 2 M. Pavia, junction of different lines (see p. 144). 

"W"xenrr* De"bes.l,cir)zd.p. 

Geoferagpli Anst v-~Wk£jiex -u. Debe3,XeipZii£ 

to Voghera. PA VIA. 25. Route. 143 

Pavia. — Hotels. Croce Bianca (PL a; B, 4), R., L., & A. 2-3, B. 
IV2, dej. incl. wine 21/2, D. 4, omnibus 1/2 fr. ; Tee Re (PI. c; B, 5). — 
Cafi Demetrio, Corso Vittorio Emanuele-, Caffe-Rist. Mangiagalli, Mercato 
Coperto, well spoken of. 

Cab per drive 80 c, per hour lV2fr. — Omnibus to the town 25 c. 

The names of most of the streets have been altered recently; the 
old names are generally given in red lettering below the new. — A visit 
to the chief points of interest in the town occupies about 3 hrs. 

Pavia, with 29,800 inhab., capital of the province of the same 
name, situated near the confluence of the Ticino and the Po, the 
Ticinum of the ancients, subsequently Papta, was also known as 
the Citta di Cento Torri from its numerous towers, of which only a 
few still exist. In the middle ages it was the faithful ally of the 
German emperors, until it was subjugated by the Milanese, and it 
is still partly surrounded by the fortifications of that period. 

Leaving the railway-station, we enter the Corso Cavour (PI. 

A, 4) through the Porta Borgorato or Marengo (in a wall to the 
right is the statue of a Roman magistrate), and following the Yia 
Jacopo Brossolaro to the right reach the Piazza del Duomo. 

The Cathedral (PI. 4; B, 4), rising on the site of an ancient 
basilica, begun in accordance with a design by Bramante, and con- 
tinued by Cristoforo Rocchi in 1486, but never completed, is a vast 
'central' structure (comp. p. 390) with four arms. It is now under- 
going a thorough restoration. 

In the Interior, on the right, is the sumptuous 'Area di S. Agostino, 
adorned with 290 figures (of saints, and allegorical), begun, it is supposed, 
in 1362 by Bonino da Campiglione, by whom the figures on the tombs of 
the Scaliger family at Verona (p. 170) were executed. To the right 
of the entrance is a wooden model of the church as originally projected. 

The gateway to the left of the church is in the late-Romanesque 
style. Adjoining it rises a massive Campanile, begun in 1583. 

We may now proceed to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, a street 
intersecting the town in a straight direction from N. to S., from the 
Porta di Milano to the Porta Ticinese , and leading to the covered 
Bridge (14th cent. ; a pleasant promenade with picturesque view) 
over the Ticino. A chapel stands on the bridge, halfway across. 

S. Michele (PL 7; B, 5), to which the third side-street to the 
right leads (coming from the bridge), a Romanesque church errone- 
ously ascribed to the Lombard kings, belongs to the latter part of the 
11th century. 

The facade is adorned with numerous very ancient reliefs in sand- 
stone, in ribbon-like stripes, and a curious gabled gallery. The nave and 
aisles are supported by eight pillars, from which rise double round arches. 
The short choir, under which there is a crypt , terminates in an apse. 
Over the centre of the transept rises a dome. The pillars of the nave 
bear traces of ancient frescoes. The interior has lately been restored. 

The traveller may now ascend the Corso Vitt. Emanuele past 

the handsome Mercato Coperto, or Galleria (PL 32), completed 

after Balossi's designs in 1882, to the University (PL 31; 

B, 4), founded in 1361 on the site of a school of law, which had 
existed here since the 10th century. The building is much hand- 

144 Route 25. PAYIA. From Milan 

somer than that of Padua ; the quadrangles of the interior are sur- 
rounded by handsome arcades and embellished with numerous 
memorial-tablets, busts, and monuments of celebrated professors 
and students. In the first court are statues of the professors Bordoni, 
Porta, andPanizzi; in the second a statue of Volta and several 
memorial reliefs of professors attended by students. — Opposite the 
university, in the Piazza d'ltalia, rises a statue of Italy. 

The Corso next leads in a N. direction, past the Theatre, to the 
Piazza Castello, with a monument to Garibaldi, by Pozzi, and to the 
old Castle (PI. C, 3), erected by the Visconti in 1360-69, now used 
as a barrack, and containing a handsome court of the 14th century. 
— Adjacent, at the corner of the Passeggio di S. Croce, is the 
church of 8. Pietro in Cielo d'Oro, with a Romanesque facade. 

At the back of the university lies the Ospedale Civico, and 
farther E. , in the Yia Defendente Sacchi (formerly Canepanova) 
the church of S. Maria di Canepanova (PI. 15 • C, 4), a small dome- 
covered structure designed by Bramante (1492). — More to the N., 
at the corner of the Corso Cairoli (formerly Contrada del Collegio 
Germanico), is the Romanesque church of S. Francesco (PI. 8 ; C, 
4), of the 14th cent., with a facade in the pointed style. In the 
vicinity stands the Collegio Ghislieri (PI. 18 ; C, 4), founded in 
1569 by Pius V. (Ghislieri), a colossal bronze statue of whom has 
been erected in the piazza in front. On the E. side of the Piazza 
Ghislieri is the Istituto di Belle Arti, containing collections of 
pictures, natural history, antiquities, etc. 

In the Via Roma, to the "W. of the university, to the right, is 
the Jesuits'" Church (PL 11 ; B, 4). — At the end of the short Via 
Malaspina is the Casa Malaspina, at the entrance to the court of 
which are busts of Boethius and Petrarch. The interior contains a 
small collection of engravings and paintings. 

Tradition points this out as the place in which Boethius, confined by 
the Emperor Theodoric, composed his work on the 'Consolation of Philo- 
sophy 1 , and Petrarch once spent an autumn here with his daughter and 
son-in-law. His grandson, who died at the Casa Malaspina, was interred 
in the neighbouring church of S. Zeno. A short poem of Petrarch in allu- 
sion to this event, in six Latin distiches, is one of the many inscriptions 
on the wall opposite the entrance. 

The Via Roma terminates in the Piazza del Carmine, with the 
church of S. Maria del Carmine (PL 6; B, 4), a brick edifice of 
fine proportions, flanked with chapels, and dating from 1375. 

In the S.E. part of the town is the Collegio Borromeo (PL 16; 
C, 5, 6), with its beautiful court, founded by St. Carlo Borromeo 
in 1563; the vestibule is decorated with frescoes by Fed. Zuccari. 

From Pavia to Veecelli, see p. 52. 

From Pavia to Alessandria via Torre-Bekretti and Valenza, 4OV2M., 
by railway in 2'/2 hrs. (fares 7fr. 35, 5fr. 15, 3fr. 35 c). The line crosses 
tho Ticino and intersects the Lomellina, or broad plain of the Po, in a 
S.W. direction. Unimportant stations. — Torre- B err etti, seep. 51; Valenza, 
see p. 51. Hence to Alessandria and Genoa, see p. 52, and pp. 53, 54. 

to Voghera. PAVIA. 25. Route. 145 

Feom Pavia to Brescia via Ceemona, 77 M., railway in 4 a /a-6 hrs. 
(fares 14 fr. 5, 9fr. SO, 6 fr. 35 c). — None of the stations are worthy of 
note except Cremona itself. 

The line intersects the fertile plain watered by the Po and the Olona. 

— 15 M. Belgiojoso, with a handsome chateau. — 23'/2 M. Casalpusterlengo, 
where the line unites with that from Piacenza to Milan (R. 39). — 29'/2 M. 
Codogno possesses large cheese -manufactories (to Piacenza, see p. 259). 
Near Pizzighettone, a fortified place, the Adda, which is here navigable, is 
crossed. — 46 M. Cremona (see below) is a terminus, from which the train 
backs out. To Treviglio (Milan and Bergamo) and Mantua, see below. 

77 M. Brescia, see p. 152. 

From Pavia to Stradella, via, Bressana-Bottarone (see below), 20 M., 
railway in l'/4 hr. Stradella, see p. 52. 

From Pavia to Cremona, via Codogno (p. 259), 46 M., railway in 2 J /2- 
4 hrs. Cremona, see below. 

From Pavia to Voghera, 16 M., railway in 72 _3 /4 ^ r - (f are s 
2 fr. 95, 2 fr. 5, 1 fr. 30 c. ; express 3 fr. 30, 2 fr. 35 c). The 
train crosses the Ticino, the Po, and a small tributary of the latter. 
Stations Cava Manara , Bressana-Bottarone (branch to Stradella, 
p. 52), Calcababbio. Voghera, and journey to Tortona, see p. 52 ; 
Novi, and journey to Genoa, see p. 54. 

26. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona. 

100 M. Railway in 5-6 hrs.; fares 18 fr. 15, 12 fr. 70, 8fr. 15c. 

From Milan to (20 M.) Treviglio, see p. 148. Our train diverges 
here from the main line to the S.E. — 24i/ 2 M. Caravaggio, birth- 
place of the painter Michael Angelo Amerighi da Caravaggio (1569- 
1609), with the pilgrimage-church of the Madonna di Caravaggio. 
It is also connected with Milan by a steam-tramway, running via 
Treviglio. — 27 M. Capralba; 29*/ 2 M. Casaletto-Vaprio. 

347 2 M. Crema (Alb. Pozzo), an industrial town (7800 inhab.) 
and episcopal residence, with an ancient castle. The Cathedral 
has a line Romanesque facade , and contains a St. Sebastian by 
Vine. Civerchio (2nd altar on the left). The church of S. Maria 
delle Orazie is adorned with interesting frescoes. — About 3 / 4 M. 
from the town stands the circular church of *S. Maria delta Croce, 
with effective subsidiary buildings in brick , built about 1490 by 
Oiov. Bait. Battagli of Lodi, under the influence of Bramante. The 
interior, octagonal in form, is adorned with paintings by Campi. 

— Crema is connected by tramways with Brescia and with Lodi. 
37 M. Madignano; 40 M. Castelleone; 45 M. Soresina; 5072 M. 

Casalbuttano ; 5472 M. Olmeneta; 61 M. Cremona, the station of 
which is outside the Porta Milanese (PI. B, C, 1). 

Cremona. — *Italia (Pi. b ; E, 3) ; Roma (PI. a; F, 3), R. 11/2-2, A. 
1/2, B. 1 fr. 20 c, dej. I1/2, D. 21/2, omn. 1/2 fr. ; Cappello (PI. c; E, 4), R., 
L., & A. 2-3, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 7-9 fr., omn. 60 c. — Cab per drive 
V2 fr., for V2 br. 1 fr., for each additional V2 hr. V2 fr. 

Cremona, the capital of a province and an episcopal see, with 
31,100 inhab., lies in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Po, and 
carries on considerable silk-manufactures. 

Baedekek " " * "'" 10 

1 46 Route 26. CREMONA. From Milan 

The original town was wrested by the Romans from the Gallic Ceno- 
mani and colonised by them at various periods , the first of which was 
at the beginning of the second Punic war (B.C. 218). It suffered seri- 
ously during the civil wars, and was several times reduced to ruins, but 
was restored by the Emp. Vespasian. The Goths and Lombards, especial- 
ly King Agilulf, as well as the subsequent conflicts between Guelphs 
and Ghibellines, occasioned great damage to the town. Cremona espoused 
the cause of Frederick Barbarossa against Milan and Crema , and subse- 
quently came into the possession of the Visconti and of Francesco Sforza, 
after which it belonged to Milan. On 1st Feb., 1702, Prince Eugene 
surprised the French marshal Villeroi here and took him prisoner. In 
1799 the Austrians defeated the French here. 

The manufacturers of the far-famed Violins and Violas of Cremona 
were Andrea Amati (1510-80) and Niccolo Amati (1596-1684), Giuseppe Ouar- 
neri (c. 1690), and Antonio Stradivari (1644-1728). 

In Painting, Boccaccio Boccaccino, who also worked in Venice, was 
prominent in Cremona about 1500. In the 16th cent. Cremona possessed 
a school of art of its own, which appears to have been influenced by Ro- 
manino (p. 153) especially, and also by Giulio Romano. Cremona was the 
birthplace of Sofonisba d'Anguissola (1535-1626), who, like her five sisters, 
practised the art of painting, and was highly esteemed by her contempo- 
raries. She afterwards retired to Genoa, and even in hei old age attracted 
the admiration of Van Dyck. 

In the Piazza del Comune (PL F, 4) rises the Torrazzo, a tower 
397 ft. in height, erected in 1261-84, and connected with the cathe- 
dral by a series of logge. Extensive view from the top. — Oppo- 
site the tower is the Gothic *Palazzo Pubblico (PL F, 4) of 1245 
(restored), containing a few pictures by masters of the Cremona 
school and a rich marble chimney-piece by G. C. Pedone (1502). 
Adjacent is the Palazzo de' Gonfalonieri, of 1292. 

The *Cathedral (PL F, 4), of 1107, in the Romanesque-Lom- 
bard style , has a rich main facade embellished with columns and 
tasteful brick facades on the transepts, especially the S. 

The Interior with its aisles, and transepts also flanked with aisles, 
is covered with frescoes by masters of the Cremona School, such as Boccaccino 
(1500), father and son, and the later masters Oampi, Altobello Melone, Bembo, 
and Oatti. Over the arches of the nave, on both sides, are long series of 
frescoes. Left wall , above the first four arches : Boccaccio Boccaccino, Life 
of the Virgin, in eight scenes ; 5th arch, Bonifazio Bembo, The Magi, and 
Presentation in the Temple; beyond the organ, Altobello Melone, Flight 
into Egypt, and Massacre of the Innocents; above the last arch, Boccaccino., 
Christ teaching in the Temple. The colossal figures in the apse are also by 
Boccaccino. Right wall : Melone, Last Supper, Christ washing the Disciples 1 
feet, Christ on the Mt. of Olives, Christ taken by the soldiers, Christ before 
Caiaphas ; above the 4th arch, Cristoforo Moretto Cremonese, Christ led 
out to be crucified, Scourging of Christ; 5th arch, Romanino, Crown of 
Thorns, Ecce Homo ; above the last three arches, towards the facade, 
* Pordenone' 's three celebrated Passion Scenes : Christ before Pilate, Christ 
and Veronica, Christ nailed to the Cross. On the front wall a colossal 
Crucifixion and Entombment by Pordenone. — The two pulpits are em- 
bellished with important Lombardic reliefs, from an old altar, ascribed to 
Amadeo. — First Chapel to the right: altar-piece by Pordenone, Madonna 
between two saints, with the donor worshipping. 

In the vicinity are the octagonal Battistero (PL F, 4) of 1167, 
and the Campo Santo (PL F, 4), with curious old mosaics: Hercules 
and Nessus ; Piety wounded by Cruelty ; Faith tearing out the 
tongue of Discord, etc. 

The adjacent Square Rorna (PL E, F, 3) is laid out with gardens 

M M W *A 

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to Mantua. CREMONA 26. Route. 147 

(music on Sun. and Thurs. evenings). No. 1 in this square, indi- 
cated by a memorial tablet , is tbe bouse in which Antonio Stradi- 
vari made his violins for many years and died in 1728. 

From the Palazzo Pubblico the Contrada Ariberti leads to the 
W. to the Palazzo Reale (formerly Ala di Ponzone), which contains 
natural history and other collections, coins, and a few pictures (daily 
9-3, except Sun.). Farther up the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, in the 
second cross-street to the left, is the richly-painted church of S. 
Pietro al Po (PI. D, "E, 5), built in 1549-70 by Ripari. Over 
the third altar to the right, Madonna and four saints, by Joh. Franc. 
Bembus (1524), an otherwise unknown imitator of Fra Bartolommeo. 
The rich ceiling-decorations are by the brothers Campi. 

In S. Agostino e Giacomo in Bbaida (PL D, 3), 14th cent., 
with aisles and barrel-vaulting : first chapel on the right, Pieta, 
by Giulio Campi; last side-altar but one, Madonna and two saints 
by Perugino (1494) ; left, between the third and fourth altars, por- 
traits of Francesco Sforza, and between the fourth and fifth, of his 
wife Bianca Maria Visconti, frescoes (retouched) by Bonif. Bembo. 

The Contrada S. Margherita (passing on the right the small 
church of that name, built and painted by Giulio Campi, 1546) 
leads hence to the Piazza Garibaldi (PL C, D, 2) with the church 
of S. Agata (right aisle, Marriage of St. Catharine and St. Jo- 
seph ; beside the high-altar, four large *Frescoes by Giulio Campi, 
painted in 1536 in the style of Pordenone) , whence the Corso di 
Porta Milano leads N.W. to the gate of that name and the station. 

Among the many fine palaces are Pal. Sansecondo, Pal. Crotti 
(formerly Raimondi), containing sculptures by Pedone, Pal. Stanga 
a S. Vicenzo, and Pal. Dati (now part of the large hospital), with 
fine court and staircase, all in the Corso di Porta Milano. 

About f/2 M. to the E., near the Mantua road, is the church of S. Si- 
gismondo, with frescoes and pictures by Campi, Boccaccino, and other Cre- 
monese masters ; "Altar-piece by Giulio Campi, Madonna with saints, and 
below, Francesco Sforza and his wife, founders of the church. — Near the 
village of Le Torn lies the beautiful Villa Sacerdoti. 

From Cremona to Mantua, 39 M., in about 2 hrs. The chief station 
is Piadena (see below). Mantua, see p. 179. 

From Cremona to Brescia or Pavia, see p. 144. 

From Cremona to Piacenza (tramway five times daily in 2 x /4 hrs.). 
The road intersects the plain on the right bank of the Po, after crossing 
the river with its numerous islands, leads by Monticelli, S. Nazzaro, and 
Caorso , and crosses the river formed by the Chiavenna and Riglio. At 
Roncaglia we cross the Nure and proceed to the W. to Piacenza (p. 260). 

66 M. Villetta-Malagnino ; 70 M. Gazzo and Pieve S. Giacomo ; 
75 M. Torre de' Picenardi; 79 M. Piadena. 

From Piadena to Brescia, railway in course of construction. 

From Piadena to Parma, 25 M. , railway in 11/2-2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 55, 
3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 5 c). — 4 M. S. Giovanni in Croce. At (IO1/2 M.) Casalmaggiore 
the Po is crossed, and near (15 J /2 M.) Colorno the brook Parma. I8V2 M. 
Torile S. Polo. 25 M. Parma, see p. 264. 

81 M. Bozzolo, with an old castle of theGonzagas. Before (88 M.) 

Marcaria we cross the Oglio. — 93 y 2 M. Castellucchio. 


1 48 Route 27. BERGAMO. 

About 2V2 M. to the E. of Castellucchio, 5 M. from Mantua, is the 
church of S. Maria delle Grazie, founded in 1399, a famous resort of pil- 
grims, containing curious votive offerings in the form of life-size figures in 
wax, bearing the names of 'Charles V, 'Ferdinand T, 'Pope Pius IP, the 
'Connetable de Bourbon', etc. Also a few monuments. 

The train now crosses the Mincio. — 100 M. Mantua, see p. 179. 

27. From Milan to Bergamo. 

331/2 M. Railway in I-IV4 hr. (fares 6 fr. 15,^ 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 75 c). 
Finest views to the left. — Tramway, see p. SO; via Monza, see p. 113. 

Milan, see p. 89. — 7 M. Limito; 2 l / 2 M - Vignate ; 12 M. 
Melzo. At (16 M.) Cassano, a large village with palatial houses, 
the train crosses the "blue Adda. From (20 M.) Treviglio (in S. Mar- 
tino an altarpiece by Buttinone and Zenale) a branch-line runs to 
Cremona, see R. 26 ; direct line to Verona, see p. 151 ; also tram- 
way to Lodi. — 26 M. Verdello; S3 l / 2 M. Bergamo. 

Bergamo. — Hotels. Alb. d'Italla, R., L., & A. 2V2-3V2, B. H/2, 
d<5j. 3, D. 4, pens. 10, omn. 1 fr. ; Cappello d'Oro, E. IV2-21/2, B. IV2 fr., 
unpretending and moderate ; both in the new town ; Alb. & Ristor. Giar- 
dinetto, at the Porta S. Agostino, with garden and view, R. & A. 1V2-3 fr., 
L. 30 c, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 3!/2, pens. 7 fr. ; Concordia, Viale Stazione, well 
spoken of. 

Cafes. Nazionale; Centrale, tolerable; both in the Piazza Cavour. — 
Beer at the Gambvino. 

Tramways through several streets. — Cab, per hr., 2 x /2 fr. — Cable- 
Tramway (Funicolare) from the Strada Vitt. Emanuele (PI. C, 3) to the 
old town, every */* hr., 15 c. 

Bergamo (1245 ft.), the ancient Bergomum , a Venetian town 
from 1428 to 1797, now a provincial capital with 23,800 (with 
suburbs 39,700) inhab., lies at the junction of the Valle Brem- 
bana, watered by the Brembo, and the Valle Seriana, named after 
the rapid Serio. This is one of the busiest of the smaller trad- 
ing and manufacturing towns in Italy. The once famous fair 
(Fiera di S. Alessandro, middle of August to middle of September) 
has lost its importance. The town consists of two distinct parts, the 
Citta Alta, picturesquely situated on hills (cable-tramway recently 
opened), and the much larger new quarters in the plain (Borgo S. 
Leonardo, Borgo Pignolo, Borgo S. Tommaso), with cotton, silk, and 
other factories, an interesting piazza (la Fiera; PL D, 4), attractive 
shops, lively cafe's, and a new Protestant church. 

From the railway-station the broad Viale Napoleone III. leads 
to the Piazza Cavour (PI. D, 5), with a statue of Victor Emmanuel 
by Barzaghi (PI. 19). A lane leads hence to the left to S. Alessandro 
in Colonna (PI. 5 ; C, 5) , containing a fine Assumption by Roma- 
nino. The Contrada Torquato Tasso leads to the right from the Piazza, 
past the new Municipio , or town-hall (PI. 20 ; D, 4), to S. Barto- 
lommeo (PI. 8; D, 4). Behind the high-altar is a large altarpiece by 
Lor. Lotto (1516), *Madonna surrounded by ten saints. The predelle 
(Entombment , Stoning of Stephen , Miracle of St. Dominic) are 

BERGAMO. 27. Route. 149 

now in the sacristy ; also a Pieta and saints by Borgognone. — Far- 
ther on is S. Spirito (PI. 17; E, 4) , a fine Renaissance building 
without aisles. 

Interior. Left, second altar : large *Altar-piece by Borgognone (1508) : 
Descent of the Holy Ghost, God the Father, Annunciation; on the left, 
The Baptist and St. Jerome; on the right, SS. Augustine and Francis. 
Left, fifth altar: Scipio Laudensis, Madonna between SS. Peter and Paul. 
Right, 4th Chapel : ''Lotto, Madonna and four saints ; ahove, angels in a 
glory (1521); 5th chapel, Previtali, Madonna and four saints (1525); 
above, by the same. Resurrection with four saints (finished by Ag. Caver- 
segno). To the right of the high-altar is Previtali s master-piece: John 
the Baptist, surrounded by SS. Bartholomew, Nicholas of Bari, Joseph, and 
Dominic (1515). 

Farther on, in the Contrada di Pignolo, are S. Bernardino 
(PI. 9; 0, 6), containing a picture by *Lotto, Madonna and Saints 
(1521), and S. Alessandro della Croce (PI. 6 ; D, 3 ; Moroni, Ma- 
donna ; in the sacristy, Lotto, Trinity ; Moroni, portrait ; Previtali, 
Crucifixion, dated 1514). 

The Strada Vitt. Emanuele (cable-tramway, p. 148) connects 
the new town with the Citta Alta, which contains several interest- 
ing Renaissance houses. The Promenade affords a tine view of the 
Brianza (p. 116) and the surrounding mountains, particularly those 
to the N.E. The Castle (PI. A, 1), on the hill to the N.W., and the 
Pasco dei Tedeschi rising above it, command still finer views. In 
the Piazza Garibaldi , the former market-place , is the Palazzo 
Nuovo (PI. 22; C, 2), in the Renaissance style, by Scamozzi, but un- 
finished. Opposite is the Library, in the Gothic Palazzo Vecchio, or 
Broletto (PL 23 ; C, 3) , the ground-floor of which consists of an 
open colonnade. Near it are the Monument of Torquato Tasso 
(whose father Bernardo was born at Bergamo in 1493), and a Mo- 
nument of Garibaldi (1885). 

Behind the library is the Romanesque church of S. Maria 
Iffaggiore (PL 16; B, C, 2, 3), of 1137, with ancient lion-portals on 
the N. and S. 

The Interior (entrance on the S. side) contains ancient wall-paintings 
under thick tapestry (much injured) and fine carved *Choir-stalls by the 
Bergamasque artists, Franc. Capodiferro and Fra Damiano. The *Intarsia 
work in the central panels (usually covered) was partly designed by Lor. 
Lotto. This church contains the tomb of Cardinal Alessandri (d. at Avignon, 
1819, modern canopy) and the monument of the famous composer Donizetti 
of Bergamo (d. 1848), by Vine. Vela; opposite, that of his teacher Giov. 
Sirnone Mayr (d. 1845). In the treasury (above the sacristy) are a large 
crucifix (5 ft. high) of the 13th century (?) and several works in niello. — 
The adjoining "Cappella Colleoni (shown by the sagrestano), in the early- 
Renaissance style, has a lavishly sculptured *Facade; the modernized in- 
terior contains the tomb of the founder Bart. Colleoni (d. 1475; p. 236), 
by 0. Ant. Amadeo. The reliefs represent the Bearing of the Cross, Cruci- 
fixion, and Descent from the Cross; at the ends, the Scourging and the 
Resurrection ; below runs a frieze of Cupids, above which are the Annun- 
ciation, *Nativity, and Magi; and on the top is the gilded equestrian 
statue of Colleoni by a German master. Adjacent is the smaller, but 
beautiful monument of his daughter Medea. Above the altar on the right 
are good sculptures ; to the left, a Holy Family by Angelica Kaufmann; 
fine intarsia-work (covered). 

The adjoining Cathedral (P1.13; 0,2,3) was built from designs by 

1 50 Route 27. BERGAMO. 

Carlo Font ana in 1689 on the site of an earlier edifice. First altar 
to the left : Madonna and saints by G. B. Moroni, a pupil of Mo- 
retto ; in the choir a Madonna by Savoldo and behind the high altar 
a *Madonna, a late work of Giov. Bellini. The adjacent Baptistery, 
by Giovanni da Campione (1340), recently restored, is best viewed 
from the passage leading to the sacristy. 

In the street leading to the Porta S. Caterina is the Accademia 
Carrara (PI. 1 ; E, 2), a school of art and *Picture-gallery [Galleria 
Carrara and G. Lochis ; open on 1st Sun. and 3rd Thurs. of each 
month, but daily from 30th Aug. to 18th Sept. ; shown at other 

times by the custodian, gratuity l/ 2 -l fr-)- 

Galleria Caeeaka. I. R.: Engravings and Drawings. The paintings 
here include: Previtali , Descent of the Holy Ghost-, opposite 49. Bellotto, 
Arch of Titus ; 45-48. Zuccarelli , Landscapes. — II. R. : to the left on 
entering, "•66. Lotto, Betrothal of St. Catharine (1523 •, landscape cut out); 
68. Previtali, Madonna and saints; 67. Cariani, Saints around the Madonna; 
70. Francesco da S. Croce, Annunciation (1504; early work); 75-83. Moroni, 
Portraits (80, 82, 83, best ; 81, an early work) ; 85. Cariani, Portrait of a 
woman. Then, beyond a series of portraits ("91 the best) by Ghislandi, 
the Bergamasque Titian of the 18th cent., 97. Previtali, St. Anthony, with 
SS. Peter, Paul, Stephen, and Laurence; 98. O. Ferrari, Madonna and 
Child ; 100. Moroni , St. Jerome (in Moretto'' s manner). — III. R. : 137. Ca- 
roto, Massacre of the Innocents; 165. Marco Basaiti, Head of Christ (1517); 
*153. Mantegna, Madonna; opposite the entrance, "Lor. Lotto, Portrait; 
188. Moroni, Madonna and saints. — IV. R. : Unimportant. — V. R. : 342. 
Bronzino, Last Supper (1582). In the centre: coins and medals. 

Galleeia Lochis. I. R. : beside the exit, 55. Moretto, Holy Family. — 
II. R.: Above the exit-door, 49-51. and 84. O. Ferrari, Cupids; to the left, 
32-34. A. Schiavone, Studies of saints; 35. Moroni, Madonna, two saints 
below; to the right, 69. Ghislandi, Portrait of a boy; 60, 61. P- Longhi, 
Venetian scenes ; 47. Tiepolo, Sketch for an altar-piece ; above, 41, 42. 
Paris Bordone, Vintage; opposite, 93, 94. Guardi, Views of Venice. — III. R. 
To the left of the entrance, 140. Oiov. Bellini, Madonna (an early work; 
retouched); 147. Venetian School, Portrait; 128. Montagna, Madonna be- 
tween SS. Sebastian and Rochus (1487); 129. C. Crivelli, Madonna; 130. 
Luini, Holy Family; "137. Boltraffio , Madonna and Child; 131. Zenale 
(more probably Ambrogio Borgognone) , Madonna and Child ; 233. Gosimo 
Tura, Madonna; "153. Sebast. del Piombo(f), Portrait; 151. After Bellini, 
The doge Loredan (original in London); 154. Mantegna (?), Portrait; 157. 
Calislo da Lodi(?), Portrait ; Mantegna (more probably Oregorio Schiavone), 
159. St. Alexius, 161. St. Jerome; 150. Unknown Artist, St. Francis; 168. 
Pensabene, Adoration of the Child; 169. School of Mantegna, Resurrection 
Christ; 170. Caroto , Adoration of the Magi; *184. Cariani, Portrait of a 
man; : 185. Lotto, Madonna and SS. Joseph and Catharine (1533); 174. 
Moroni, Portrait of a man; *177. Moretto (not Titian), Christ appearing to 
a donor (signed 1518); *183. Palma Vecchio , Madonna between SS. John 
and Mary Magdalene; 22S. Oarofalo, Madonna and SS. Rochus and Seba- 
stian; "207. Raphael, St. Sebastian (early work, painted in Perugino's 
school); *221. Uiacinto Francia, Bearing of the Cross; 222. Antonello da 
Messina , St. Sebastian ; 218. Losso Lossi, Madonna with St. George and a 
canonized bishop. 

Steam Teamwai from Bergamo to Romana and Fontanella; from Ber- 
gamo to Monza, see p. 113. 

From Beegamo to Ponte della Selva, railway, 18 M., in l 3 /4 hr., 
through the picturesque and industrial Valle Seriana. Before leaving Berg- 
amo the train stops at the suburbs of Borgo Palazzo and Borgo S. Caterina. 

2 M. Redona ; 2'/2 M. Torreboldone. The train descends into the valley of the 
Serio. 3'/2 M. Alzano (where S. Martino contains one of Lotto's best works, 
Death of Peter Martyr). 5'/^ M. Nembro; l l /z M. Albino. The line ascends, 

SOLFERINO. 28, Route. 151 

supported at places by arches over the bed of the Serio. IO1/2M. Gene ; 11 M. 
Gazzaniga-Fiorano, the latter at the entrance of the pretty valley of Oan- 
dino. I21/2 M. Vertova. The train follows the winding valley of the brawl- 
ing Serio, crosses the Bondo descending from the left, the road, the Riso, 
and then the Nossa at (17 M.) Ponte di Nossa. 18 M. Ponte delta Selva 
(*Inn) ' is at present the terminus of the line. Road thence by Clusone 
(Inn), with its interesting church, to Lovere (p. 163). — Pleasant excursion 
further up the valley of the Serio to Fiumenero and (14 M.) Bondione, 
whence the picturesque Falls of the Serio and the lofty Lake of Barbellino 
may be visited. 

Railway to Seregno, via, Ponte S. Pietro (see below) and Usmate- 
Garnate, see p. 113. From Seregno to Saronno, Busto-Arsizio, and 
Novara, see p. 50. 

From Lecco to Brescia via Bergamo. 

51 x /2 M. Railway in 3 hrs. ; fares 9fr. 40, 6fr. 60, 4fr. 25 c. 

Lecco, p. 115. — 2V 2 M. Maggianico ; 4 M. Calolzio (p. 115). — 
10 M. Cisano; 12 M. Pontida; 14 M. Mapello. — 16 M. Ponte S. 
Pietro, with, pretty church, and old castle, junction for Seregno 
(see above). — We cross the Brembo. 20y 2 M. Bergamo (p. 148). 
— Near (23y 2 M.) Seriate the Serio is crossed. 28 M. Oorlago ; 
31^2 M. Grumello. The Oglio , descending from Lago d'Iseo, is 
next crossed. 34 M. Palazzolo (branch to Paratico, p. 163); 39 M. 
Coccaglio, with the monastery of Monf Orfano on a height ; 40 M. 
Bovato (see below), 44 M. Ospitaletto. — bi^j^M.. Brescia, seep. 152. 

28. From Milan to Verona. 

93. M. Railway in 3V4-5V4 hrs. (fares 16 fr. 95, 11 fr. 90, 7 fr. 65 c, 
express, 18 fr. 65, 13 fr. 5 c). 

Milan, p. 89. — 20 M. Treviglio, junction for the lines to Cre- 
mona (p. 145) and Bergamo (p. 148) ; 22i/ 2 M. Vidalengo; 25y 2 M. 
Morengo. The train crosses the Serio, a tributary of the Adda. 
28 M. Romano; 32 M. Calcio, The Oglio, which issues from Lago 
d'Iseo, is crossed. 36Y 2 M. Chiari, an old and industrious town of 
9500 inhab. ; 40 M. Rovato, junction of the Bergamo-Brescia line 
described above ; 44 M. Ospitaletto. — 5iy 2 M. Brescia, see p. 152. 

The slopes near Brescia are sprinkled with villas. 56 M. Rez- 
zato. The Chiese is crossed. 6IY2 M. Ponte S. Marco. Beyond 
(65 M.) Lonato a short tunnel and a long cutting. 

A long viaduct now carries the line to (68 M.) Desenzano 
(p. 158). Admirable survey in clear weather of the blue Lago di 
Qarda and the peninsula of Sermione (p. 159). 

72 M. S. Martino delle Battaglie. A monument on the right 
commemorates the battle of Solferino, where the French and Pied- 
montese under Emp. Napoleon III. and King Victor Emmanuel de- 
feated the Austrians under Emp. Francis Joseph, 24th June, 1859. 

The village of Solferino (Inn, good red wine; guides) lies on the heights 
about 5 M. to the S. (carriage from stat. Desenzano, and back, 15 fr.). It 
formed the centre of the Austrian position, and was taken about 1 p.m. 
by the French guards. The ground northwards to the banks of the Lago 
di Garda was held by General Benedek, who repulsed the attacks of the 

152 Route 29. BRESCIA. 

Piedmontese until nightfall, and only abandoned his position on receiving 
the order to retreat. The left wing of the Austrian army, attacked by 
the French under General Niel, also maintained its position until late in 
the afternoon. 

77 M. Peschiera (station l / 2 M. E. of the town, comp. p. 160; 
pier near the gate, to the right), a strong fortress with 1200 inhab., lies 
at the S.E. end of the Lago di Garda, at the efflux of the Mincio, 
which the train crosses. On 30th May, 1848, the place was taken 
by the Piedmontese after a gallant defence by the Austrian General 
Rath, but it was recovered by the Austrians on 14th Aug. 

79Y 2 M. Castelnuovo ; 8372 M - Somma-Campagna; 91 M. Ve- 
rona Porta Nuova. The Adige is crossed ; fine view of the town to 
the left. 93 M. Verona Porta Vescovo, see p. 167. 

29. Brescia. 

Hotels. Albekgo d'Italia (PI. c; C, 3), R., L., & A. 2V2-3Vz, B. I1/4, 
dej. 21/2, D. 3Vz, pens. 9, omn. 1/2 fr. ; Fenice (PI. a; C, 2, 3), Piazza del 
Duomo, not too clean, R. 2, L. 1/2, A. 1 J2, omn. 3 Ji fr. ; Gambero (PI. b; 
C, 3), Corso del Teatro, good, but plain, R. & A. 2 J /2, D. 4, B. 1, omn. V2 fr. ; 
Cappello (PI. d; C, 3). 

Cafes adjacent to the theatre, in the Piazza del Duomo, etc. — Beer at 
Wuhrer's, Strada Maria Calchera (PI. D, 3). 

Photographs : Capitanio, near the Porta Venezia. 

Cabs (Cittadine): 85c. per drive, l^fr. per hour. 

Railway by Cremona to Pavia, see p. 145; to Bergamo and Lecco, see 
p. 151; to Verona and to Milan, see R. 28; to Iseo, see p. 163. 

Tramway from the railway station and Porta Milano to Porta Venezia. 
— Steam Tramway via, Crema (p. 145) and Lodi (p. 259) to Milan (p. 89); 
via, Guidizzolo, on the battle-field of Solferino (p. 151; 2 3 /4 hrs.), to 
Mantua (p. 179; 4 l /4 hrs.); to Gardone-Val-Trompia (l 3 /4 hr.); via, Tormini 
to Said (p. 159 ; 2 J /2 hrs.), and tbence in 3/4 hr. more to Gar done- Riviera 
(p. 159); also to Barghe (p. 162) and to Vestone (p. 162); lastly by Lograto 
to Orzinuovi. 

Principal Attractions (1 day). ■ Municipio (p. 154) ; S. Giovanni Evan- 
gelista (p. 154); Cathedral (p. 153) ; Tosio and *Martinengo Galleries (pp. 156, 
157); SS. Nazzaro e Celso (p. 157); S. Francesco (p. 157); S. Clemente 
(p. 156); 'Museum of Antiquities (p. 155); walk along the Castello (p. 158). 

Brescia (460 ft.), with 43,400 (with suburbs 60,000) inhab., 
capital of a province, is beautifully situated at the foot of the Alps, 
and its numerous fountains of limpid water lend it an additional 
charm. Ironwares, and particularly weapons (hence 'Brescia armata'), 
form the staple commodities, many of the fire-arms used by the 
Italian army being made here. The woollen, linen, and silk factories 
are also worthy of mention. 

Brescia, the ancient Gallic Brixia, afterwards a Roman colony, vied 
with Milan at the beginning of the 16th cent, as one of the wealthiest 
cities of Lombardy, but in 1512 was sacked and burned by the French 
under Gaston de Foix (p. 309) after an obstinate defence. Five years later 
it was restored to Venice, to which it belonged till 1797, but it has 
never recovered its ancient importance. On 1st April, 1849, the town was 
bombarded and taken by the Austrians under Haynau. — Arnold of Brescia, 
a pupil of Abe"lard, was one of the most prominent leaders of the reforming 
movement in Italy in the middle ages; he attacked the secular power 
and wealth of the clergy, and after being excommunicated by Hadrian IV.. 
was executed in 1155. 

BRESCIA. 29. Route. 153 

Brescia is noteworthy in the history of art as the birthplace of 
Alessandeo Buonvicino, surnamed il Moketto (1498-1555), who appears 
to have studied exclusively at his native place, and whose teacher is said 
to have been Floriano Ferramola of Brescia. There seems to be no ground 
for the assumption that he was influenced by Titian and the Roman school. 
Like the Veronese masters, he is distinguished from the Venetian school, 
with which he has erroneously been classed, by the comparative soberness 
of his colouring ('subdued silvery tone 1 ), although he vies with the Vene- 
tians in richness and brilliancy, while he sometimes reveals a full measure 
of the ideality of the golden period of art. Buonvicino began his career 
as a painter in his 18th year. He rarely extended the sphere of his labours 
beyond his native place , and Brescia is therefore abundantly stored with 
his works. The churches here (such as S. Clemente, p. 156) display his 
fertility, both as a painter 'al fresco 1 and in oils, forming quite a museum 
of his pictures. S. Giovanni Evangelista (p. 154), S. Nazzaro e Celso 
(p. 157), Madonna de 1 Miracoli (p. 157), and the Galleria Martinengo (p. 157) 
all contain admirable specimens of his powers. Among Moretto's pupils 
was Giov. Batt. Moroni (1502-78), one of the best portrait-painters of the 
Renaissance. Another eminent master of Brescia, a contemporary of 
Buonvicino, was G-irol. Romanino (1485-1566); his best works are to be 
seen in S. Francesco (p. 157), S. Giov. Evangelista (p. 154), and at Padua. 
— Brescia also contains several interesting antiquities (p. 155). 

From the station (PI. A, 4) the town is entered at its S."W. 
angle by the Porta Stazione, whence the Corso Vittorio Emanuele 
leads N.E. to the Piazza Vecchia, in the centre of the town (p. 154). 

To the E. of the Piazza Vecchia is the *Duomo Nuovo (PL 8; 

C, 3), or episcopal cathedral, begun in 1604 by Lattanzio Oambara 
(but the dome not completed till 1825) , one of the best churches 
of the 16th and 17th centuries. It is in the form of a Greek cross, 
with a lengthened choir. 

Interior. By the first pillar on the right is the large "Monument of 
Bishop Nava (d. 1831) , with groups in marble and a relief by Monti of 
Ravenna; by the first pillar on the left the monument of Bishop Ferrari. 
The second altar on the right is adorned with modern statues in marble 
of Faith, by Selaroni, and Hope, by JSmanueli, and a modern painting, 
Christ healing the sick , by Gregoletti. Then (3rd altar on right) a sar- 
cophagus with small *High-reliefs (date about 1500), containing '■Corpora 

D. D. Apollonii et Philastri\ transferred hither in 1674 from the crypt of 
the old cathedral. — High-altar-piece, an Assumption by Zoboli, designed 
by Conca. In the dome the four Evangelists, alto-reliefs in marble. 

From a door between the 2nd and 3rd altars 25 steps descend 
to the Duomo Vecchio (PI. 9 ; C, 3) , generally called La Eotonda 
(undergoing restoration), situated on the low ground to the S. of 
the Duomo Nuovo (shown by the sacristan of the Duomo Nuovo, 
who lives at the back of the choir). 

This massive dome-structure is circular, as its name imports, with an 
ambulatory, and rests on eight short pillars in the interior. The sub- 
structure is very ancient (9th cent.) , while the drum and cupola (Ro- 
manesque) date from the 12th century. The transept and choir with 
lateral chapels at the back were added at a very early period. Altar- 
piece, an * Assumption by Moretto (1526) ; on the right side, a Presentation 
in the Temple, and on the left SS. Mary and Elizabeth, by Romanino; on 
the left, Paima Vecchio (?), Holy Family (retouched). — LSelow the dome 
is the crypt, or Basilica di S. Filastro, supported by 42 columns. 

Opposite the E. side of the Duomo Nuovo is the entrance to 
the *Biblioteca Quiriniana [Bibl. Comunale ; PI. 5, C, 3 ; fee i/ 2 fr.), 
of 40,000 vols., bequeathed to the town in 1750 by Cardinal 

154 Route 29. BRESCIA. Broletto. 

Quirini. Several curiosities are preserved in a separate cabinet. 
(Admission daily, 11-3, in -winter 10-3, except Wed., Sun., and 
high festivals; vacation from 1st Oct. to 2nd Nov.) 

Book of the Gospels of the 9th cent, with gold letters on purple 
vellum; Koran in 12 vols., with miniatures and gilding; an old Book of 
the Gospels, and a Harmony of the Gospels hy Eusebius (10th cent.), 
with miniatures; MS. of Dante on parchment, with miniatures; a Petrarch 
of 1470 with various illustrations CPetrarca figurato') and written anno- 
tations ; a Dante with notes, printed at Brescia in 1487, etc. 

The Broletto (PI. 29 ; C, 2), adjoining the cathedral on the N., 
is a massive building of the 12th cent., but afterwards disfigured. 
Anciently the town-hall, it now contains the courts of justice, and 
part of it is used as a prison. Handsome court, partly in the Re- 
naissance style. The Campanile on the S. side, la Torre del Popolo, 
belongs to the original edifice. — A well-pre-served fragment of 
Gothic architecture in the street ascending hence, with circular 
windows and brick mouldings, is also interesting. 

To the W. , near the Broletto, lies the picturesque* Piazza Vecchia, 
in which rises the *Municipio (PI. 30; B, C, 2), usually called la 
Loggia, erected by Formentone of Brescia in 1508 on the ruins of 
a temple of Vulcan , with a 'putto' frieze by Jacopo Sansovino and 
window-mouldings by Palladio. The interior was half destroyed by 
a lire in 1575. The exterior of this magnificent structure is almost 
overladen with ornamentation. On the ground-floor is a deep colon- 
nade ; in front are pillars with columns in the wall. The upper floor 
recedes considerably. — The handsome adjacent building on the 
right, the Archivio e Camera Notarile (PI, 1), is probably also by 
Formentone. (The traveller should walk round the whole building.) 

On the opposite side of the Piazza , above an arcade, rises the 
Torre dell' Orologio , or clock-tower , with a large dial (twice 1 to 
12). The bell is struck by two iron figures as at Venice (p. 211). 
— To the left rises a Monument, erected by Victor Emmanuel II. in 
1864 to the Brescians who fell during the gallant defence of their 
town against the Austrians in 1849 (PL 26.) — The third side of 
the piazza is occupied by the Monte di Pieth (formerly the Prigioni), 
a plain Renaissance building with a handsome loggia. 

In the Contrada della Palata , leading to the Corso Garibaldi, 
on the left, is the Torre della Palata (PI. 35; C, 2), a medieval 
tower with modern pinnacles. — In a side-street to the N. is *S. 
Giovanni Evangelista (PL 19 ; "B, 2), with admirable pictures. 

We begin on the right. 3rd Altar : "Moretto , Massacre of the Inno- 
cents , a youthful work , of Raphaelite conception. In the choir, behind 
the high-altar: "Moretto, John the Baptist, Zacharias, SS. Augustine and 
Agnes; in the centre the Madonna; above, God the Father, unfortunately 
retouched. — In the next chapel: Civerchio, Entombment; in the lunette 
above, Coronation of the Virgin by Romanino ; *Frescoes on the right by 
Moretto (youthful works of 1521 , showing the influence of Romanino) : 
Collecting the manna, Elijah, and Last Supper, on the pilasters St. Mark 
and St. Luke, and prophets above; those on the left are by Romanino: 
Raising of Lazarus , Mary Magdalene before Christ, and the Sacrament, 
on the pilasters St. John and St. Matthew (the latter damaged). The 

Museum of Antiquities. BRESCIA. 29. Route. 155 

prophets above are by Movetto. Over the next altar : Eomanino , Nuptials 
of Mary (retouched). In the Battistero (in front, to the left): '-'Francesco 
Francia, The Trinity adored by saints. 

We next "visit S. Maria del Carmine (PI. 22; C, 1), with a 
Renaissance portal and fine brick ornamentation on the facade. 
The lunette contains a fresco by Ferramola. In the third chapel 
on the right, Fathers of the Church, a ceiling-painting by Foppa. 
To the left of the church are two fine courts. 

To the W., near the Porta Milano, is the church of S. Maria 
delle Grazie (PI. 23 ; A 2), with several paintings by Moretto. 

1st altar to the right, Martyrdom of St. Barbara, by Francesco da Prato 
(pupil of Titian); 4th altar on the right, St. Anthony of Padua and St. An- 
tonius the Hermit by Moretto ; at the end of the right transept, Madonna 
in clouds, below, SS. Sebastian, Ambrose, and Roctras by Movetto; over 
the high-altar a Nativity of Christ, by Moretto ; 1st altar to the left, Ma- 
donna in clouds, with four saints below, by Foppa. 

Beside the Porta Milano is a bronze equestrian statue of Garibaldi, 
designed by Maccagni (1889). 

To the E. of the Piazza Yecchia , passing the N. side of the 
Broletto (p. 154), we come to a small piazza, to the left in which 
is the entrance to the *Museum of Antiquities (Museo Civico 
Eth Romana; PL 28; D,2; week-days 10-4, Nov. to Feb. 10-3, 
fee 1 fr., which admits also to the Mediaeval Museum; free on the 
first and third Sun. in each month and on each Sun. and Thurs. in 
August, 1-4; visitors knock). The museum occupies an ancient Co- 
rinthian temple, excavated in 1822, which, according to inscriptions, 
was erected by Vespasian in A.D. 72. The dilapidated, but exceed- 
ingly picturesque temple stands on a lofty substructure, with a pro- 
jecting colonnade of ten columns and four pillars to which the steps 
ascend, and has three cellae of moderate depth. 

The pavement of the Principal Hall has been restored from the 
original remains. By the back-wall, as in the other chambers, is placed 
an ancient altar. Among the Eoman inscriptions and sculptures is an 
archaic head ; also two tombs of the flint period. — The Side-Room on 
the right contains ancient glass, vases, coins, bronzes, etc. — In the Room 
on the left are fragments of a colossal temple-figure, architectural frag- 
ments, gilded busts, a relief of a naval battle, breastplate of a war-horse, 
and above all a statue of **Victort, excavated in 1826 , a bronze figure 
about G'/z ft. in height, with a silver-plated diadem round her head, a 
(restored) shield, on which she is about to write, in her left hand, and 
a (restored) helmet under her left foot, one of the most precious existing 
specimens of ancient plastic art. 

The Contrada San Zeno leads hence E. to the Contrada dei 
Padri Riformati, at the end of which, on the right, is the old church 
of 8. Oiulia, containing the Mediaeval Museum {Museo Civico Eth, 
Cristiana; PI. 27, D, 2 ; adm. same price and times as the Museum 

of Antiquities, see above). 

In the Vestibule, bust of Paolo Sarpi. In the New Part of the 
church , on the wall to the left , fine weapons , architectural remains 
with interesting ornaments of the Lombard period, early mediaeval sculp- 
tures , Majolicas ; in front the 'Cross of St. Helen', of 8th cent, work- 
manship, decorated with gems of various periods and a miniature glass 
painting, three portraits of the 5th cent; in the centre, ivory reliefs, 
including consular diptychs of Boethius and Lampadius (5th cent.) and 

156 Route 29. BRESCIA S. Clementc. 

the Diptychon Quirinianum , medallions, Renaissance bronzes; on the 
wall Venetian glass, small figures in marble from a tribuna in the Bro- 
letto, marble door (16th cent.) from a church at Chiari. The cabinet on 
the right contains Limoges and Venetian enamel, and the 'Lipsanoteca' 
or sides of a reliquary of the 4th cent., carved in ivory and arranged in 
the form of a cross. — In the Old Part of the church the monument of 
the Venetian general Orsini (1510) , and the Mausoleum of Marcantonio 
Martinengo (16th cent.) , with reliefs in bronze , from the church of S. 
Cristo (the facade of which, with its interesting brick ornamentation, 
rises on a height to the right in front of the museum). The lectern 
opposite is adorned with intarsia by Raffaello da Brescia (1518). — On 
tbe back- wall a fresco of the 16th cent., below which we look through a 
window into the old church of 8. Salvatore, with capitals of the 6th cent. 
and a crypt. 

From the Mediaeval Museum a street descends to a small piazza, 
where remains of an ancient edifice are built into the wall of 
No. 285. A little to the left is — 

*S. Clemente (PI. 15 ; D, 3), a small church containing a modern 
monument of Moretto (p. 153 ; to the left) and five of his works, 
much injured by retouching. The church is badly lighted and is 
closed 9-12; sacristan in the lane to the W. 

On the right, 2nd altar, :S SS. Cecilia, Barbara, Agnes, Agatha, and 
Lucia: a charming composition, in which the repellant attributes of 
martyrdom are handled with such marvellous naivete as almost to assume 
an attractive air (C. & C). On the left, 1st altar, *St. Ursula; 2nd altar, 
Madonna with SS. Catharine of Alexandria, Catharine of Siena, Paul, and 
Jerome; 3rd altar, Abraham and Melchisedech. *High altar-piece, Madonna 
with St. Clement and other saints. 

A little to the S.E. is S. Maria Calchera (PI. 21 ; D, 3). First 
altar to the left: Simon the Pharisee and Christ by Moretto. Second 
altar to the right : *St. Apollonius by Romanino. High altar : Visi- 
tation, by Calisto da Lodi (1525). 

Besides the above museums , the town also possesses valuable 
collections of ancient and modern pictures , drawings , engravings, 
sculptures, etc., the modern portion of which, together with a few 
ancient pictures, is preserved in the *Palazzo Tosio (PI. 24; D, 3), 
Contrada Tosio. Adm. as to the Museum of Antiquities (p. 155). 

The palace and its collections were bequeathed to the town by Count 
Tosio. Room IV: 3, 21. Massimo d^Azeglio, Landscapes. — Room VI : *1, 
*2. Thorvaldsen, Night and Day. — Room IX: 1. Baruzzi, Silvia, a statue 
in marble, from Tasso. — Room X: *12. Thorvaldsen , Ganymede. — 
Octagon: 1. Bartolini, Boy treading grapes; 2. Gandolfi (after Thorvaldsen), 
Genius of Music. — Cabinet of Eleonoka: 1. Eleonora d'Este, a bust by 
Canova. — Rooms XIII and XIV contain earlier works. Room XIII: 5. 
Fr. Albani, Venus ;md Graces; 12. Raibolini, surnamed Francia, Madonna 
and Child; 13. Cesare da Sesto (? more probablv Timoteo Viti), Young 
Christ; 14. Tintoretto, Portrait; 17. Luca d'Oland'a (?), Nun and woman 
praying; 18. Portrait, of the school of P. Veronese; 29, 30. Giov. Batt. 
Moroni, Portraits; *34. Lor. Lotto, Adoration of the Child; 35. School of 
Raphael, Madonna ; 36. Moretto, Annunciation (early work") ; "37. Raphael, 
Christ teaching, with crown of thorns and wounds (painted in Florence 
still under Umbrian influence; 1505); 38. Fra Bartolommeo , Holy Family 
(spoiled by retouching) ; 3 1 Moretto, Tullia of Aragon as daughter of He- 
rodias. — Room XIV (entrance-room) : 33. Caravaggio, Flute-player. Rooms 
XV and XVI, on the ground-floor, contain modern works. Room XVI: 
1. Laocoon, in marble, by Ferrari ; 4. Monti, Bust of Galileo; 5, 6. Copies 
of Canova's colossal busts of himself and of Napoleon I. by Gandolfi. 

Pal. Martinengo. BRESCIA. 29. Route. 157 

The older works of art are contained in the *Palazzo Mar- 
tinengo, Contrada S. Gaetano (PL D, 4), the most valuable being 
pictures by Moretto and other Brescian masters. Admission, as above. 

This palace with its treasures of art was bequeathed by Count Mart- 
inengo. Room B (Sala Moretto) : 8. Gambara, Portrait of himself; *9. Moretto, 
Holy Family (fresco); *10, : 11. Romanino, Christ at Emmaus and Magdalene 
at Jesus' feet-, end wall, to the left, 16. Giov. Bonato Montorfano (?), 
St. George killing the dragon; *13. Moretto, Adoration of the Infant Christ; 
*17. Moretto, The disciples at Emmaus ; 14. Romanino, SS. Paul, John, and 
other saints ; Romanino, 15. Coronation of the Virgin, with saints, 18. Por- 
trait; 19. Moretto (?), Portrait. Opposite, 23, 24, 25. Romanino, Bearing 
of the Cross, Adoration of the Shepherds, Descent from the Cross; 26. 
Moretto, Suffering Christ; '27. Moretto, Madonna in clouds, with angels, 
St. Francis, and donors below (1542); **28. Moretto, Madonna enthroned 
with saints , from the church of S. Eufemia ; 29. Moretto, Descent of the 
Holy Ghost. — Room C: 1. Ferramola (?), Bearing of the Cross; 4. Gam- 
bara, Apollo ; 5. Moretto, Madonna with the Child and St. John (restored 
and spoiled) ; 7. Venetian School, Madonna and Child ; 8. Calisto da Lodi 
(1524) , Adoration of the Child (fresco ; 1524) ; 9. Civerchio, St. Nicholas ; 
10. Savoldo , Adoration of the Child ; 13. Francia, Madonna ; 16. Unknown 
Artist (not Giorgione), Portrait. — Room D : at the exit, 15. Van Dyck (?), 
Madonna with the Child and St. John; 16. Clouet, surnamed Janet, Por- 
trait of Henri III. of France. — Room E. Drawing by Tie-polo, opposite 
the window. 

Near the Pal. Martinengo is S. Afra (PI. 12; D, 4), erected on 
the site of a temple of Saturn, and entirely rebuilt in 1580. 

High-altar-piece: Tintoretto, Ascension, in which the blue of the sky 
is the predominant colour. Over the N. door: "Titian (or Giul. Campif), 
Christ and the adulteress (generally covered). Over the N. altars : 2. P. 
Veronese, Martyrdom of St. Afra (in the foreground, among the beheaded, 
is the head of the painter); 1. Raima Giovane, Brescian martyrs. 

The church of S. Alessandro (PI. 13; C, D, 4), a few yards to 
the "W., contains (1st altar to the right) an *Annunciation (covered) 
erroneously attributed to Fra Angelico. It is by a N. Italian master 
influenced by Gentile da Fabriano. — 2nd altar to the right: Ci- 
verchio, Pieta. 

S. Nazzaro e Celso (PI. 11 ; A, 3), in the Corso Carlo Alberto, 
built in 1780, contains several good pictures. 

*High-altar piece by Titian, in five sections, the Resurrection being 
the principal subject; on the right St. Sebastian, on the left St. George 
with the portrait of Averoldo, the donor (1522) ; above these the Annun- 
ciation ('long an object of study to the artists of the Brescian School' : 
C. & C). — Second altar on the left, ''Coronation of the Virgin, with SS. 
Michael, Joseph, Nicholas, and Francis below, by Moretto ('this altar-piece 
is the very best of its kind, cold perhaps in silver-grey surface, but full 
of bright harmony and colour'': G. & C.). — Third altar on the right, 
Christ in glory (1541); fourth altar on the left, Nativity, with SS. Nazzaro 
and Celso, also by Moretto, sadly damaged. — In the sacristy, above the 
side-door, *Predella by Moretto, Adoration of the Child, Madonna and 
angel in medallions. Above the side-doors of the main portal of the 
church is a large painting of the Martyrdom of Nazarius and Celsus, 
ascribed to Foppa. On the organ-wing an Annunciation by Foppa. 

Madonna dei Miracoli (PI. 10 ; B, 3), near S. Nazzaro, a small 
church with four domes and rich facade, is an early-Renaissance 
building of the end of the 15th cent. ; 1st altar on the right, *Ma- 
donna and Child, with St. Nicholas, by Moretto (1539), one 
of his best works. — A little to the N. is S. Francesco (PI. 18; 

158 j Route 30. LAGO DI GARDA. 

B, 3), with Gothic facade; 1st chapel on the left, Fr. da Prato, 
Sposalizio (1547; covered); 3rd chapel on the right, *Moretto, SS. 
Margaret, Francis, and Jerome (signed 1530); over the high-altar, 
Bomanino, Madonna and saints, his master-piece and a "brilliant 
piece of colouring (about 1525; in an older frame, 1502). 

About 1/2 M. from the Porta Milano (PI. A, 2) lies the pretty Campo 
Santo, to which an avenue of cypresses leads from the high-road. Fine 
view from the tower. — A picturesque walk may be taken in the gar- 
dens beneath the Castello (PI. C, D, 2); best towards evening. Monte 
Rosa is sometimes visible to the W. 

30. The Lago di Garda. 

Steamboat. W. Bank (the more picturesque), between Desenzano and 
Riva, daily (starting from Riva in the morning, from Desenzano afternoon) 
in 4 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 35, 2 fr. 40 c). Stations Manerba, S. Felice di Scovolo, 
Said, Gardone-Riviera, Maderno , Gargnano , Tignale, Tremosine, Limone, 
Riva. — E. Bank, between Riva and Peschiera, daily except Tues. in 4 hrs. 
(fares 4 fr. 50, 2 fr. 50 c). Stations Torbole, Malcesine, Assenza, Macu- 
gnano, Castelletto, Pai , Torri, Garda, Bardolino, Lazise , Peschiera. The 
Tues. steamer sails from Lazise to Desenzano without touching at Pe- 
schiera. — Both Banks, once daily (from Peschiera and Desenzano in the 
morning, from Riva afternoon); stations: Peschiera, Lazise, Bardolino, 
Garda , Desenzano , Manerba , Said , Gardone-Riviera, Maderno, Gargnano, 
Castelletto, Malcesine, Limone, Riva. — Enquiries should be made on the 
spot. The steamboats are inferior to those on the western lakes. Sea- 
sickness is not unknown in rough weather. Restaurants indifferent. Pay- 
ments are made in Italian money. 

Railway from Riva to Arco and Mori, see p. 19. The railway from 
Verona to Garda (p. 160) is open only to Gaprino (p. 162). 

The Lago di Garda (225 ft.), the Lacus Benacus of the Romans, 
the largest of the N. Italian lakes, is 37 M. in length, and l 1 ^- 
10 M. broad; area 189 sq. M., depth in many places upwards of 
1000 ft. It belongs to Italy, except the N. extremity with Riva, 
which is Austrian. The lake is rarely perfectly calm, and in stormy 
weather is almost as rough as the sea, as recorded by Virgil (Georg. 
ii. 160). The water is of an azure blue. 

The banks , although inferior in attraction to those of the Lake of 
Como, present a great variety of beautiful landscapes, enhanced by the 
imposing expanse of the water. The shores of the S. half are flat and well 
cultivated , but they become bolder between Capo S. Vigilio and a point 
to the N. of Salb, where the lake contracts. The vegetation is luxuriant, 
especially on the more sheltered W. bank. Even the sensitive lemon 
arrives at maturity here, but the trees require to be carefully covered in 
winter. This is done with the aid of numerous brick pillars 20 ft. in 
height, erected at regular intervals of 8 ft., and united by cross-beams at 
the top. The fruit is more bitter and aromatic than that of Sicily, suffers 
less from carriage, and keeps longer. Price according to the season 3-10 fr. 
per hundred. — The carpione, or salmon-trout, which attains 25 lbs., the 
trola, or trout, the anguilla, or eel, and the luccio, or pike, are excellent fish. 

Desenzano {Hot. Royal Mayer, R., L., & A. 3-5, B. l 1 /^ 1 /^ 
dej. 3-4, D. 4-5, pens. 7-10, omn. y 2 fr., mediocre; Due Colombe, 
well spoken of, R., L., & A. 2-3 fr., B. 80 c, pens. 6-8 fr., with 
small garden on the lake) is a busy town with 4500 inhab., at the 
S.W. angle of the lake , with a railway-station (p. 151). Omnibus 
or one-horse cab from pier to train 50 c. each, luggage 25 c. each 



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GARDONE-RIVIERA. 30. Route. 159 

package. One-horse carriage to Said and Gardone-Riviera (p. 159), 
8-9 fr. (bargain advisable). 

About 3Y2 M. to the E., not quite halfway to Peschiera (p. 152), 
is the narrow promontory of Sermione, projecting < 2, 1 /2 M. into the 
lake, which here attains its greatest breadth. 

A pleasant excursion may be taken thither by boat or by carriage(6 fr. ; 
3 hrs. there and back). The fishing-village (Promessi Sposi) adjoins the 
handsome ruin of a castle of the Scaligers (p. 170). We then cross the olive- 
clad height, past the little church of S. Pietro , to (1 M.) the extremity 
of the peninsula, where we obtain a charming view. On the hill are 
remains of baths, and on the promontory are relics of a building extend- 
ing into the lake, said to have been the country-house of Catullus, who 
wrote his poems here ('peninsularum, Sirmio, insularumque ocelle 1 ). 

W. Bank from Desbnzano to Riva. — The steamboat steers 
near the bank, but does not touch at the villages of Moniga and 
Manerba. Opposite the promontory of 8. Vigilio (p. 160) we pass 
the small Isola di 8. Biagio and the beautiful crescent-shaped 
Isola di Garda, the property of the Duca Ferrari. The steamer now 
steers to the W. and enters the bay of — 

Salo [*H6tel Salb, in an open situation, with a garden on the 
lake, pens. 8 fr. ; Europa, well spoken of), a town with 4600 in- 
hab., surrounded with terraces of fragrant lemon-groves, at the foot 
of Monte S. Bartolommeo (1860 ft.), which affords a charming view, 
especially by evening-light. The Parish Church oontains several 
pictures of the Brescian and Veronese Schools : on the pillar to the 
right of the high-altar, *Adoration of the Child, by Torbido; 4th altar 
on the right, Christ in Hades, by Zenon of Verona (1537). In 
S. Bernardino, 2nd altar on the left, *Altarpiece by Romanino (1529), 
S. Bonaventura with a donor and angels. — Carr. with one horse to 
(12 M.) Desenzano in 2 hrs., 7 fr. ; steam-tramway to Brescia five 
times daily, see p. 152; to Vestone, changing at Tormini, see 
p. 162. Diligence to Gargnano (p. 160). 

We here reach the Riviera, a warm coast-strip, noted for its 
luxuriant vegetation, with numerous villages and country-houses. 
A little farther on is — 

Gardone-Riviera. — Hotels. *H6t. Gabdone - Riviera , with gar- 
dens, covered promenade, electric lighting, etc., pens, from 772 fr., closed 
from May 15. to Sept. 15.; Pens. H^ebeelin, open all year, pens. from7fr., 
well spoken of; Pens. Aurora. — :5 Alb. Gigola, in Fasano (see below), 
unpretending, pens, inch wine 6 fr. — Physicians. Dr. von Frantzius; 
Dr. Koniger ; Dr. Schiffmann. — Apartments moderate, to be obtained also 
in Gardone di Sopra, Fasano, and Salo. 

Oar done- Riviera, in a sheltered and sunny situation, has become 
within the last few years a favourite winter-resort for consumptive 
and nervous invalids. Its remarkably uniform climate is the warm- 
est in the N. of Italy. The mean winter temperature is about 
40° Fahr. (Arco 38°, Mentone 50°) , while the hygrometer shows a 
nearly uniform moisture of 78 per cent, similar to that of Montreux. 

Excursions. To the Barbarana Ravine, l fe hr. — To <S. Michele (1325 ft.), 
a high- lying church, affording a fine view of the lake, 1 hr. ; we may return 
via Sopiane. — The charming excursion (2 hrs.) to the romantic and pro- 

160 Route 30. MALCESINE. Lago di Garda. 

found "Toscolano Ravine, with its paper-mills, may be made by carriage. 

— The church of Gaino (990 ft. ; 2 his.) is reached by a beautiful route, 
shaded with laurels. It commands a good view of the lake, which is 
seen to still greater advantage from the ridge above Cecina, ^hr. farther 
to the N. — By carriage (IV4 hr.) or steamer to Gargnano, see below. — 
By boat (1V2 hr.) to the Promontory of Manerba (view of the whole lake). 

— By boat ( 3 /t hr.) to the Isola di Garda (see p. 159), with its pretty 
terraces and pleasure-grounds. 

Ascents. ''Monte S. Bartolommeo (1865ft.), ascended in 2 hrs., seep. 159, 

— Other good points of view are Mte. Roccolo (l6C0ft.-, lVahr.); Monte Lavino 
(2975 ft. ; 2!/2-3hrs.), and Monte Pizzocolo (5195 ft.-, 5-6 hrs., with guide). 

We next pass Fasano, 20 min. to the N. of Gardone-Riviera, 
and the beautifully situated villa of the late minister Zanardelli. 
At Maderno, on a promontory extending far into the lake, is the 
church of St. Andrea (by the harbour), a basilica of the 8th cent., 
altered in the interior, with fine facade and Roman inscription and 
relief on the external wall. Behind rises the Monte Pizzocolo (see 
above). Next come Toscolano, Cecina, and Bogliaco; then Garg- 
nano (*Cervo), an important -looking village amidst lemon and 
olive-plantations, one of the finest points on the lake. Diligence in 
connection with the tramway from Salo to Brescia, see pp. 159, \ 52. 

The mountains become loftier. The hamlets of Muslone, Piovere, 
Tignale, and Oldese are almost contiguous. Tremosine, in a lofty 
situation, is scarcely visible from the lake. In a bay farther on 
are the white houses of Limone, another lemon and olive producing 
village. "We cross the Austrian frontier a little beyond La Nova, 
and soon obtain a view of the ravine of the Ponale and the new 
road (see p. 162). 

Riva, see p. 161. — Custom-house examination on the arrival 
and departure of the steamboats. 

E. Bank from Riva to Peschiera. The first station is Torbole 
(*Bertolini), 3 M. to the E. of Riva on the road to Mori (p. 19). 
The vessel steers S. to — 

Malcesine (Beppo Toblini, opp. the chemist's), a good harbour, 
with an old castle of Charlemagne, afterwards a robbers' stronghold, 
recently restored. The parish-church contains a *Descent from the 
Cross by Girol. dai Libri, a richly coloured master-piece. 

Beyond the castle rises the rocky Isoletto deli Olivo ; then Cas- 
sone, and a little farther the islet of Tremelone. The next stations 
are Assenza, Macugnano, Castelletto, Pai, and Torri. The banks 
become flatter. The promontory of S. Vigilio, with the Villa Br enzoni, 
sheltered from the N. by Monte Baldo (p. 161), extends far into the 
lake, and is the finest point of view on the E. bank. The pictur- 
esque old town of Garda (Tre Corone, indifferent), with 1500 
inhab., in a beautiful bay at the influx of the Tesino, which descends 
from Monte Baldo, gives the lake its name. The next places are Bar- 
dolino, Cisano, and Lazise, each with its harbour and old castle. 

Peschiera, see p. 152. The station is on the E. side of the town, 
Y2 M. from the pier (omnibus 35 c). 

Lago di Qarda RIVA. 30. Route. 161 

Riva. — Hotels. *Sole d'Oko, with terrace on the lake, R. from 70, 
L. & A. 45, B. 50 kr., D. I1/2, pens, from 2 fl. 80 kr. ; "Hot. -Pens, ad 
Lac, with large garden and baths, 3 /4 M. to the E., on the Torbole road, R., 
L., & A. I1/2 A., D. 1 fl. 30 kr., pens, from 3 fl. ; *H6t.-Pens. Riva, R., L., 
& A. I-I1/2 fl., B. 45 kr., D. V/ 2 , pens, from 21/2 A- ; Baviera; *Giardino S. 
Marco, outside Porta S. Michele, Italian, pension 2V2fl.; Musch, R., L., & A. 
1/2-I fl., B. 20, D. 30 kr., pens. 2-3 fl. ; Gallo; Vittoeia & Popolo, R., L., 
& A. 80, B. 30 kr. , D. incl. wine 1 fl. 20, pens. 2 fl. 60 kr. 

Beer at Musch's, in the Giardino S. Marco (see above), and in the 
Birreria Krautner, outside the Porta S. Marco. 

Baths in the lake to the E., beyond the barrack. 

Railway to Arco and Mori, see p. 19. — Carriage to Arco and back 1^2 fl. 

Boats, without rower, 40 kr. per hour. 

(roods Agents. Gretli & Fava, next the Albergo Gallo. 

Riva, a busy harbour with 6550 inhab., is charmingly situated 
at the N.W. end of the lake, at the base of the precipitous Rocchetta. 
On the hillside , high above the town , rises the round tower of a 
ruined castle supposed to have been built by the Scaligers, and on 
the lake is the old castle of La Rocca, now a barrack. By the 
entrance to the town from Arco is the Church of the Minorites , in 
the overladen baroque style, erected in the second half of the 16th 
century. The Parish Church contains modern pictures and frescoes. 
Riva is a sheltered and healthy place , and the heat of summer is 
tempered by the lake. Private apartments moderate. 

Excursions. The "Tall of the Ponale, at the mouth of the deeply cleft 
Val di Ledro, is chiefly interesting from its surroundings. It is best 
reached by boat (there and back in I1/2 2 hrs., 2-3 fl.), or on foot (3-4 hrs. 
there and back). The new *Road, in shade in the afternoon, and affording 
fine views, leads high above the lake, through a succession of tunnels and 
cuttings, to the Val di Ledro. At the point where it turns to the right 
into the valley, a path descending to the left, then ascending, and again 
descending, leads to the waterfall. Travellers arriving by boat ascend 
a few paces to the old bridge immediately below the fall, the best point 
of view (small fee to the custodian). 

To Torbole C'Bertolini, R. 60, pension 2 fl. 20 kr.), 2*/4 M. to the E. on 
the Nago road, on foot or by boat (I1/2 fl.), past Monte Brione. Above 
the village are groves of olives; fine view of the lake and its environs. 
Good trout fishing in the Sarca which here flows into the lake. 

The Monte Brione (1185 ft.), 1 hr. to the E. of Riva, affords a fine 
survey of the valley and almost the entire lake. The easiest ascent is from 
the N. side, but for the upper path a pass is required, as the hill is forti- 
fied. The hamlet of La Grotta, at the N. foot of Monte Brione, 4 M. from 
Riva (via S. Alessandro), is a favourite afternoon-resort. 

A pleasant excursion (best early in the day) may be taken towards 
the N.W. to (IV2 M.) Varrone, with a fine *Waterfall in a grand rocky gorge 
(adm. 20 kr.). Then by Gologna to (3/ 4 hr.) Tenno (1415 ft.), with an old 
castle and charming view, and through richly cultivated uplands by 
Varignano to (l'/2 hr.) Arco (p. 162). 

The ascent of Monte Baldo, a range 45 M. long, between the Lake of 
Garda and the valley of the Adige, is interesting, but somewhat fatiguing 
(not advisable in the hot season). This range consists of two groups, 
separated by the depression of the Bocca di Navene: N. the Altissimo, and 
S. the Monte Maggiore. The Altissimo (6790 ft.) is best ascended from 
Mori (p. 19), on the E. side. The route ascends to (2 hrs.) Brentonico 
(2250 ft. ; Inn) ; thence, with guide, via, S. Giacomo to the top in 3*/2 hrs. 
(superb view). The panorama is still grander from *Monte Maggiore 
(7210 ft.). A road leads from Peri (p. 19) by the pilgrimage-church of 
Madonna della Corona and Spiazzi to (7V2 M.) Ferrara di Monte Baldo 
(*Inn), which may also be reached from Garda (p. 160 ; IOV2 M.), by the 

Baedeker. \\_ 

162 Route 30. ARCO. 

road via. Gaprino (railway station, comp. p. 167; diligence to Ferrara in 
connection with the trains) and Paz zone. Ascent thence, with guide, 3*/2-4 
hours. The steep descent to Malcesine (p. 160) is not recommended. 

Val di Ledro (carr. to Pieve and back 4, with two horses 8fi\; dili- 
gence daily at 3 p. m.). At the angle, high above the Fall of the Ponale 
(p. 161), the road turns to the W. into the green valley, and leads by Bia- 
cesa and Molina to the Lago di Ledro (2135 ft.), with Mezzolago on its N. 
bank, and (6 x /2 M.) Pieve di Ledro (Albergo Alpino, poor). — At Bezzecca, 
3 /4 M. beyond Pieve, opens the Vol Concei, with the villages of (!/ 4 hr.) 
Enguiso and (V4 hr.) Lenzumo (whence we may return to Riva direct, by 
the Mte. Traita and Campi, in 3 J /2 hrs.). 

From Bezzecca the road leads by Tiarno, and through the sequestered 
Val Ampola, to (9 M.) Storo (Cavallo Bianco) in the Val Bona, crosses the 
Chiese and then the Caffaro near Lodrone (Austrian and Italian frontier), 
and reaches (3y2 M. from Storo) the Lago d'Idro, 6 M. long, l /\ M. broad, 
the W. bank of which it skirts. Opposite (3 s /i M.) Anfo, with the moun- 
tain-castle Rocca d^Anfo, lies the hamlet of Idro. At (3 M.) Lavenone, at 
the S. end of the lake, begins the picturesque Val Sabbia, of which the 
capital is (3 M.) Vestone (where the tramway begins, comp. pp. 152, 159). 
At (3 M.) Barghe the road divides : that to the E. leads by Sabbio, Vobarno, 
and Tormini (junction for Brescia, p. 152) to (12 M.) Salb (p. 159); that to 
the W. to Preseglie and through the Val Garza to (15 M.) Brescia (p. 152). 

About 4 M. to the N.E. of Riva, up the beautiful valley of the 
Sarca (railway, see p. 19; carriage, see p. 161), lies — 

Arco. — Hotels. *Kurhaus, with garden, cafe - , baths, whey-cure, 
and covered promenade , containing 80 rooms , of which 40 have a S. 
aspect , pens. 3V2-5 fl. ; ::: Kurkasino & Hot. Bauer , opposite, with cafe", 
etc., E., L., & A. 2-4 fl., B. 35 kr., D. 2 fl., pens. 4-6 fl. ; *H6tel Olivo, 
R. from 1 fl. 40 kr. -2 fl., L. & A. 40, D. 1 fl. 70, pens. 2 fl. 80-3V2A., omn. 
25 kr. ; ,; Hot. Strasser; these four are in the Kurplatz, with its well- 
kept grounds. *H6t.-Pens. Arco, V2 M. to the W. of the Kurplatz, warm 
and sheltered, pens, from 3 fl. ; *Corona, in the town. — *H6t. Arciddca 
Alberto, at Chiarano, 3/ 4 M. to the W. (see below). — Pension in the 
hotels; also at the Pens. Bellaria, near the Hot. Arco, sheltered; Aurora, 
Eainalter, Olivenheim, Monrepos; charges 3-5 fl., exclusive of candles and 
fires. — Private Apartments in Villa Anna, Steigerwald, etc. ; R. according 
to aspect, 20-50 fl. per month. 

Donkey per hr. 50 kr., 1/2 day 1 fl. 60 kr., whole day 2 fl. ; driver about 
20 kr. per hr., 1 fl. per day. — Carriage, V2 day 5, with 2 horses 9 fl., 
whole day 8 or 15 fl. ; carr. and pair to Mori 10, to Trent 15 fl. and fee. 

Arco (300 ft.), an ancient town of 2400 inhab., situated in a 
beautiful valley, almost entirely shut in on the N., E., and W. by 
lofty mountains, is frequented as a winter-resort by consumptive 
and nervous patients. The Kuranstalt, at the back of the Kur- 
kasino, was erected and admirably fitted up by Archduke Albert 
(inhaling-rooms , hydropathic, etc.). The vegetation resembles 
that of the Italian lakes : vines, olives, cedars, mulberries, magno- 
lias, cypresses, oleanders, and at places orange and lemon trees. 
The Archduke has a new chateau here, with a fine winter-garden 
(custodian 50 kr.). Adjoining the handsome Renaissance church is 
the old town-palace of the counts of Arco, with allegorical frescoes. 
To the N., on a precipitous rock (390 ft.), rises the Castle of Arco, 
destroyed in the Spanish War of Succession, with beautiful garden 
(key at the gardener's, Via degli. Olivi al Castello ; 30-40 kr.). 

Pleasant walk to the W. by the road ascending to the right of 
the archducal chateau through groves of fine old olive-trees to the 

LAGO D'ISEO. 31. Route. 163 

hamlets of (% M.) Chiarano (*Hot. Arciduca Alberto, see p. 162), Vigne, 
and ( 3 /4 M.) Varignano, where we gain pretty views of the plain and Monte 
Stivo. We continue to ascend by a rough path, affording beautiful views, 
to the (174 hr.) village and chateau of Tenno; descend by Cologna to (40 
min.) Varone, and return across the plain to (3 M.) Arco. 

31. From Brescia to Edolo. Lago d'Iseo. 

About 62 M. Railway to Iseo, 15 M., in I1/4 hr. 5 fares 2 fr. 75, 1 fr. 90, 
1 fr. 25 c. ; another to Paratico on the Lago d'Iseo, 24 J /2 M., in l J /2 hr. ; 
fares 4 fr. 45, 3 fr. 10, 2 fr. 5 c. — Steamer on Lago d'Iseo between Sar- 
nico and Lovere thrice daily in 2i/ 2 hrs. (fares 2 fr. or 1 fr. 40 c); also 
on Frid. and Sat. twice between Iseo and Lovere in 172-2 hrs. — Post- 
Omnibus from Lovere to Edolo daily in T hrs. (one-horse carr. 20 fr.). 

From Brescia (p. 152) to Iseo. — 2 M. Borgo 8. Giovanni; 
3 3 /4 M. Mandolossa; b^j^M. Castegnato ; 8 M. Paderno Francia- 
corta; 9^2 M. Passirano; 10 l /<z M. Monterotondo Bresciano; 13 M. 
Provaglio d'Iseo; 15 M. Iseo (see below). 

From Brescia to Paratico. — From Brescia to (18 M.) 
Palazzolo , see p. 151. Our line here diverges to the N.E. Stat. 
Capriolo ; then (24 ^ M.) Paratico, on the left bank of the Oglio, 
which here issues from Lago d'Iseo. On the opposite bank lies 
Sarnico (Cappello), a prettily situated place, connected with Paratico 
by a bridge. Near it is the Villa Montecchio, with a superb view. 

The *Lago d'Iseo (Lacus Sebinus, 605 ft. above the sea; 14y 2 M. 
long; 1V4-3 M. broad; and about 1000 ft. deep in the centre) 
somewhat resembles an S in form. The Oglio enters the lake at 
the N. end between Pisogne and Lovere (see below). The scenery 
vies with that of the Lago di Garda, the soil is admirably cultivated 
and the vegetation luxuriant. On the E. bank, from Iseo to Pisogne 
(see below), runs the high-road from Brescia, boldly engineered. It 
is carried through a number of galleries and supported by masonry, 
and commands magnificent views of the lake and its environs. 

The Steamer from Sarnico does not touch regularly at all the 
stations. It usually steers first to Predore, the ancient Praetorium, 
which yields excellent wine ; then to the S.E. back to Iseo {Leone, 
well spoken of) , a busy little town , with walls and an old castle. 
Its industries are oil-pressing, dyeing, and silk-spinning. A 
statue of Garibaldi was erected here in 1883. Railway to Brescia, 
see above. — On the E. Bank we next call at the fishing-village 
of Peschiera , on the island of Montisola. To the S. of Peschiera 
lies the islet of 8. Paolo. The next station is Sale-Marasino, a 
long village on the E. bank. We next pass an islet with the ruined 
monastery of S. Loretto on the left, and reach Marone, at the W. 
base of Monte Guglielmo (6415 ft.); then Pisogne and Lovere. — On 
its trip to the W. Bank the steamer calls at Tavernola, Riva di 
Solto, and Pisogne. 

Lovere (*Alb. Lovere; S. Antonio; Leone d'Oro, R., L., & A. 
2y 2 fr., B. 70 c, de'j. 2, D. 3, pens. 10 fr. ; Ancora), a busy little 
place, prettily situated at the N.W. end of the lake, with a large 


164 Route 31. BRENO. 

iron-work and cannon-foundry (Stabilimento Metallurgico Grego- 
rini), employing 1600 workmen. The handsome church of S.Maria 
in Valvendra, built in 1473, restored yi 1547 and 1751, contains 
frescoes by Floriano Ferramola, Moretto and Andrea da Manerbio, an 
early Milanese altarpiece in the Cappella del Sposalizio, and on the 
high-altar an Ascension by Fr. Morone. The parish-church of 
S. Giorgio, erected in 1655, was enlarged in 1878. The handsome 
Palazzo Tadini contains a collection of old pictures. 

18. Bom. Tintoretto. Portrait of a man, 1627; 78. Titian, Portrait, damaged ; 
110, 127. Brusasorci, SS. Guglielmo and Francesco; 125. P. Veronese, Ma- 
donna; 255. Jac. Bellini. Madonna,- damaged; 2S2. Onercino (?), St. Se- 
bastian ; 307. P. Bordone, Madonna and saints ; 386. Giorgione (?), Dead Christ. 
Here also are sculptures by Benzoni and Canova (tombstone) and a geolo- 
gical collection. 

Good roads lead from Lovere through the Val Cavallina to (27 M.) Ber- 
gamo (p. 148), and through the ravine (orrido) of Borlezza to (J 1 h M.) Clu- 
sone (p. 151). 

The Road prom Lovere to Edolo leads through the *Val 
Camonica, one of the finest valleys of the S. Alps, yielding rich 
crops of maize , grapes, mulberries, enclosed by lofty, wooded 
mountains , and enlivened with many iron-works. The silk-cul- 
ture is also an important industry here. The dark rocks (verrucano) 
contrast curiously with the light triassic formations. The valley is 
watered by the Oglio (p. 163), which the road crosses several times. 

At Darfo , which lies to the right , our road joins the Brescia 
road (see above). Near Cividate is a very picturesque deserted 
monastery on the hill. On this side of Breno a broad hill, crowned 
with a ruined castle, rises from the valley. 

I41/2 M. (from Lovere) Breno (1080 ft.; Italia), capital of the 
lower Val Camonica. To the E. rises Monte Frerone (8770 ft.). 

The road crosses a torrent descending from Monte Pizzo , the 
indented crest of which peeps from an opening on the right. Beyond 
Capo di Ponte (1375 ft. ; Alb. S. Antonio) the scenery changes. The 
valley contracts, maize and mulberries become rarer. The road 
ascends slightly. 

541/2 M. Edolo (2290 ft. ; Leone d' Oro; Gallo), a village with 
iron-works, lies on the Oglio, here descending from the rocks, and 
is commanded on the E. by Monte Aviolo. 

At Edolo the road divides. That to the N. crosses the Tonale Pass 
(6150 ft.) to Male and leads thence on to S. Michele, a station on the Botzen 
and Verona railway (p. 18), or over the Mendel Pass direct to Botzen. The 
road to the W. crosses the Passo d^Aprica (3880 ft.) to Tirano in the Val 
Tellina(p. 124; 25V2 M.; one-horse carr. in 6 hrs., 25 fr.). See Baedeker's 
Eastern Alps. 

Y. Venetia. 

32. Verona 167 

33. From Verona to Mantua and Modena 178 

1. From Mantua to Monselice 183 

2. From Suzzara to Parma 183 

34. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza 184 

From Vicenza to the Baths of Recoaro, Schio, Arsiero, 

and Torre 188 

35. Padua 189 

36. From Vicenza to Treviso. From Padua to Bassano . . 196 

1. Excursion to the Villa Giacomelli or Maser .... 197 

2. From Bassano to Possagno 198 

37. Venice 198 

A. Piazza of St. Mark and Environs. Riva degli Schiavoni 207 

B. The Academy 218 

C. Canal Grande 225 

D. From the Piazza of St. Mark to the Rialto Bridge 

and the Northern Quarters 230 

E. From thePiazza of St. Mark to S. Giovanni e Paolo, and 

thence to the Riva degli Schiavoni. Eastern Quarters 233 

F. Quarters to the W. of the Canal Grande 239 

G. From the Piazza of St. Mark on foot to the Academy 

and S. Maria della Salute. S. Giorgio Maggiore. 

Giudecca 245 

Excursions : Murano. Torcello. Chioggia 249 

38. From Venice to Trieste 251 

1. From Treviso to Belluno 252 

2. From Conegliano to Vittorio 253 

3. From Udine to Cividale 255 

4. Aquileia 256 

The N.E. part of Italy, named II Veneto after the ancient Veneti, 
is divided into the eight provinces of Verona , Vicenza , Padova , Rovigo, 
Venezia, Treviso, Belluno, and Udine. Its area, 9059 sq. M. , is nearly 
equal to that of Lombardy, while its population of 2,842,173 souls is con- 
siderably smaller. The western and larger portion of the country, between 
the Mincio and Piave, is indeed as thickly peopled as the eastern and 
less prosperous part of Lombardy between the Adda and the Mincio ; 
but the Friuli, or ancient county of Forum Julii, the border-land to the 
E. of the Piave, consists of very inferior soil, owing to the debris brought 
down by the Alpine streams. The i Furlanians\ the poor inhabitants of 
the Friuli, speak a patois of their own. 

The Venetian Dialect no longer contains traces of the Gallic ele- 
ment like that of the districts from Piedmont to the Romagna, which 
were once conquered by the Celts. It boasts of having been frequently 
used by men of letters, as for example by Goldoni in his comedies, and. 
is the softest of all the Italian dialects , the flattening and elision of the 
consonants being very common. Thus nevode for nipote, suar for sudare, 
fogo for fuoco, sior for signore ; and another characteristic is the conversion 
of g into z, as zente for gente, zorno for giorno, mazore for maggiore. 

The history of the country has always been influenced by the proximity 
of the sea and the peculiar formation of the coast. In the lower part of 
its course the Po differs widely in character from all the other rivers in 
Europe. Its fall is very gradual , being for a considerable distance 2 2 /3 


inches only, and latterly little more than 1/4 inch per English niiLe. To- 
wards the end of its course, moreover, it receives numerous tributaries. 
The result is that the adjacent districts are much exposed to inundations, 
a danger which has to be averted by the construction of huge dykes; and 
these works frequently require to be raised, as the bed of the river is 
constantly rising. The Po, together with the Adige, Bacchiglione, Brenta, 
and other coast rivers, terminates in a vast delta which extends along the 
whole coast of Venetia. The quantity of alluvial deposit is so great, that the 
beds of these streams are continually undergoing change and subdivision. 
Thus the ancient seaport of Hatria now lies 1572 M. from the coast, and 
while the Po formerly flowed towards the S., it has formed its present 
embouchure since 1150. The extensive lagoons (lagune), separated from 
the sea by narrow strips of land (lidi), and connected with it by outlets, 
would render the whole coast uninhabitable , were it not for the slight 
ebb and flow of the tide (mean difference IV2 ft.), which is perceptible 
in the Adriatic, and prevents malarious exhalations. This extensive allu- 
vial territory, which reminds one of Holland, called into activity the in- 
genuity and enterprise of its inhabitants at an early period, and a temper- 
ate and conservative character has thus been imparted to their history. 

The Veneti, a branch of the Illyrian stock, kept entirely aloof 
from the immigrating Celtic tribes. The S-eaports of Hatria and Spina, 
at the mouths of the Po , carried on a considerable trade at an early 
period, and several canals on a large scale were constructed as early 
as B. C. 380. In the 3rd , cent, the Veneti together with the Cenomani, 
a Celtic tribe which occupied Brescia and Verona, entered into an 
alliance with Rome. While the Romanisation of Lombardy and Pied- 
mont was attended with violent struggles, it was rapidly effected here 
without opposition. The Roman colony of Aquileia was founded as early 
as 181 B. C., and the boundary of Italy was thus laid down at the point 
to which it still extends. Owing to, its industries, cattle-breeding, and 
agriculture , Venetia prospered greatly under the emperors. Padua was 
the wealthiest town in Italy next to Rome, and was rivalled in W. Eu- 
rope by Cadiz alone, as it numbered during the reign of Augustus no 
fewer than 500 citizens of knightly fortune (i. e. upwards of about 45000- 
The city was afterwards destroyed by Attila, and then razed to the ground 
by the Lombards, and a similar fate befel Altinum, an important com- 
mercial town in the Lagoons, and Aquileia, which in ancient times was 
of a similar importance to the modern Trieste. The Romans sought re- 
fuge from their Lombard conquerors in the islands of the Lagoons. Re- 
moved from Teutonic influences, and under the protection of the Byzan- 
tine Empire, the most famous of mediaeval states took its rise here from 
apparently insignificant beginnings. Its earliest history is involved in 
obscurity. The first Dux or Doge is said to have been Paulucius Anafeslus 
(d. 716). In 809 the islands repulsed an attack of King Pepin, the son 
of Charlemagne, and virtually threw off the yoke of the Eastern emper- 
ors. At this period the inhabitants were crowded together in the is- 
lands of Rivoalto, Malamocco, and Torcello, which were the most secure. 
Rivoalto was selected as the seat of government, and here accordingly the 
city of Venice was founded. Angelus Participotius (819) is said to have 
been the first doge whose residence occupied the site of the present Pa- 
. lace of the Doges. Situated between the Byzantine and Franconian em- 
pires, Venice became a connecting link between the trade of each, and 
the great depot of the traffic between the East and the West. In 828 a 
Venetian fleet brought the body of St. Mark to Venice, and thenceforth 
the Venetians revered him as their tutelary saint, using his emblem, the 
lion (Rev. iv. 7) as their cognizance , and his name as synonymous with 
the republic, while their supreme official functionary was styled 'Procu- 
rator of St. Mark 1 . In the interests of her commerce Venice was at length 
induced to make foreign conquests. These were at first confined to the 
Istrian and Dalmatian coasts for the purpose of procuring timber and 
suppressing piracy. The rivalry that sprang up with Genoa during the 
Crusade led the Venetians to effect a footing in the Levant, and to 
establish extensive colonies. At the same time the constitution of the 



J - : z£_ 

^mW^tf m 

VERONA. 32. Route. 167 

state developed into a rigorous oligarchy, which with terrible impartial- 
ity contrived to keep both the nobility and people in check, and effectu- 
ally to curb the national desire for liberty. In the neighbouring towns 
the supreme power rested on a foundation altogether different. The re- 
publics had been overthrown by the despots, who, supported by merce- 
nary troops and the favour of the lower classes, had founded principali- 
ties in the modem sense of the word. Such were the Visconti in Milan, 
the Scala in Verona, the Carrara in Padua, the Gonzaga in Mantua, and 
the Este in Ferrara. The danger of collision with warlike princes , and 
the support they afforded to every attempt to overthrow the Venetian 
constitution, led to their own downfall. Venice, having made conquests 
on the mainland (terra ferma) for the sake of her own safety , soon be- 
came one of the chief Italian powers, and was thus involved in all the 
interminable wars caused by the rivalry of the different states. She ob- 
tained permanent possession of Treviso in 1339, Vicenza in 1404, Padua 
and Verona in 1405, Udine in 1420, Brescia in 1426, Bergamo in 1428, 
Crema in 1454, and Rovigo in 1484. In the market-places of these towns 
the lion of St. Mark was erected as a token of their subjugation, and Ve- 
netian nobles were appointed their governors. The district thus conquer- 
ed extended to about 13,200 sq. M., besides the Dalmatian possessions 
(4250 sq. M.) and the settlements in the Levant. Napoleon at length over- 
threw the Republic, which had long been in a tottering condition. On 
15th and 16th May, 1797, Venice was occupied by French troops under 
Baraguay d^Hilliers, this being the first occasion on which it had ever 
been captured by an enemy. In the Peace of Campoformio (1797) it was 
adjudged to Austria, but by the Peace of Pressburg in 1805, the Austrians 
were compelled to cede it to the Kingdom of Italy. On the fall of Napo- 
leon it was again awarded to Austria, to which it belonged down to 1866, 
when in consequence of the events of that year it was finally incorporated 
with the Kingdom of Italy. 

32. Verona. 

Arrival. Verona has three stations : (1) Stazione Porta Vescovo (PI. I, 6), 
the principal station, about H/2 M. to the E. of the Piazza Vittorio Ema- 
nuele (luggage is booked to and from this station only) ; (2) Stazione Porta 
Nuova (PI. B, 6), 3 /4 M. to the S. of the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, where the 
hotel-omnibuses await the trains from Tyrol, Milan, and Bologna; (3) 
Stazione Porta S. Giorgio (PI. E, 1) for the new line to Domegliara (p. 20) 
and Caprino (p. 1G2). 

Hotels. Grand Hotel de Londres (Pl.b;F,3), in the centre of the town, 
R. from 3 fr., L. 1, A. 1, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, omn. 1 fr. — Colomba d'Oro 
-PL e; D, 3), in the street of that name, near Piazza Vitt. Eman., well 
Spoken of, R. 21/2 fr., L. 60, A. 75 c, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 41/2, pens. 10-12, 
mn. 1 fr. — Second-class: Alb. & Trattoria S. Lorenzo (PI. d; D, 3), 
prettily situated on the Adige, Riva di S. Lorenzo, R., L., & A. 2 1 , l 2-3, 
B. l'A, omn. 1 fr., mediocre; Aquila Nera (PL f; E,3), R., L., & A. 21/2-3, 
B. IV2, dej. 2 J /2, D. 4, pens. 8-10, omn. 3/ 4 f r . 5 commercial; Alb.-Ristor. 
Verona, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 161, near the Porta Nuova, new; Alb. 
all 1 Accademia (PI. E, 3), Via Nuova, well spoken of. 

Restaurants at the hotels. Also: Birreria Regina Margherita, Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele, to which belongs a garden, on the right, by the canal, 
outside the Portone; Lbwenbrau (Munich beer), Via Nuova Lastricata 14, 
dej. only. — Cafes. *Vittorio Emanuele, and *Europa, in the Piazza Vitt. 
Eman.; "Gaffe Dante, Piazza de" Signori. 

Photographs: M. Lotze, Via Disciplina 11. 

Post Office in the Piazza dell' Indipendenza (PL F, 3). 

Fiacres ('Broughams 1 ). Per drive 75 c, per hour I1/2 fr. , each addi- 
tional hr. 1 fr. 25 c. ; in the evening 30 c. per hr. more. From station 
to town 1 fr. — Vor each pers. above two, one-third more. 

Tramways traverse the town from the Stazione Porta Vescovo to the 
Stazione Porta Nuoya (10 c.) : see Plan. 

168 Route 32. VERONA. Histcry. 

The Sights of Verona may be seen in one day : begin with the Arena 
and Piazza Vittorio Emanvele, then cross the Adige to the Palazzo Pompei 
(on the way to which is S. Fermo Maggiore, p. 175), return by the Via 
Leoni (Arco de' Leoni) to the Piazza de 1 Signori, with the tombs of the 
Scaligers; see S. Anastasia, and the Cathedral, and cross the Ponte Garibaldi 
to £. Giorgio; drive along the Corso past the Porta Borsari to the Porta 
Polio and S. Zeno ; lastly return to the Giardino Giusii. 

Verona (155 ft.) , the capital of a province , with 60,800 (with 

suburbs 68,700) inhab. and a garrison of 6000 men , situated on 

both banks of the rapid Adige, which is crossed by six bridges, is 

next to Yenice the most important and interesting town of ancient 

Venetia. After it came into the possession of the Austrians in 1814 

Verona was strongly fortified , and along with Peschiera, Mantua, 

and Legnago formed the famous 'Quadrilateral', the chief support of 

Austrian rule in Italy. Restored to Italy in 1866, it is still a fortress 

of tbe first class, and seat of the commandant of tbe III. Army Corps. 

Founded by the Rhfetians and Euganeans, and afterwards occupied by 
the Celtic Cenomani, Verona was made a Roman colony in B.C. 89, and 
became one of the most prosperous towns of Upper Italy. Its castle of S. 
Pietro was a residence of the Ostrogoth Theodoric the Great, the 'Dietrich 
of Bern' (i.e. Verona) of German lore (d. 526). In 568 the town was taken 
by the Lombard king Alboin , who fell a victim to the vengeance of his 
wife Rosamunde, daughter of the conquered ruler of Verona, whom he 
had forced to drink wine out of her father's skull. The Frankish monarchs 
Pepin, and, after the Carlovingian epoch, Berengarius I., ruled here. Verona 
afterwards headed the league of Venetian cities against Frederick Barba- 
rossa. During the fierce contests between Guelphs and Ghibellines the 
terrible Ezzelino da Romano endeavoured to establish a lordship at Ve- 
rona. After his death in 1259 Mastino della Scala was elected Podesta ; and 
the great princes of his house inaugurated a glorious period for the city. 
Mastino was assassinated in 1277 , but his brother and successor Albert 
secured the supremacy of his line. Romeo and Juliet are said to have 
loved and died in the reign of Albert's son Bartolommeo (1301-1304). The 
greatest member of this illustrious family was Can Francesco , or ' Can 
Grande' (1312-1329), who captured Vicenza and subdued Padua after along 
struggle. His brilliant court numbered Dante among its guests. Mastino II. 
at first conquered Brescia, Parma, and Lucca, but his rule was afterwards 
restricted to Verona and Vicenza by a league formed by Florence, Venice, 
and Milan. Can Grande II., his successor, was murdered by his brother 
Can Signorio in 1359 ; and in 1387, the latter's son Antonio, who had also 
endeavoured to secure his possession by fratricide, was expelled by Gian 
Galeazzo Visconti, Lord of Milan. Through the widow of Visconti the town 
passed in 1405 to the Venetians, to whom, with short interruptions, it 
remained subject down to the end of the Republic. 

In the history of Architecture Verona is important, both on account 
of its mediaeval buildings , and as the birthplace of Fra Giocondo (1435- 
1514), one of the most famous architects of the early Renaissance, whose 
works are to be found at Venice, Paris, and Rome , and as the home of 
Michele Sammicheli (1484-1559), the greatest military architect of Upper 
Italy, who imparted to the palaces of Verona some of the features of forti- 
fied castles. In judging of the Verona palaces, we must bear in mind that it 
was customary here, as at Genoa and other towns, to adorn the facades 
with paintings. The painted facades of houses near S. Fermo, by the Porta 
Borsari, in Piazza Erbe, and others partly recall thePaduan style of the 15th 
century. — The chief Veronese Painters of the 15th cent, were Vittore Pisano 
(Pisanello), the celebrated medallist-, Liberate da Verona; Domenico and his 
son Franc. Morone ; Girolamo dai Libri (1474-1556); and Paolo Moranda, 
surnamed Cacazzola (1486-1522). The later artists , such as Paolo Caliari, 
surnamed Veronese (1532-88), belong more properly to the Venetian school. 

Piazza dei Signori. VERONA. 32. Route. 169 

The *Piazza Erbe (PI. E, 3), the ancient forum, now the fruit 
and vegetable market , is one of the most picturesque squares in 
Italy. The Marble Column at the N. end bears the lion of St. Mark, 
a modern copy of the ancient cognisance of the Republic of Venice. 
Opposite is the Pal. Trezza (formerly Maffei), built in the baroque 
style in 1668, with a curious spiral staircase in the interior. The 
Casa Mazzanti, at the corner to the right, originally the residence 
of Albertino della Scala (d. 1301), is adorned with frescoes by 
Cavalli, an imitator of Giulio Romano ; the picturesque back of the 
building retains its mediaeval character. On the houses opposite are 
frescoes by Liberale (God the Father, Adam and Eve) and Girolamo 
dai Libri (Madonna and saints). The Fountain, dating from the 
time of Berengarius, is adorned with a statue of 'Verona', partly 
antique. In the centre of the Piazza is the Tribuna, with its canopy 
borne by four columns, anciently the seat of judgment. The Casa 
dei Mercanti (1301), at the corner of Via Pelliciai, recently restored, 
now contains the commercial court. Opposite the Casa Mazzanti 
rises the Tower of the Municipio, 273 ft. in height, affording a fine 
view (ascended from the court of the Palazzo della Ragione, see 
below ; adm. 50 a). A short street to the left of the latter leads to 
the handsomely paved — 

*Piazza dei Signori (PL E,'F, 3). Immediately to the right of 
the tower is the Palazzo della Ragione (seat of the jury court), 
founded in 1183 ; the court (Mercato vecchio) contains a grand flight 
of steps of the 14th century. Adjoining the pinnacled tower is the 
Tribunale , and on the other side of the piazza is the Prefettura, 
formerly residences of the Scaligers. The original architecture is 
seen to best advantage in the courts , which have been restored. 
The portal of the Prefettura is by Sammicheli. — In the centre of 
the piazza rises a Statue of Dante (by Zannoni, 1865) , who found 
his first asylum here with Can Grande della Scala after his banish- 
ment from Florence in 1316. — At the N.E. corner of the piazza 
stands the — 

*Palazzo del Consiglio , or Old Town Hall , usually called La 
Loggia, erected before 1500 from designs by Fra Giocondo, whose 
portrait in a monk's habit is on the left corner-pillar, originally with 
statues surmounting the facade (restored in 1873). This is one of 
.the finest buildings in N. Italy in the early-Renaissance style, which 
was characterised by richness and beauty of detail rather than by 
strict harmony of composition. By the door are two bronze statues 
by Campana, representing the Annunciation. Over the door is the 
inscription, placed here by the Venetians : 'Pro summa fide summus 
amor 1592'. Above are statues of celebrated ancient Veronese : 
Corn. Nepos, Catullus, Vitruvius, the younger Pliny, and ^Emil. 
Macer, the poet and friend of Virgil. On the. wall are bust.s of 
famous modern Veronese. On the upper floor are several tastefully 
restored rooms (custodian in the court). 

170 Route 32. VERONA. S. Anastasia. 

The entrances to the Piazza dei Signori are spanned by arch- 
ways. Above the arch next the Loggia is a portrait of Qirol. Fra- 
castoro (d. 1553) by Danese Cattaneo (1559); in the N.W. corner 
is a Statue of Scipione Maffei, the historian. Behind, in the street 
leading to the Corso, are a picturesque Fountain of 1478 and the 
Volto Barbaro, under which Mastino della Scala is said to have 
been assassinated in 1277. Near it is the old Palazzo de' Giurecon- 
sulti, founded in 1263, but rebuilt in the 16th century. 

The passage adjoining the Tribunal leads direct to the Lombardic 
church of S. Maria Antica, with Romanesque campanile, and the im- 
posing *Tombs of the Scaligers (Arche degli Scaligeri), the stern Go- 
thic forms of which immortalise the masculine genius of the dyn- 
asty. The ladder, their crest, often recurs on the elaborate railings. 

Over the church-door are the sarcophagus and equestrian statue of Can 
Grande della Scala (d. 1329); adjoining it, by the wall, the monuments of 
Giovanni della Scala (d. 1350) and of Mastino I. (d. 1277). Next to the 
Piazza Signori is the monument of Mastino II. (d. 1351) , another sarco- 
phagus with canopy and equestrian statue, designed by Perino da Milano. 
The similar monument at the corner of the street, executed by Bonino da 
Campiglione for Can Signorio (d. 1375) during his life-time, is embellished 
with statues of Christian heroes and virtues. The sarcophagi between 
these, bearing the same crest, have no names. (The custodian lives in a 
house to the right of the church; fee 20c. for one, and 10c. more for 
each additional person.) 

To the S.E. lies the Piazza delV Indipendenza (p. 175). 

We now proceed to the N. to the Corso Cavoub, (p. 172), at 
the E. end of which rises *S. Anastasia (PI. F, 2), a fine Gothic 
church begun about 1261, with unfinished brick facade, a late-Go- 
thic portal in marble, with reliefs of the life of Peter Martyr, and 
a fresco of the 14th cent, in the lunette. 

The Inteeiok, borne by 12 columns, is remarkable for boldness and 
symmetry of proportion, and for the late-Gothic decoration of the vaulting 
(1437). On the first column to the left is an ancient capital, used as a 
Holy Water Basin, supported by a hump-backed dwarf (Gobbo) by 
Gabriele Caliari, father of Paolo Veronese. By the first altar to the right 
is the monument (if Fregoso, by Danese Cattaneo (1565). Above the 3rd 
altar frescoes by Liberate. The frame-work of the 4th altar is an imi- 
tation of the ancient Arco de 1 Gavi in the Castel Vecchio, removed in 
1805; altar-piece, St. Martin by Caroto. The next small chapel contains 
excellent early-Renaissance ornament; a painted group of the Entombment, 
of the 14th century ; a wooden crucifix of the 15th cent. ; and a fine iron 
lamp. — In the right transept, St. Paul by Cavazzola, and Madonna with 
saints by Girolamo dai Libri in an elegant frame. — In the second chapel 
of the choir, on the right, are ancient Veronese *Frescoes of the 14th cent, 
(probably by Allichieri ; erroneously ascribed to Giotto), Knights of the 
Cavalli family kneeling before the Virgin. The adjoining Capp. Pellegrini 
(on the left) contains terracotta reliefs of the 15th cent., probably by a 
Florentine master; on the outside, above the arch, a fresco of St. George, 
by Vitlore Pisano, in which the chief figure has been defaced by damp 
(restoration proposed). In the choir, to the left, is the painted monument 
of General Sarego (1432), with an equestrian statue of the deceased in the 
middle and squires withdrawing a curtain at the side. Behind the high 
altar are some fine stalls with intarsia work. — The left transept contains 
frescoes of the 14th cent., and a picture by Liberate, Mary Magdalene in 
clouds. — Above the 4th altar in the left aisle, Descent of the Holy Ghost 
by Giolfino (1418) ; above is the same subject al fresco by Michele da Verona. 

Cathedral. VERONA. 32. Route. 171 

At each side are four statues of saints. Over the 2nd altar on the left, 
Christ with SS. Erasmus and George by Giolfino. Over the 1st altar, 
painted sculptures by Michele da Verona (about 1500). 

In front of the church rises a marble Statue of Paolo Veronese, 
by Delia Torre and R. Oristiani, erected in 1888. 

To the left of the church, over a gateway, is the marble 
sarcophagus of Count Gugl. da Castelbarco, the Scaligers' friend, 
at whose expense the churches of S. Anastasia and S. Fermo were 
in great part built ; and in the gateway three others. — Route hence 
by the Corso Cavour to the Arena, see p. 172. — The small church 
of S. Pietro Martire , entered through the adjoining Collegio Con- 
vito, contains an allegorical fresco by Falconetto with portraits of 
Teutonic knights (about 1515). We now proceed to the right to the — 
Cathedral (PI. F, 1, 2), a Gothic structure of the 14th cent., 
with choir and Romanesque facade of the 12th cent, and pointed 
windows in the facade inserted later. On the outside of the apse 
are pilasters with an architrave, in the antique style. Behind the 
columns and griffins of the handsome portal are Roland and Oliver, 
the paladins of Charlemagne, in rough half-relief, executed accord- 
ing to the inscription by Nicolaus (12th cent.). By the side-wall 
rises an unfinished campanile, designed by Sammicheli, resting 
upon an ancient basis. 

The Inteeiok, consisting of nave and aisles, with eight red marble 
pillars, contains an elegant rood-loft of marble, designed by Sammicheli, 
above which is a bronze crucifix by Giambattista da Verona. The walls 
adjoining and above the three first altars on the right and left are adorned 
with fine frescoes by Falconetto (about 1503). The Adoration of the Magi, 
over the 2nd altar to the right, is by Liberate da Verona, with wings by 
Giolfino. At the end of the right aisle is the Tomb of St. Agatha, a 
Gothic monument of 1353 enclosed in beautiful Renaissance frame-work 
(1508). In the choir are scenes from the life of the Virgin, executed by 
Torbido from drawings by Giulio Romano. — Over the 1st altar on the left, 
'Assumption by Titian, about 1543 (frame by Sansovino) : 'striking for its 
masterly combination of light and shade and harmonious colours with 
realistic form and action 1 (C. & C). 

To the left of the choir a corridor leads to S. Giovanni in Fonte, 
the ancient Baptistery, of the 12th cent. ; the Romanesque reliefs 
on the font (about 1200) show a distinct advance on those on the 
facade of St. Zeno (p. 174). To the left of the facade (2nd door on 
left) are Romanesque Cloisters, the arches resting on double columns 
of red marble. They contain an antique column and ancient 
mosaics recently excavated. — To the N.E. of the cathedral is the 
Vescovado, or bishop's residence, with a chapel containing three 
paintings by Liberate da Verona. The Palazzo dei Canonici to the 
N.W. (No. 19) contains the Biblioteca Capitolare with its precious 
MSS. (palimpsests), among which Niebuhr discovered the Institutes 
of Gaius. Librarian, Monsignor Giuliari. (Adm. in the forenoon.) 
In Veronetta, on the left bank of the Adige, to which the chain- 
bridge Ponte Garibaldi leads (toll 2 c), is situated S. Giorgio in 
Braida (PI. F, 1; if the front-gate is closed, entrance by side-door on 
theN.), reconstructed in the 16th cent, with the aid of Sammicheli. 

172 Route 32. VERONA. Sto. Stefano. 

The interior contains an admirable collection of well-preserved 
paintings by Veronese and Brescian masters. 

W. wall, over the door : Tintoretto, Baptism of Christ ; 1st altar on the 
left, Caroto, St. Ursula (1545) ; 3rd altar on the left , Caroto, SS. Rochus 
and Sebastian, with predelle (centre figure of St. Joseph modern) ; above, 
The Apostles healing a possessed man, by D. Brusasorci; in the lunette, 
Transfiguration, by Caroto; 4th altar on the left, Girolamo dai Libri, "Ma- 
donna enthroned, between SS. Zeno and Lorenzo Giustiniani, with three 
"Angels with musical instruments at the foot (1529)-, 5th altar on the left, 
Moretto, *Madonna with holy women (1540), one of this master's best works. 
At the sides of the organ and opposite, Romanino of Brescia, Martyrdom 
of St. George (1540), originally panel of an organ, with delicate colouring 
in a silvery tone. To the right in the choir, Farinato, Miracle of the 
Five Thousand (1603) ; to the left, F. Brusasorci, the Shower of manna. 
High-altar-piece (generally covered), *P. Veronese, Martyrdom of St. George, 
a master-piece of the highest rank, in which the horrors of the scene are 
mitigated by nobility of outline and richness of colour. 4th altar on the 
right: F. Brusasorci, Madonna with archangels. The beautiful holy water 
basin is enriched with bronze figures of John the Baptist and St. George 
by Joseph de Levis and A. de Rubeis. 

The Via S. Giorgio leads hence S.E. to the venerable church of 
Sto. Stefano (PI. G, 1), rebuilt by Theodoric. Facade probably of 
the 11th century. The interior has a flat roof and a raised choir, 
with the episcopal throne at the back ; in front, to the left, statue 
of St. Peter (14th cent.). Pictures by Caroto and D. Brusasorci. 

Opposite the Ponte della Pietra, built by Fra Giocondo, of which 
the two arches next the left bank are Roman, begins the ascent to 
the Castello S. Pietro (PI. G, 2; permission at No. 57, Corso Vitt. 
Emanuele), a modern barrack on the site of the castle of Theodoric 
the Great (p. 168) and the Visconti, ruins of which are still trace- 
able. Splendid view, which, however, is almost equally good from 
a little before the entrance. — At its base, immediately below the 
bridge, are remains of an antique Theatre (PI. G, 2), excavated in 
the midst of private houses (boy will fetch custodian). — On rising 
ground a little farther down the river is the little church of SS. Siro 
e Libera, dating from the time of Berengarius. 

From this point to S. Giovanni in Valle, S. Maria in Organo, 
and the Qiardino Giusti, see p. 178. 

By S. Anastasia begins the Corso Oavoue (PI. F-C, 2, 3), the 
chief street of Verona , in which several handsome palaces are sit- 
uated. About midway rises the Porta de' Borsari (PI. D, 3) , a 
triumphal arch or town-gate, erected under Emp. Gallienus, A. D. 
265 , in the poor later Roman style. — A little to the N. is the 
Gothic church of S. Eufemia (PL E, 2, 3), of the 13th cent., with 
Madonnas by Moretto ( 1st altar on left; injured), and Bom. Brusa- 
sorci (3rd altar on right, a master-piece of this contemporary of P. 
Veronese). Frescoes by Caroto, in the Cappella Spolverini, to the 
right of the choir (injured). 

A little farther on, to the left, is Santi Apostoli, with very an- 
cient tower and Romanesque apse. In front of it stands a marble 

Amphitheatre. YERONA. 32. Route. 173 

statue by Zannoni of Aleardo Aleardi, poet and patriot, "born in 
Verona in 1812 (d. 1878). — Also on the left (No. 19) is the hand- 
some *Pal. Bevilacqua, hy Sammicheli, -with large windows intend- 
ed for a museum. Opposite is the small church of S. Lorenzo (11th 
cent.) , with altarpiece by D. Brusasorci. Then on the right, 
No. 38, Pal. Portalupi, and No. 44, Pal. Canossa, also by Sammi- 
cheli, with a fine portico and court , but with an attica added in 
1770 (frescoes by Tiepolo in the portal). — On the right we then 
reach the Oastel Vecchio (PI. C, 3), castle of Can Grande II., 
now a barrack , connected with the left bank of the Adige by a 
bridge (not accessible) of the 14th century. 

From the Castello to S. Zeno, see p. 174. The Yia S. Bernardino 
leads W. to S. Bernardino (p. 174), while the Corso is prolonged 
S.W. to the Porta del Palio (p. 174). 

To the S. of the Corso, and connected with it by several streets, 
lies the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele (PI. D, 4 ; formerly Piazza Brd, 
from l pratum\ meadow), with an equestrian Statue of Victor Em- 
manuel II., by Borghi, erected in 1883. 

On the E. side of this piazza rises the famous *Amphith.eatre 
[Arena; PI. D, 4), erected under Diocletian about A. D. 290, and 
known in German lore as the abode of Dietrich (Theodoric) of 
iJern , 106 ft. in height, 168 yds. long, and 134 yds. wide. Of the 
outer wall with its four stories a fragment only now exists. 

Around the Interior (entrance from the W. side by the arcade No. V; 
1 fr. ; Sun. free) rise 43 tiers of steps of grey limestone or reddish-yellow 
conglomerate (repeatedly restored since the end of the 16th cent., and 
partly modern), on which 20,000 spectators could sit. An inscription on 
the second story commemorates the visit of Napoleon I. in 1S05, and the 
restoration carried out by his order. Fine view from the highest steps. 
Two doors at the ends of the longer diameter afforded access to the arena 
itself (82 by 48 yds.). 

The Via Nuova , terminating near the Arena, one of the main 
thoroughfares of the town, leads N.E. to the Piazza Erbe (see p. 169). 
In one of its side-streets is S. Maria delta Scala (PI. E, 3), with 
early-Renaissance portal and frescoes of the school of Vittore Pisano 
(in the bell-chamber, right of the high-altar). 

On the S.W. side of the Arena stands the Municipio (PI. D, 4; 
formerly guard-house), begun in 1836, which bears several memo- 
rial tablets relating to political events and to the inundation of 
1882 (p. 176). Farther S. is the Gran Quardia Antica (PI. D, 4; 
now the corn-market and used for exhibitions), or old guard-house, 
begun in 1609 by Dom. Curtoni, a nephew of Sammicheli. Adja- 
cent is the Portone, an old gateway with a tower. — Opposite the 
Municipio is the spacious Pal. Malfatti, formerly Guastaverza (by 
Sammicheli), with the cafes mentioned at p. 167. 

In the street to the right of the gateway is the Teatro Filarmonico 
(PI. C, 4). In the arcades erected in 1745 is the valuable Museo 
Lapidario, formed by Scipione Maffei, containing Roman, Greek, 
and Oriental inscriptions, and ancient sculptures. Two of the best 

174 Route 32. VERONA. S. Zeno Maggiore. 

Greek reliefs are built into the back-walls of the small houses ad- 
ioining the entrance (on the left, *Asclepius and Hygieia, an Attic 
votive relief, 4th cent. B. 0.). Visitors ring at the iron gate opposite 
the Gran Guardia. 

Passing through the gateway we reach the Corso Vitt. Ema- 
nuele (PL 0, B, 4, 5), in which, at the corner of the Strada di S. 
Antonio, is a Statue of Michele Sammicheli, 'grande nella architet- 
tura civile e religiosa, massimo nella militare', by Trojani. At the 
end of the Corso rises the handsome Porta Nuova (PI. B, 6), by 
Sammicheli. Outside this gate is the Stazione Porta Nuova (p. 167). 

From the Porta Nuova an avenue leads N.W. to tbe *Porta del 
Palio (formerly Porta Stuppa ; PI. A, 4), by Sammicheli, once admired 
by Goethe. Outside the gate is the moat of the fortress, the bridge 
over which affords a fine view. — We now follow the Corso di Porta 
Palio and the second cross-street on the left to — 

S. Bernardino (PI. A, 3 ; if closed, ring in the corner to the left), 
of the 15th cent., formerly a monastery-church. Above the door in 
the cloisters to the left of the church is a fresco, *St. Bernardinus, 
by Cavazzola. 

Interior. 1st chapel on the right: as altar-piece, a copy of a master- 
work of Cavazzola in the Gallery. Frescoes of legendary subjects by Giol- 
fino. — 2nd altar on the right, Madonna and saints by Bonsignori (1485). 

— 4th chapel on the right: Domen. Morone , ceiling- frescoes and life of St. 
Anthony (restored). — 5th Chap : on the altar-wall copies from Cavazzola 
(in the Museum) ; above, Christ on the Cross and SS. John and Mary, by 
Fr. Morone (1498) ; on the left, Christ parting from his mother by Caroto, 
and three paintings from the Passion by Oiolflno. At the end to the right 
is the entrance to the *Cappella Pellegrini, by Sammicheli (1557, restored 
1793), with beautiful Renaissance decoration. Altar-pieces by India (1679). 

— In the choir, to the left, Madonna with saints by Benaglio. — Organ of 
1481. On the organ-wings are SS. Bernardino and Francis, and (over the 
portal) SS. Bonaventura and Ludovico, by Fr. Morone. — The Cloisters 
and one of the chapels contain frescoes by Oolfino (early works). In the 
Refectory of the monastery frescoes by Bom. Morone (?), accessible only 
from the street. 

To the N. of this point lies *S. Zeno Maggiore (PI. A, 2; reached 
also by following the new embankment on the Adige, with its fine 
views, to the N.W. of the Castel Vecchio, p. 173), one of the finest 
Romanesque churches in N. Italy, of most noble proportions, lately 
restored. The nave in its present form was begun in 1139; the 
choir dates from the 13th century. 

The Portal, the columns of which rest on lions of red marble, is 
embellished with reliefs of Scriptural subjects by Nicolaus and Wiligelmus 
(1139). In one of them Theodoric, as a wild huntsman, is speeding head- 
long to the devil. At the top of the door-posts are the twelve months. 
The doors are covered with rude bronze reliefs from the Bible and the 
life of St. Zeno. 

Interior. In the corner to the right an ancient octagonal font; behind 
it a fresco of S. Zeno (14th cent.). The holy-water basin, by the 1st column 
on the right, rests on an inverted antique capital. Opposite is an ancient 
porphyry vase, 28 ft. in circumference; beyond it a fine Gothic crucifix. 

— On the Choir Screen are marble statues of Christ and the Apostles (13th 
cent.). — To the left of the choir, frescoes of the 16th cent., under which are 
traces of others of the 12th; to the right frescoes of the 11th and 13th 

S. Fermo Maggiore. VERONA. 32. Route. 175 

centuries. To the right of the steps to the choir is an altar, flanked on 
each side with four columns of brown marble, resting on lions and bulls. 
To the right, above, is a painted marble figure of St. Zeno , a fisherman 
and afterwards Bishop of Verona (about 9th cent.). Gothic choir-stalls. 
Behind the high-altar is an admirable ''Picture (covered) by Mantegna 
(1460), hung too high: Madonna enthroned, with angels and saints; on 
the left SS. Peter, Paul, John, and Augustine; on the right SS. John the 
Baptist, Gregory, Lawrence, and Benedict, in solemn attitude and full of 
individuality, remarkably rich accessories. (The predella pictures are 
copies.) — The spacious Crtpt contains the tasteful bronze tomb of St. Zeno, 
from the designs by the brothers Spazzi (1889), with seated figures of 
Religion, Love, Faith, and Hope. 

To the left of the church is the entrance to the adjoining ^Cloisters, 
with elegant double columns, where a small museum of Christian anti- 
quities is to be arranged. 

To the "W. of S. Zeno is the Porta S. Zeno, erected in 1540 from 
Sammicheli's designs. 

We next visit the S. E. Quarters of the town. 

In the Piazza dell' Indipendenza, adorned with gardens , to 
the N. of the Post Office (PI. F, 3), rises an equestrian Statue of 
Garibaldi, in bronze, by Bordoni, erected in 1887. 

In the Via Cappello, through which the tramway runs S. from 
the Piazza Erbe (PI. E, 3), the gateway of an old house (Nos. 19-25) 
on the left bears a marble tablet which is said to indicate the house 
of Juliet's parents (Capuletti; p. 177). The street then takes the 
name of Via S. Sebastiano (PI. E, 3, 4), in which, adjoining S. 
Sebastiano (PI. F, 4), is the Biblioteca Comunale (open in winter 
9-3 and 6-9, in summer 9-4), founded in 1860, and containing 
numerous records. In the Via Ponte Navi, now Via Leoni, the 
prolongation of the same street, on the left, No. 1, is the Arco de' 
Leoni, part of a Roman double gateway, coeval with the Porta de' 
Borsari (p. 172), but of superior execution, bearing an inscription 
partially preserved. Behind it are remains of a still older arch. 

Near this is the Gothic church of S. Fermo Maggiore (PI. E, F, 
4), of the beginning of the 14th cent. ; interesting facade, enriched 
with brick and marble. On the left side of the facade is the sar- 
cophagus of Fracastoro, physician of Can Grande, with ancient Ver- 
onese frescoes. 

The Interior, usually entered by the left side-door, has no aisles. 
Part of it is modernised. Fine old roof in larch-wood. Above the main 
entrance is a fresco of the early Veronese school, the Crucifixion, in poly- 
chrome frame. To the left is the monument of Brenzoni, with sculptures 
by the Florentine Rosso, an assistant of Donatello (1420) ; above are much 
damaged frescoes by Vittore Pisano, Annunciation. — 1st altar on left, three 
saints by Torbido. — Over the side-entrance, fresco of the Crucifixion; in 
the chapel to the left, Altar-piece by Caroto (1525), Madonna, St. Anna, 
and the Child in clouds, with four saints below. — In an adjoining space, 
behind a curtain and railing, is the monument of the physician Gir. della 
Torre, by Riccio (the bronze reliefs, now in the Louvre, are here replaced 
by copies). — Chapel on left of high-altar, St. Anthony with four saints, 
by Liberate. — 3rd altar on right in the nave, Trinity, Madonna in clouds, 
Tobias and the angel and saints, by Franc. Torbido. 

The neighbouring Ponte delle Navi (PI. E, 4) affords a good 

176 Route 32. VERONA. Museo Civico. 

survey of the choir and transept of S.Fermo. It was erected to replace 
a bridge destroyed by an inundation of the Adige in 1757. The 
water reached a still higher level on 17th Sept., 1882, as indicated 
by a mark on the first house in the Stradone S. Tommaso on the 
island. — The spacious church of S. Tommaso (PI. F, G, 3, 4), with- 
out aisles, and with open roof, contains an *Altarpiece by Oirol. 
dai Libri, formerly attributed to Caroto : SS. Sebastian, Rochus, and 
Job (last altar on right). 

On the left bank of the Adige, beyond the Ponte delle Navi, 
on the right, in the promenade, is the noble *Palazzo Pompei alia 
Vittoria (PI. F, 5), erected by Sammicheli about 1530, presented 
by the family to the town in 1857, and now containing the Museo 
Civico (adm. in summer 9-4, in winter 9-3, on holidays from 10 a.m., 
1 fr., gratis on the 1st Sun. of each month). 

The Ground Floor contains natural history collections ("Fossils from 
Monte Bolca) and antiquities: Roman and Etruscan bronzes, marble sculp- 
tures and vases, coins, Roman silver-plate, prehistoric antiquities from the 
lake-dwellings of the Lago di Garda, and mediaeval sculptures (some painted). 

The * Pinacoteca or picture-gallery, on the first floor, contains works 
chiefly of the Veronese school. In the first and second rooms is the Galleria 
Bernasconi, presented to the town by Dr. Bernasconi. 

I. Room: (right) 70. Tiepolo, Monastic saints; 68. Bonifazio, Noah and 
his sons; 52. Titian, Madonna and Child with St. John (injured); 49. Franc. 
Torbido (ascribed to Moretto), Tobias and the angel. On the opposite wall: 
34. School of Perugino, Madonna, Christ, and St. John with two angels; 
*31. School of Paolo Veronese, Baptism of Christ (injured). 

II. Room (right). Over the door: 138. Girolamo dai Libri, Madonna; 
148. Bonsignoi'i, Madonna ; 155. Oiac. Francia, Madonna ; 153. Parmigianino, 
Holy Family ; 152. Girol. Benaglio, Madonna. — On the exit-wall : 122. Gima 
da Conegliano, Madonna; 115. M. Basaiti, St. Sebastian; 114. Caroto, Holy 
Family (under Giulio Romano's influence); ;; 119. Caroto, Madonna. — Next 
wall: 99. Cima da Conegliano, Madonna (1510) ; 104. Style of Altdorfer, Por- 
trait of the Vicar Kolb ; 97. Sir A. More (Ant. Mor), Portrait : 96. School of 
Raphael (? attributed by Morelli to Calisto Piazza), Madonna, SS. Elizabeth 
and John; *87. Mantegna, Madonna and two saints; 102. P. Veronese (? at- 
tributed by Morelli to Zelotti), Allegory on music; *95. Adoration of the 
Magi, attributed to Raphael, a charming picture of the Umbrian School; 
86. School of Giov. Bellini (signature forged), Presentation in the Temple; 
94. Unknown Artist (wrongly attributed to Fra Bartolommeo), Portrait; 
85. Cavazzola, Madonna with the child St. John; *77. Giov. Bellini (not 
Florentine School), Madonna, an early work (injured) ; 92. Caroto, Madonna, 
an early work; '76. Bart. Montagna, Two canonized bishops. 

III. Room: Rondinelli (not Giov. Bellini), Madonna. — Next wall: above, 
180. Romanino, St. Jerome; 182. Francesco Morone, Madonna and Child; 
187, 188, 190, 191. Legendary scenes, ascribed to Falconetto. 

IV. Room (on the other side of Room I.) : entrance-wall, 252. Giolfino, 
Madonna; 238. Ant. Baiile (teacher of P. Veronese), Madonna and saints. 
— Opposite the window, 267. Girol. dai Libri, Madonna enthroned with 
SS. Rochus and Sebastian; 263. Caroto, St. Catharine; 264. Girol. dai Libri, 
Baptism of Christ; 272. Caroto, Adoration of the Child; 265. Morone, 
St. Catharine and the donor. — Exit-wall : *270. Paolo Veronese, Portrait 
of Guarienti (1556), the only original of this master in the collection. 
Over the door, Bonsignori, Madonna enthroned. 

V. Room. Above the entrance, *293. Gir. dai Libri, Madonna and SS. 
Joseph, Jerome, and John the Baptist worshipping the Child, with richly 
detailed landscape. — On the entrance-wall are frames containing a choice 
and rich collection of miniatures from choir -books. Note those by 
Liberate and especially those by -Girol. dai Libri. Above, 304. Cavazzola, 

Cemetery. VERONA. 32. Route, Ill 

St. Bonaventura; *296. Cavazzola, Christ and St. Thomas, Descent of the 
Holy Spirit and Ascension (in the background) ; 297. Caroto, Christ 
washing the disciples' feet, Madonna and David in the clouds ; Cavazzola, 
*299. Scourging of Christ, *302. Christ crowned with thorns ; 275. Fr. Mo- 
rone, Trinity with John and Mary; 276. Qirol. dai Libri, Madonna and 
Child in clouds, worshipped by SS. Andrew and Peter; "277. Cavazzola 
(large altar-piece) , Madonna with angels , saints , and donor (1522) , the 
master's last work; 278. Girol. dai Libri, Madonna with Joseph, Tobias 
and the angel (fine landscape; 1530). Above the door (no number), 
'Caroto, the Three archangels and Tobias. 

VI. Room. Entrance-wall, *334. C. Crivelli, Madonna and Child; below, 
335. Lucas van Leyden /copy), Crucifixion; 341. Vittore Pisano (? perhaps 
Stefano da Zevio), Madonna and St. Catharine in a rose-garden; 344. Jacopo 
Bellini, Crucifixion (retouched). — Window-wall, 349. Qirol. Benaglio, Ma- 
donna and saints. — Opposite the door, *318, '319, *320. Cavazzola, G-eth- 
semane, Descent from the Cross, and Bearing of the Cross (1517); to the 
left of the Cross in the middle picture is the artist's portrait ; 315. Liberale, 
Descent from the Cross. 

VII. Boom, entered from Room IV., unimportant. — VIII. Room: 
old engravings. — IX. Room : 386. Caroto, Madonna between two saints. 
In an adjoining room on the right, medallions by Pisanello. Back-wall: 
"Fresco by Cavazzola, Baptism of Christ, and medallions of the four evan- 
gelists. — X. Room , unimportant. — XI. Room : Crucifixion , attributed 
to Altichieri. — XII. Room: Frescoes (sawn out). Entrance-wall: Morone, 
Madonna and Child, with saints. Opposite, Martino da Verona, Madonna 
enthroned and SS. Zeno, James, and Apollonia; below, Giolfino, Allegorical 
subjects, half-length figures. — The last four rooms unimportant. 

Outside the Porta Vittoria is the Cimitero (PI. F, 6), laid out 
on a grand scale , with its cypress avenue and handsome gateway 
adorned with groups in marble by Spazzi. In the interior are Doric 
colonnades, a lofty dome-church, and a number of fine monuments 
in marble. Adm. April to Sept. 9-5, Oct. to March 10-3. 

Opposite the cemetery is the iron Ponte Aleardi (toll 2 c), 
leading to the broad Via Pallone , by which we may regain the 
Piazza Vitt. Emanuele (p. 173). The avenue on the Adige leads 
to the Railway Bridge, which affords a fine survey of the town and 
environs, and from which we may return to the Porta Nuova. 

On the right bank of the Adige, within a garden (visitors ring at the 
red door, 2-3 soldi) in the Vicolo S. Francesco al Corso, a side-street of 
Via Cappuccini (PI. D, 6), is a suppressed Franciscan Monastery, where 
a chapel contains a mediaeval sarcophagus called the Tomba di Oiulietta, 
or '■Tomb of Jtilief (fee 25 c). The whole scene is prosaic and unattrac- 
tive. Shakespeare's play of 'Romeo and Juliet' is founded on events which 
actually occurred at Verona. 'Escalus, Prince of Verona' was Bartolommeo 
della Scala (d. 1303). The house of Juliet's parents, see p. 175. 

To the E. of the Ponte delle Navi rises S. Paolo di Campo Marzo 
(PI. F, 5), which contains Madonnas with saints by Qirolamo dai 
Libri (3rd altar to the right), P. Veronese (right transept), and 
Bonsignori (to the left). Over the high-altar , Madonna between 
SS. Peter and Paul by 0. Caroto. 

Farther to the N.E. is S. Nazzaro e Celso (PL H, 4), in the 
Renaissance style, with traces of Gothic. 

In the right transept, two "'Paintings on panel, John the Baptist, and 
SS. Benedict, Nazarus , and Celsus , by Bart. Montagna. A Pieta and 
St. Blaise with St. Juliana, in the sacristy, are by the same artist. In 
the choir are frescoes by Farinato. In the Cappella di S. Biagio (left 

Baedekek. Italy I. 9th Edit. 12 

178 Route 32. VERONA. 

transept) damaged frescoes by Falconetto (procession of Nereids in the 
dome), and an altar-piece, Madonna and saints, by Bonsignori (1519); at 
the side, frescoes by Bart. Montagna (history of St. Blaise ; much damaged). 

To the N. of this church is the *Giardino Giusti (PI. G, H, 3 ; 
ring at a gate on the right in the court; fee 50 c), containing a 
few Roman antiquities and numerous cypresses , some of them 
400-500 years old and 120 ft. in height, and commanding a beau- 
tiful -view of Verona, the distant Apennines, Monte Pizzocolo on 
the Lago di Garda (p. 160) and the Erescian Alps. 

Near this is *S. Maria in Organo (PL G, 3), a very ancient 
church, altered by Sammicheli in 1481 , with unfinished facade of 1592. 

Third altar on left, Madonna and Child, with SS. Martin, Augustine, 
and two angels, by Morone (1503) ; 4th altar on left, Madonna with saints, 
by Savoldo (1533). The seats in front of the high-altar are embellished 
with landscapes by Cavazzola and Brusasorci. Behind it is a carved wal- 
nut Candelabrum by Fra Giovanni da Verona, who belonged to the mon- 
astery of this church. *Choir-Stalls with intarsia (views of the town 
above, ornamentation below), of 1499, by the same master. Chapel on 
right of choir: Ascension, a fresco by Giolfino. In the right transept are 
an altarpiece, St. Francisca Romana by Guercino and, on the left wall 
in front, frescoes by Cavazzola (St. Michael, and St. Raphael with Tobias). 
— The Sacristy contains, on the right, intarsias by Fra Giovanni, injured 
by water; the ceiling and. friezes, with portraits of monks and popes, are 
by Francesco Morone; "Madonna del Limone, by Girol. dai Libri. 

The ancient little church of 8. Giovanni in Valle (PL G, H, 2), 
a flat-roofed basilica, borne by columns with very early capitals, 
has a fresco over the entrance by Stefano da Zevio, and two early- 
Christian sarcophagi in the crypt. 

From Verona to Cologna, tramway in 3'/2 hrs., passing through the 
village of S. Michele , with the round church of Madonna di Campagna, 
planned by Sammicheli, near which rises the pinnacled castle of Montario, 
formerly the property of the Scaligers. Then S. Martino (p. 184), Caldiero 
(p. 181), S. Bonifacio (p. 184), Lonigo (p. 184), and the little town of 
Cologna Veneta, with 7800 inhab., who are busily engaged in the culture 
of silk, hemp, and vines. 

33. From Verona to Mantua and Modena. 

63 M. Railway in 2V4-3V-2 hrs. (fares 11 fr. 55, 8 fr. 10, 5 fr. 20 c. ; express 
12 fr. 70, 8 fr. 95 c.) ; to Mantua (25 M.) in l-ly 2 hr. (fares 4 fr. 65, 3 fr. 25, 
2 fr. 10 c. ; express 5 fr. 10, 3 fr. 60 c). — This will continue to be the ex- 
press route to Florence and Rome until the new direct line between Dosso- 
buono (see below) and Bologna is completed. 

Verona, see p. 167. The line traverses a rich plain, dotted with 
trees. Near Mantua are fields of rice. — 6 ! /2 M. Dossobuono. 

Dossobuono is the junction of a new direct line to Bologna, still un- 
finished, and of the Verona and Rovigo Railway (62 J /2 M., in 3 l /2 hrs.). 
Stations unimportant. — 33 l /2 M. Legnago, a town of 14,100 inhab., fort- 
ified by the Austrians after 1815 to defend the passage of the Adige, is 
also a station on the Mantua and Monselice line (p. 183). — 62 J /2 M. Rovigo, 
see p. 274. 

11 M. Villafranca , with a mediaeval castle, where the pre- 
liminaries of a peace between France and Austria were concluded 
on 11th July, 1859 , after the battle of Solferino. About 5 M. to 
the N.W. lies Custozza, where the Italians were defeated by the 




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MANTUA. 33. Route. 179 

Austrians in 1848 and 1866. A monument to the fallen was erected 
here in 1879, after a design by Franco. 

14y 2 M. Mozzecane; 18 M. Roverbella; 23 M. S. Antonio. 

The train now passes the Citadel of Mantua, where Andreas 
Eofer, the Tyrolese patriot, was shot by the French on 20th Feb., 
1810. The citadel and the town are connected by the Argine Mu- 
lino (a bridge constructed in 1257), which divides the lakes formed 
here by the Mincio into the Lago Superiore (W.) and the Lago di 
Mezzo (E.). 

25 M. Mantua. Station to the "W. of the town (PI. A, 3,4). 

Mantua. — Hotels. Croce Verde or Fenice, R. 2-3, A. 1, L. 3 / 4 , 
omn. l'/2fr. ; Aquila <TOro, tolerably good, R., L., & A. 2i/ 2 , omn. Vafr-i 
Agnello d'Oro, all in the Via Sogliari (PL B, 3) and unpretending. — 
Travellers should avoid spending a night at Mantua in summer, as the 
mosquitoes are troublesome. — A stay of 4-6 hrs. is enough to give an idea 
of this interesting town. The traveller should engage a cab at the station 
for 1 hr., drive to the (12 min.) Palazzo del Te, which may be seen in 
1 /i hr., and then to S. Andrea or the Cathedral. 

Cafe: Vecchio Caffe del Veneziano, near the church of S. Andrea. 

Cab per drive 75c, first hr. 1 fr. 50c, each following 1 /i hr. 50c. 

Mantua , Ital. Mantova , a very ancient town founded by the 
Etruscans, with 28,000 inhab. (3000 Jews), is a provincial capital 
and a strongly fortified place, bounded on the N.W. by the Lago 
Superiore, on the N.E. by the Lago di Mezzo, on the E. by the Lago 
Inferiore, and on the S. and S.W. by marshy land, which in case 

of a siege can be laid under water. 

Mantua is mentioned in ancient times as the home of Virgil, who was 
born at the ancient Andes (supposed to have occupied the site of the present 
village of Pietole, 3 M. to the S.E., where a monument was erected to 
him in 1848), but it was not a place of importance till the middle ages. 
In the conflicts of the Hohenstaufen period the town embraced the cause 
of the Guelphs. In 1328 the citizens elected Luigi, Lord of Gonzaga, as 
'Capitano del Popolo', and to his dynasty the town owed its prosperity. 
The Gkmzagas fought successfully against Milan and Venice, and extended 
their territory, while they were liberal patrons of art and science. Gio- 
vanni Francesco II. (1407-44), the first marquis, invited the learned Vit- 
torino da Feltre to Mantua, and through him made his court a renowned 
centre of culture and education. The beautiful and accomplished Isabella 
d^Este (1474-1539), sister of Alphonso , Duke of Ferrara , and mother of 
Eleonora of Urbino, was the wife of Giovanni Francesco III. (148i-l519). 
She carried on a lively correspondence with the most eminent men of her 
time, and with judicious taste collected valuable books , pictures, and 
antiquities. In 1530 Federigo II. (d. 1540) was raised to the rank of duke 
by Charles V., and in 1536 he was invested with the marquisate of Monte- 
ferrato; a monument of his reign is the Palazzo del Te (p. 182). In 1627, 
when Charles de Nevers, a member of a French collateral line, ascended 
the throne, the Mantuan war of succession broke out, and Emperor Fer- 
dinand II. declared the fief forfeited. On 18th July, 1630, Mantua was 
stormed and sacked by the Austrians. Although the emperor, hard pressed 
by the Swedes , was obliged to conclude peace in 1631 , the town never 
recovered from this blow. Carlo IV., the last duke, taking the French 
side in the Spanish war of succession , was declared an outlaw in 1703 ; 
Monteferrato was awarded to Piedmont, and Mantua to Austria, of whose 
supremacy in Italy it became the chief support. After a long and obstinate 
defence by General Wurmser, the fortress capitulated to the French on 2nd 
February, 1797. By the Peace of Villafranca the Austrians retained Mantua 


180 Route 33. MANTUA. From Verona 

although deprived of the rest of Lombardy, but they were compelled to 
cede it to Italy in 1866. 

Mantua witnessed the labours of two great Renaissance Painters. 
Andrea Mantegna. born at Padua in 1431, entered the service of Lodo- 
vico Gonzaga in 1463. The chief work of his earlier period is preserved 
in the church of the Eremitani at Padua. In vigour of conception and 
in the fidelity of his characters he rivals his best contemporaries, while 
he surpasses them in accuracy of perspective and in his refined taste for 
beauty of landscape. He died at Mantua in 1506. When Raphael's pupils 
were dispersed after his death, Giulio Romano (1492-1546), the greatest of 
them, settled at Mantua, where he attained so high a reputation as an ar- 
chitect and painter, that Mantua has been called the 'town of Giulio Ro- 
mano 1 . After the example of Raphael's work in the Farnesina, he com- 
posed mythological decorative paintings , which , though far inferior to 
their prototype, attract by the richness of the motives and sensuous mag- 
nificence of composition, and are important owing to the influence they 
exercised on later art. Primaliccio , and Niccolb delV Abbate , pupils of 
Giulio Romano who were educated here, were afterwards summoned to 
Fontainebleau, .and thus formed a link between the French and the Italian 
Renaissance. Giulio Romano's works must also have influenced the style 
of Rubens, who spent several years at Mantua. 

The traffic of the town is chiefly confined to the arcades of the 
Via Sogliari (PI. B, 3), continued westwards by the Corso di Porta 
Pradella, now Vitt. Emanuele, and to the Piazza delle Erbe (PI. 
C, 3), to the E. of the former street. In this piazza, where a Statue 
of Dante was erected in 1871, are situated the principal churches. 

*S. Andrea (PL 0, 3}, a church of imposing proportions, was 
begun in 1472 from designs by the Florentine Leon Battista Alberti, 
but afterwards much altered, while the dome was not added till 
1782. The white marble facade, with its spacious portico, is classic 
in style ; adjoining it is a square tower of red brick, with an elegant 
octagonal superstructure and a Gothic spire. 

The Interior, 110 yds. in length, is covered with massive barrel 
vaulting, the panels partly painted. The 1st chapel on the left contains the 
tomb of the painter Andrea Mantegna (d. 1506), with his *Bust in bronze 
by Bart, di Virgilio Meglioli (not Sperandio); also three paintings of the 
School of Mantegna, Holy Family, Baptism of Christ, and Pieta (restored 
in 1890). — 2nd Chap, on left: *Altarpiece, Madonna enthroned and saints, 
by Lorenzo Costa (1525; much damaged). — 1st Chap, on right: Arri- 
vabene, St. Anthony admonishing the tyrant Ezzelino (painted in 1846). At 
the sides, Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise, from Dante, by B. Pagni (1570). 
— 3. Cappella S. Longino, on the left: Sarcophagus with the inscription: 
'Longini ejus, qui latus Christi percussit, ossa'. On the right is the sarco- 
phagus of Gregorius of Nazianzus. The frescoes, designed by Giulio Romano, 
represent the Crucifixion; below is Longinus-, on the opposite side the 
finding of the sacred blood, of which the saint is said to have brought 
some drops hither. — The Right Transept contains the monument of Bishop 
Andreasi (d. 1549), executed in 1551 by Clementi, a pupil of Michael Angelo. 
The swan is the heraldic emblem of Mantua. — Left Transept. Chapel 
on the left: (right) Monument of Pietro Strozzi (1529), with caryatides, 
designed by Giulio Romano (best seen from the middle of the nave). The 
other monument, with recumbent figure of Count Andreasi, was also de- 
signed by G. Romano. — Choir: Martyrdom of St. Andrew, a fresco by 
Anselmi, an imitator of Correggio, in the apse. In the corner to the left 
by the high-altar is the kneeling figure of Duke Guglielmo Gonzaga, founder 
of the church. The Crypt, beneath the high-altar, where the drops of the 
sacred blood were preserved, contains a marble crucifix and an interest- 
ing statue of the Madonna and Child carved in wood. 

to Modena. MANTUA. 33. Route. 181 

A little farther on is the Piazza Sordello (PI. C, 2), in the 
centre of which rises a monument to the political martyrs of the 
year 1851. Here are situated the Cathedral, the Palazzo Vescovile, 
and, on the right, the former palace of the Gonzagas. 

The Cathedral of S. Pietro (PI. C, D, 2), with double aisles, 
domed transept, and two rows of domed chapels, has a baroque facade 
(1756) and an unfinished Romanesque tower. The interior, skil- 
fully remodelled from designs by Oiulio Romano, has a fine fret- 
ted ceiling. On the left of the entrance is an ancient Christian 
sarcophagus, and on the right of the passage leading to the Cappella 
dell' Incoronata is a bust of Ant. Capriano, 1587. In the Chapel of 
the Sacrament (at the end of the left aisle) is an *Altarpiece on 
the right by Paolo Far inato of Yerona, St. Martin of Tours ; also 
tS. Margaret in prison, with an angel, by Felice Brusasorci. 

The N.E. angle of the piazza is occupied by the old ducal palace 
of the Gonzagas, now called the *CorteK.eale (PI. D,2), and partly 
used as barracks. Begun in 1302 by Guido Buonacolsi, it was after- 
wards altered and embellished with frescoes by Oiulio Romano by 
order of Federigo II. 

The custodian is to be found under the second large arched gateway 
to the left (fee 1 fr.). On the Upper Floor is a large saloon containing 
portraits of the Gonzagas by Bibbiena. Then the Stanze dell 1 Impera- 
trice, once hung with Raphael's tapestry (now at Vienna; copies of the 
hangings in the Vatican). The Dining-Room is adorned with allegorical 
figures of the rivers and lakes around Mantua; the windows look into a 
garden on the same level. The Sala dello Zodiaco has allegorical and 
mythological representations of the signs of the zodiac by Giulio Romano. 
Napoleon I. once slept in the next room. Then three Stanze dell 1 Im- 
peratore, containing copies of the tapestry formerly here, painted by 
Canepi. The Picture Gallery contains nothing worthy of note ; to the 
left, by the door, a good bust of a Gonzaga by Bernini. The Ball Room 
(Sala degli Specchi) is embellished with frescoes by the pupils of Giulio 
Romano. — In another part of the palace is the charming Camerino 
C Paradiso' ) of Isabella d^Este (p. 179); in an adjoining room her motto, 
i nec spe nee metu\ We observe here particularly the intarsia, the beauti- 
ful reliefs on the marble-door, and the delicate ceiling- decoration. We 
next pass through richly decorated rooms, some in sad disrepair : the 
Sala dei Giuramento del Primo Capitano ; two rooms with wooden 
ceilings; a small apartment with stucco-work by Primaliccio ; the Sala di 
Troja , with frescoes by Giulio Romano (much restored) ; the Sala dei 
Marmi, so called from the busts it once contained ; lastly a Loggia, with 
a view of the lake. The dwarfs 1 apartments, adapted to the size of their 
inmates, are also worthy of a visit. 

On theN.E. side of the palace is the R. Teatro di Corte (PI. D, 2). 

The vaulted passage between the two leads to the Piazza della Fiera, 

in which rises the Castello di Corte (PI. D, 2), the old castle of 

the Gonzagas. 

Part of the castle is now used as Archives (open during office-hours 
only; gratuity ^\i fr.). Most of the frescoes by Andrea Mantegna (1474) 
which once adorned the rooms are obliterated, but those on two walls 
of the Camera degli Sposi (first floor), which are among his finest creations, 
were badly restored in 1877. Three scenes on the entrance-wall represent 
"Ludovico Gonzaga meeting his son Cardinal Francesco near Rome. Above 
the door is a tablet with an inscription, borne by beautiful *Putti with 
butterflies'' wings. On the other wall is the Family of the Gonzagas with 

182 Route 33. MANTUA. From Verona 

their court: on the left, Lodovico Gonzaga with his wife Barbara. On 
the ceiling are portraits of Roman e mperors in grisaille; on the pendentives 
are small mythological scenes; and in the centre is an illusive painting 
of an apparent opening, at which Cupids and girls are listening. 

To the S. of the Corte Reale, and belonging to the same im- 
posing pile of buildings, is the church of S. Barbara (PI. D, 2). Over 
the [high- altar the Beheading of S. Barbara, by Dom. Brusasorci. 
By the same master are the angel musicians on the wall to the left 
and angels with torches on the right. The organ- wings and two 
pictures over side-altars were painted by Lor. Costa the Younger. 

In the vicinity to the N.W. is a vast space, planted with trees 
and bounded by the Lago di Mezzo on the N. (drill-ground), called 
the Piazza Vikgiliana (PI. C, 2), with a handsome arena, the 
Teatro Virgiliano, beyond which, from the parapet towards the Lago 
di Mezzo, a view of the Alps is obtained. 

The Accademia Virgiliana di Scienze e Belle Arti (PI. D, 3) con- 
tains frescoes, sculptures, and casts of little value. Behind it is the 
Liceo, with a Library (a room in the upper story of which contains, 
above the doors, portraits of the Gonzaga family, and a Trinity, by 
Rubens, cut into parts) and the Museum (PI. 0, 3). 

The museum contains some very valuable antiques from Rome. By 
the entrance, *336. Bust of Euripides ; 2. Bust of a hero, erroneously call- 
ed Virgil; 3. Julia Domna; 5. Torso of Minerva; 12. Marcus Aurelius; 
13. Leda; 16. Sarcophagus with Medea in relief; 25. Faustina (given by 
Mantegna to Isabella d'Este) ; *26. Torso of Eros (Greek) ; 27. Antoninus 
Pius; 31. Greek tomb-relief, funeral supper and sacrifice; *36. Female 
torso ; 38. Domitian ; 37. Hadrian ; *43. Satyr and Nymph (Greek) ; 46. 
Matidia; 58. Fragment of a Greek altar; 56. Sarcophagus relief, destruc- 
tion of Troy; 60, 62. Tiberius; 64. Livia(?); *69. Sarcophagus reliefs: 
marriage, sacrifices, and barbarians before an emperor. In the middle: 
*198. Torso of Venus , on an altar with Bacchic figures ; 176. Sleeping 
Cupid (modern). — In the adjoining room , on the right , the so-called 
'seat of Virgil 1 and inscriptions. We now return to the hall. Window- 
wall, 148. Greek tomb-relief. Side-wall, 161. Attic tomb-relief; *158, 164. 
Bacchic reliefs; 174. Relief with attributes of Jupiter; 172. Lid of sarco- 
phagus; 171. Sarcophagus relief, Endymion; 180. Torso of a warrior (Greek) ; 
*182. Alcibiades; 187. Sarcophagus relief, vintage; 186. Fight between 
Romans and Gauls; 188, 190. Roman portrait-busts; 192. Marcus Aurelius 
as a boy wearing the cap of the Salii ; *201. Torso of Venus ; 219. Flute- 
playing Satyr ; 269, 276. Greek tomb-reliefs. — In the centre, *210. Archaic 
Apollo ; below, reliefs of Cupids ; 225. Attic sepulchral urn ; *237. Youthful 
Hermes (portrait statue). — By the wall: 281. Head of Aphrodite; 287. 
Homer ; 309. Greek tomb-relief; 318. Sarcophagus relief, Venus and Adonis ; 
328. Muse as Caryatide ; 333. Lucius Verus. — The lower rooms of the 
Accademia contain sculptures, including interesting busts in terracotta, 
and a relief with two portraits from a chimney-piece. 

The neighbouring Museo Patrio contains prehistoric and mediae- 
val objects, with a few antiques. 

Near the Porta Pusterla is 8. Sebastiano (PI. B, 3; now a 
military store ; no admission), the earliest Renaissance church built 
in the shape of a Greek cross. 

Outside the gate is the *Palazzo del Te (PI. A, B, 5 ; contracted 
from Tajetto), erected by Oiulio Romano, and containing his 
frescoes and grotesques, specially interesting for the skill with 

to Modena. ESTE. 33. Route. 183 

which they are adapted to the size, shape, and purposes of the 

rooms (fee 1 fr.). 

Antechamber, to the right of the entrance, Sun and Moon. 1st Room 
to the left, the favourite Horses of Duke Frederick Gonzaga. 2nd Room : 
*Myth of Psyche and Bacchanalians (the latter restored, the upper paint 
ings are in better preservation). Opposite the entrance, Polyphemus. 
3rd Room : in the lower ovals, Fishing, Market-place, Gladiatorial combats, 
etc. On the ceiling, mythological and symbolical subjects, and represent- 
ation of the zodiac. 4th Room : Fall of Phaeton and many smaller pictures ; 
also imitations of ancient busts. Then a fine open *Loggia, and several 
rooms with beautiful friezes in stucco (Triumphal procession of Emp. 
Sigismund, and Children) by Primaticcia ; next the fiala de 1 Giganti, ex- 
tolled by Vasari, with walls fantastically adapted to the painting, which 
was executed chiefly by Rinaldo Mantovano, but has been much restored 
(representing the Fall of the Giants, figures 14 ft. in height). Lastly several 
Cabinets, with charming Raphaelite decoration, and an oblong bath-room 
with shell-ornamentation. 

On the other side of the garden is the Casino della Grotta , with its 
exquisite little rooms and its grotto encircling a small garden. 

Oiulio Romano's House, and the Pal. della Giustizia built by 

him, with its colossal Hermse, are No. 14, Via Roma (PI. A, B, 4). 

From Mantua to Cremona, see p. 147. Tramways to Brescia (p. 152), Osti- 
glia, Asola, and Viadana. 

From Mantua to Monselice, 52'/2 M., railway in 2 1 /2-3 , /4 hrs. (fares 
9 fr. 50, 6 fr. 65, 4 fr. 30 c). At (24 M.) Cerea we join the Verona and 
Rovigo line (p. 178), which we follow to Legnago (p. 178). 

37 J /2 M. Montagnana (Albergo delV Arena; Alb. Trentino), a town of 
10,000 inhab., the well-preserved mediaeval fortifications of which with 
its pinnacled walls and towers amply repay a visit. In the picturesque 
Piazza stands the Gothic Cathedral, with Renaissance door and choir, an 
altar-piece by P. Veronese, etc. The neighbouring Pal. del Municipio is 
ascribed to Sammicheli and contains a painting by Buonconsiglio in the 
large hall. Near the Porta S. Zeno is the Pal. Pisani, containing a 
chapel with the tomb'of the Venetian admiral Pisani. 

41 M. Saletta; 45 M. Ospedaletlo Evganeo. 

i7 l /-2 M. Este (Albergo Centrale, well spoken of), the ancient Ateste, at 
the S. foot of the Euganean hills, contains the extensive, but now ruinous 
ancestral residence of the House of Este (p. 276), a spacious piazza sur- 
rounded with arcades; the Porta Vecchia with a clock-tower; the Museo 
Civico in the church of S. Francesco (containing several interesting Roman 
inscriptions); the Museo Euganeo Preistorico (with a valuable collection of 
antiquities) ; the Cathedral, of elliptical plan with a lofty choir (with a 
painting by Tiepolo); and the church of >S. Martino, with a leaning tower. 
The Casa Benvenuti (visitors ring) commands a view of the Alps, and in 
clear weather of the Apennines. 

52 J /2 M. Monselice, station on the Padua and Bologna line (p. 274). 

The train crosses the Po at (32 M.) Borgo forte, the fortifications 
of which were blown up by the Austrians in 1866. 

34 M. Motteggiana. — 37 M. Suzzara. 

From Sozzara to Parma, 27*/2 M., railway in 172-2 hrs. (fares 5 fr., 
3 fr. 50, 2 fr. 50 c). The chief station is (7i/2 M.) Guastalla (Posta), a small 
town near the Po, with 3000 inhab., which in the 16th cent, gave its name 
to a principality of the Gonzagas, Dukes of Mantua, who became extinct 
in 1746. In the market-place is the bronze Statue of Ferdinand I. Gon- 
zaga (d. 1557 at Brussels), by Leone Leoni. From Guastalla to Reggio. see 
p. 264. — 27i/2 M. Parma, see p. 264. 

From Suzzara to Ferrara , 51 M., railway in 3-3V4 hrs. The chief 
station is (30 M.) Sermide. — 51 M. Ferrara, see p. 276. 

184 Route 34. CALDIERO. From Verona 

42 M. Qonzaga-Reggiolo ; 46i/ 2 M. Rolo-Novi. — 54 M. Carpi 
{Leone cT Oro, in the market-place), a town of 5900 inhab., with 
an old Palace, which from the 14th cent, was the residence of the 
Pio family. Alberto Pio (1475-1531) , a pupil of Aldus Manutius 
and a patron of Ariosto , built the handsome Palace Court (in the 
chapel frescoes by Bernardino Loschi), and began the New Ca- 
thedral in the Piazza after plans by Baldassare Peruzzi. In the 
interior, to the left, a Christ by Begarelli, two statues by Prospero 
Clementi, and a pulpit of the 11th century. The Loggia on the 
other side of the Piazza, the Colonnades, and the fortifications also 
testify to the taste and energy of this prince, who was expelled by 
Charles V. in 1525. A street leads from the Loggia to the Fran- 
ciscan church of 8. Nicola, founded in 1493. Behind the palace is 
the early-Romanesque Old Cathedral (Chiesa sagra), of which the 
choir and tower alone remain. The ancient portal has been inserted 
in the facade designed by Peruzzi. 

58 M. Soliera. — 63 M. Modena (p. 270). 

34. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza. 

72 M. Railway in 2 3 / 4 -4 hrs. (fares 13 fr. 15, 9 fr. 20, 5 fr. 90 c. ; express 
14 fr. 45, 10 fr. 10 c). Finest views generally to the left. 

Verona (Porta Ves'covo) , see p. 167. The line, which runs 
parallel with the Cologna-Veneta tramway (p. 178) as far as Lonigo 
(see below), leaving S. Michele (p. 178) on the left, traverses an ex- 
tremely fertile district, planted with vines, mulberries, and maize, 
and intersected with irrigation-trenches. — 4 M. *S. Martino, with 
the handsome Villa Musella, amidst cypresses;' 5 ! /-2 M. Vago-Zevio. 

The mineral springs of (7 1 / 2 M.) Caldiero, which attract visitors, 
were known to the Romans. A branch of the tramway mentioned 
above runs hence to Tregnago, whence we may visit the Tredici 
Comuni, once a German 'enclave' on Italian soil. The chief village 
is Oiazza. Numerous fossils; a rocky defile (Ponte di Veja) ; basaltic 
cliffs at Vestena. 

We next pass Soave, once belonging to the Scaligers, on the slope 
to the left, presenting a good picture of a mediaeval fortified town. 

12*/ 2 M. S. Bonifacio. On a hill to the N. is Monteforte. Arcole, 
31/2 M. to the S., was the scene of the battles of 15th-17th Nov., 
1796, between the Austrians under Alvinczy and the French under 
Bonaparte, Massena, Augereau, and Lannes. — 16 M. Lonigo; the 
village lies 4y 2 M. to the S.E., at the W. base of the volcanic and 
wooded Monti Benci. — 20 M. Montebello. Beautiful view towards 
the mountains. The handsome chateau belongs to Count Arrighi. 
To the left, on the hill, the ruined castle of Montecchio (p. 188) ; 
then (25 M.) Tavernelle (steam-tramway to Valdagno and to Arzi- 
gnano, see p. 188). 

30 M. Vicenza. — Hotels. Roma, Corso Principe Umber to, near the 
Porta Castello, R., L., & A. from 2^2 fr., cuisine mediocre, otherwise 

to Venice. VIOENZA. 34. Route. J 85 

good. — Tre Garofani, well spoken of; Gran Parigi, both in the Contrada 
delle Due Ruote, a side-street of the Corso ; Quattro Pellegrini, Corso 
Principe Umberto. 

Cafes. Roma and Nazionale , in the Corso; Garibaldi, Piazza de 1 
Signori; Brugger's Birreria, with garden, Contrada Piancoli, by the Ponte 
S. Michele. 

Cab from station to town 75 c.; first hr. l'/z, each additional hr. l ! /4 fr. 

Tramway from the Campo Marzio, facing the station, through the 
Corso Umberto to the Porta di Padova (PI. D, 2). 

Vicenza, the ancient Vicetia, capital of a province, with 27,700 
(with suburbs 40,000) inhab., lies at the N. base of the Monti 
Berici (p. 184), on both sides of the Bacchiglione , at its con- 
fluence with the Retrone. Although closely built, the town 
possesses many interesting palaces, to which, with the picturesque 
environs, a short visit may profitably be devoted. 

Vicenza, like most of the larger towns of N. Italy, boasted in the 15th 
cent, of a School of Painting, which, though it was influenced by Man- 
tegna, and never produced masters of the highest rank, yielded results of 
considerable importance. The earliest master of note was Giovanni 
Speranza, who , however , was soon surpassed by Bartolommeo Montagna 
(who flourished here in 1484-1523). The gallery and the churches (Cathe- 
dral, S. Corona, S. Lorenzo) of Vicenza contain works by the latter, 
and he is represented at Padua and VeroDa also. His compositions are 
strongly realistic, and he shows a predilection for muscular figures, and 
for colouring of a rich brownish tint. His drapery is ungraceful, but, 
like that of Diirer, boldly defined. His son, Benedetto Montagna, was 
unimportant, but his contemporary Giovanni Buonconsiglio (d. 1530), a fol- 
lower of Antonello da Messina, has produced some pleasing works. In 
the 16th cent. Vicenza lost its importance as a school of painting, but 
attained a high reputation in the province of Architecture, having given 
birth to Andrea Palladio (1518-80), the last great architect of the Re- 
naissance, the chief sphere of whose operations was his native town. By 
his study of the antique in Rome he was enabled to effect a revival of 
what may be termed the ancient language of forms, and he made it his 
endeavour to exhibit in his buildings the organic connection between the 
different members. The chief characteristic of his school consists in a 
studious adherence to impressive simplicity of form, and a very sparing 
indulgence in the lavish enrichments in which the early -Renaissance 
was too apt to revel. His finest churches are at Venice, but his most 
numerous palaces are at Vicenza, to which they impart a uniform and 
handsome appearance. 

"We enter the town by theW. gate, Porta del Castello(Vl. A, B, 3), 
near which rises a monument to Garibaldi by Ferrari, erected 
in 1887. On the left is the Palazzo Muzzan; to the right, in the 
S.W. angle of the Piazza Castello , is the Casa del Diavolo (Pal. 
Oiulio - Porto) , a large unfinished palace by Palladio , with two 
stories united by a row of Corinthian columns with a rich cornice. 
"We follow the long Corso Principe Umberto. On the left the new 
church of S. Filippo Neri (PL B, 3). — A short cross-street opposite, 
on the right, leads to theDuomo(Pl. B, 3), consisting of a broad and 
low nave with wide vaulted arches, aisles converted into chapels, 
a choir much raised and covered with a dome, and a crypt below 
it. To the right in the piazza is the Vescovado, or episcopal palace, 
the court of which to the right contains fine arcades. The piazza 
is embellished with a Statue of Victor Emmanuel, by Benvenuti, 
erected in 1880. 

186 Route 31. VICENZA. From Verona 

We may proceed hence direct by the Via Garibaldi, or we may 
continue to follow the Corso (where No. 2140 on the right, Pal. 
Trissino, now Porto, by Scamozzi, 1588, deserves notice), and go 
through the Contrada del Monte , to the right (opposite which is 
the Contrada Porti with numerous palaces), to the handsome Piazza 
be' Signori, with two columns of the Venetian period. Here rises 
the *Basilica Palladiana (PI. C, 2, 3), with its grand colonnades 
in two stories , the lower Doric, the upper Ionic, surrounding the 
Palazzo delta Ragione (town-hall), an earlier building in the pointed 
style. These colonnades, begun in 1549 , are one of Palladia's 
earliest works. On the first floor is a large hall with a finely vaulted 
wooden roof (not always open). The slender red tower is 265 ft. 
in height. Adjacent is the Tribunate. — Opposite the Basilica is 
the Palazzo Prefettizio , formerly del Capitanio , also by Palladio 
(1571), adjoining which is the Monte diPieth (1533 and 1620). — 
By the Basilica rises & Statue of Palladio in marble, by Gajassi, 1859. 

We return to the Corso, in which, to the left, is the Pal. Schio, 
Gothic, with Renaissance portal. — On the left, at the E. end of 
the Corso, is the Casa di Palladio, with facade once'painted. We 
next reach, on the right, in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, the — 

*Museo Civico (PL C, 2), established in the Pal. Chiericati, 
one of Palladio' s finest edifices, seriously injured in 1848, but 
restored in 1855 (open daily 11-2, free; 9-11 and 2-4, fee 7 2 -l fr.). 

Ground Floor : Roman antiquities from an ancient theatre. — The 
Upper Floor contains the :: Pinacoteca. Ante-chamber: 1. Tiepolo, Madonna; 
*2. Jac. Bassano, Senators before the Madonna; opposite, no number, 
Strozzi, Christ with Simon the Pharisee. The cabinets contain ancient 
terracottas and bronzes, mediaeval coins, etc. — Room I. : (right) 17. Ciga- 
roli, Madonna and Child worshipped by saints; 6. Van Dyck , Holy Child 
asleep, with a knight and St. Rosa. — Room II. Exit-wall, 10! Girol. 
Mocetto, Madonna; 12. Paolo Veronese, Madonna and two saints (injured). 
— Room III. To the right of the entrance, 17. Antonetlo da Messina, Ecce 
Homo; 22. School of Perugino, Marriage of the Virgin; 20. Marco Pal- 
mezzano, Pieta ; *18. Cima da Conegliano, Madonna in an arbour, the earliest 
signed work of this master (1489, tempera) ; beside the window, 10. Byzan- 
tine (attributed to St. Luke by an inscription), Madonna and Child; 3. Old 
Flemish School (not Memling), Crucifixion, with saints and monks; opposite 
the window, 28. Paolo da Venezia, Altar-piece (1333). — Room IV. con- 
tains the chief works of the Vicenza School. Montagna, *2. Madonna and 
four saints, with predella, 3. Adoration of the Child, both early works, 
in tempera; 5, 6. Montagna, Madonnas; 8. Montagna, Presentation in the 
Temple; 17. Montagna, Madonna between SS. Onuphrius and John the 
Baptist; *22. Buonconsiglio , Pieta, very impressive; 23. Speranza, SS. 
Jerome and Thomas worshipping the Virgin; 24. Fogolino , Adoration of 
the Magi (much damaged). — V. Room. Portraits. — The following rooms 
contain engravings; in the last but one, fine glass from Murano; in the 
last, drawings and manuscripts of Palladio. — On the other side of the 
ante-room are rooms with inferior pictures. — The Natural History 
Collection contains valuable fossils: a fish, a palm, a crocodile, etc., 
most of them found near Vicenza. 

In the vicinity is the *Teatro Olimpico (PL C, 2 ; custodian to 
the left, behind the theatre, Leva degli Angeli, No. 987 ; fee i/ 2 fr-)» 
designed by Palladio, completed in 1584, after his death, and 
inaugurated by the performance of the 'QMipus Tyrannus' of 

to Venice. VICENZA. 3d. Route. 187 

Sophocles. Palladio adhered generally to the precepts of Vitruvius 
as to the construction of ancient theatres , but the building is far 
from being a mere imitation. The perspective of the stage is 
curiously deceptive. The orchestra in front of it is 5 ft. below the 
seats of the audience. 

Returning to the Oorso , we follow the first cross-street on the 
right to S. Corona (PI. 0, 2), a Gothic church in brick with a plain 
Lombardic facade. 

Entrance-wall: fresco by Speranza, Madonna and donor; 2nd altar on 
left, Five saints by Bart. 'Montagna, beside it Angels by Speranza, frescoes; 
3rd altar on left, S. Antonio giving alms, by L. Bassano; 4th altar, a 
Madonna of the 14th cent, with angels of the 16th cent. ; 5th altar, *Baptism 
of Christ by G. Bellini, in a fine frame, a late work painted about 1510. 

A street opposite, a little to the right, leads to S. Stefano 
(PL C, 2); in the left transept, *Palma Vecchio , Madonna with 
SS. Lucia and George, an admirable example of his middle period. 

Opposite, at the corner to the left, stands the Pal. Thiene, 
the front designed by Palladio, the back part (Bauca Popolare), 
facing the Contrada Porti, being an early-Renaissance structure. 
Opposite to it rises the imposing Palazzo Porto-Barbarasto 
(PL C, 2), by Palladio (1570"), and farther on, to the seft, is the 
Gothic Pal. Porto- Colleoni (PL C, 2), with a handsome portico. 
Retracing our steps to the Corso, we turn to the right into the 
Contrada S. Lorenzo, in which stands the Pal. Valmarano (PL 
B, 2), by Palladio. At the end of this street is the fine Gothic 
church of S. Lorenzo (PL B, 2), containing the tomb of Bart . Mon- 
tagna (p. 185), who painted the altarpiece on the 3rd altar to the 
right: SS. Lorenzo and Vincenzo. — Near the end of the Corso, on 
the left, is Palazzo Loschi, which contains a *Bearing of the Cross, 
an early work by Oiorgione (gratuity !/ 2 fr.). — In the W. part of 
the town is S. Rocco (PL A, 2) , with a high-altarpiece by *Buon- 
consiglio, Madonna enthroned with SS. Sebastian, Bernard, Peter, 
and Paul, prominent by its colouring (1502). — On the way back 
to the station we observe on the right the Romanesque tower of the 
old church of SS. Felice e Fortunato. 

The route to the pilgrimage-church of Madonna del Monte on 
Monte Berico is either through the Porta S. Giuseppe (before 
passing through which we observe the *Ponte S. Michele, PL C, 3, 
crossing the Retrone, by Palladio); or to the right from the railway- 
station, past Villa Arrigoni (PL C, 4) and across the railway, to the 
arcade leading to the church. This passage, which rests on 180 
pillars, and is 715 yds. long, was sharply contested in 1848 by 
Italian irregular troops, who had fortified the hill with its villas, 
and the Austrians. At the cross-roads (PL E, 6) a fine *Yiew is 
obtained of the town and the Venetian Alps. The church of Madonna 
del Monte (PL C, 6) is in the form of a Greek cross with a dome. 
The present left transept was the original church (1428) ; over the 
altar to the right of the high-altar: *Bart. Montagna, Mourning over 

188 Route 34. V1CENZA. 

the body of Christ (1500). The old refectory of the monastery 
(shown by the sacristan) contains the Banquet of Gregory the Great 
by P. Veronese (1572), torn to pieces in 1848, but restored with 
the aid of the copy in the Pinacoteca. Behind the church is a mon- 
ument to those who fell here in 1848 ; to the right of it is II Oenio 
delV Insurrezione, a statue dedicated to them by the municipio of 
Vicenza (tolerable tavern). 

A footpath leads from the above-mentioned cross-roads, past the 
Villa Valmarana (with *Frescoes by Tiepolo), to the famous, but now 
dilapidated *Rotonda, or Villa Rotonda Palladiana (PI. D, 5) of 
the Marchesi Capra, which lies a few min. farther on at the E. base 
of Monte Berico. It is a square building with Ionic colonnades sur- 
mounted with pediments. In the centre is a circular domed hall. 
Admission by the door of the farm, to the right of the main entrance 
(knock ; fee l /o fr.). — The return may be made by the high-road 
or (preferably) by the same way as the arrival. 

The Cimetero, totheN.E. of the town (via Borgo Scroffa, PI. D,l), 
contains the tomb of Palladio (d. 1580). 

From Vicenza to Eecoaeo : steam-tramway from the Campo Marzio 
(p. 185) by the road to Tavernelle (p. 184), and on past Montecchio (Alb. 
Rosa d'Oro), with 5900 inhab. and the imposing Villa Cordellina (frescoes 
by Tiepolo ; to the right), commanded by two ruined castles, and S. Vitale, 
whence a branch-line goes to Arzignano (IIV2 M., in l J /4 hr.). Then past 
less important stations to (19V2 M., in 2 hrs.) Valdagno (870 ft.; Alb. delle 
Alpi), a small town with 7500 inhab. — Hilly road thence (7 M. ; carr. in 
2 J /4 hrs.) to the chalybeate Baths of Recoaro (Giorgetti, Reale Stabilimento, 
at the springs; Europa, Trettenero, Tre Corone 1 Tre Garofani, &c, in the 
village), visited annually by 7-8000 persons. Beautiful excursions. The 
Vicentine section of the Italian Alpine Club has published a 'Guida 
Alpina di Recoaro 1 and has established a station for guides here. 

A Eailwat (20 M., in 1 hr. ; fares 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 50 c.) runs 
from Vicenza to the N. by (8 M.) Dueville and (14 M.) Thiene (Alb. della 
Luna), with a chateau containing frescoes by P. Veronese, to Schio (665 ft. ; 
Ildtel Ballarin alia Croce d'Oro, R. l 1 ^ fr. ; Stella d'Oro), a town with 
11,000 inhab. and extensive wool-factories. The largest of these belongs to 
Sign. A. Rossi, who has founded a workmen's colony like that at Mul- 
house, rebuilt the church of S. Antonio Abbate, and erected the statue of 
a Weaver (by Monteverde). The cathedral of S. Pietro is of the 18th 
century. The cemetery is worthy of a visit. Schio is a good starting-point 
for excursions. — From Schio a tramway runs N. through the valley of 
the Astico in I1/4 hr. to (12 M.) Arsiero ; another to the W. to (3 M.) lorre, 
whence a good road ascends the valley of the Leogra to the Passo del Plan 
della Fugazza, the boundary between Italy and Tyrol, and then descends 
the valley of the Leno to Rovereto (25 M. from Torre; p. 19). 

From Vicenza to Treviso, see p. 196. 

Between Vicenza and Padua are (34!/2 M.) Lerino and (40 M.) 
Poiana Maggiore. To the S. the distant Monti Euganei (p. 274). 

49 M. Padua, see p. 189. 

To the left, as the train proceeds, are seen the distant Tyrolese 
Alps. At (52 M.) Ponte di Brenta we cross the Brenta. — 58^2 M. 
Dolo, with a lofty, slender campanile, and the 'Villa Nazionale', 
once that of the Venetian family Pisani. A tramway runs past the 


PADUA. 35. Route. 189 

numerous villas on the Brenta to Fusina (p. 200). — Near (61 M.) 
Marano an arm of the Brenta is crossed. 

From (66 M.) Mestre the line to Trieste by Udme diverges to the 
N. (R. 38); another to the N.E. to (361/2 M.) Portogruaro, whence 
it is continued to the left to (50 M.) Casarsa (p. 253), to the right 
to (74 M.) Udine (comp. p. 255). Venice, rising from the sea, now 
comes into view. The train passes Fort Malghera on the left, and 
reaches the Bbxdge (222 arches of 30 ft. span ; length 2i/ 3 M.), by 
which the train crosses the Lagune in 8 minutes. 

71i/ 2 M. Venice, see p. 198. 

35. Padua. 

Arrival. Padua lias two stations: the Principal Station, outside the 
Porta Codalunga (PI. D, 1) , and the Stazione S. Sofia (PI. E, 3) , for the 
lines to Fusina and Venice (p. 200) and to Piove (p. 196). 

Hotels. *Ckoce d'Oro (PI. b; D, 4), Piazza Cavour, K,., L., & A. 3, 
omn. 3 /4 fr. ; Hotel Fanti Stella. d'Oro (PI. a; D,3), Piazza Garibaldi, E., 
L., & A. 3-4, B. l'/ 2 , dej. 3, D. 4, omn. s/ 4 fr. ; both with good trattoria.' 
— Also several modest inns, some of them without cuisine ('hotel garni', 
'locanda') : Aquila Nera (PI. c ; D, 4), Piazza Cavour, opposite Caffe Pe- 
drocchi ; Paradiso, adjoining the Hotel Fanti; Due Croci Bianche, opposite 
S. Antonio; Albergo del Sole d'Oro , Via S. Matteo 1150, E. of Via 
S. Fermo (PL C, D, 3); Speranza, near the station. 

Cafes. * Pedrocchi (PL C.P; D, 4), opposite the University, an im- 
posing edifice with marble halls and columns ; Posta, opposite Pedrocchi's ; 
Vittoria , Piazza Unita d'ltalia ; Gaggian , Piazza Vitt. Emanuele (news- 
papers). — Restaurants at the hotels (see above) ; Oasparotto, in the Via 
S. Canziano (second side-street to the S. of Caffe Pedrocchi, and near the 
Piazza delle Erbe) ; Stati Uniti, Via Maggiore 702. 

Cabs. ' Broughams'' with one horse: to or from the station 1 fr., lug- 
gage 40 c, 1 hr. I1/2 fr., each additional hour 1 fr. ; drive in the town 
50 c, at night 25 c. more. Omnibuses from the hotels meet each train. 

Tramway from the station through the principal streets to Bassanello. 

Sights. Walk from the station (PL D, 1), which lies 7 min. outside 
the town, straight through the Porta Codalunga (PL C, 2); then to the left 
past the church of / Carmini (p. 194; "Scuola adjacent) to the Ponte Mo- 
lino and the Strada Maggiore; through the latter to the Piazza deW 
Unita d' Italia (p. 19i) , and to the left to the Piazza dei Frutti; through 
the Sala delta Ragione (p. 195) to the Piazza delle Erbe (p. 194), with the 
Cafi Pedrocchi on the left; turn to the right to the Strada di S. Lorenzo, 
and (where there is a direction 'al Santo 1 ) again to the right into the 
Selciato di S. Antonio leading to the "'Santo (p. 190; Scuola, S. Giorgio, 
Museo Civico); then back to the Cafe Pedrocchi, pass it, and cross the 
Piazza Cavour and Piazza Garibaldi to the right to the ''Eremitani (p. 192) 
and the "Madonna delV Arena (p. 193). 

Padua, Ital. Padova, Lat. Patavium, the capital of a province, 
with47,300inhab. (with suburbs 72,200), lies on the Bacchiglione, 
which flows through it in several branches. Its tortuous streets are 
generally flanked with low and narrow ^Portici 1 or arcades, but the 
chief thoroughfares have recently been widened by the removal of 
the portici on one side. Some of the numerous bridges over the 
different arms of the river date from the Roman period. Padua has 
the reputation of being the cheapest town in N. Italy. 

Padua traces its origin to Antenor, the mythical King of Troy, brother 
of Priam, and under Augustus was the wealthiest town in Upper Italy. 

190 Route 35. PADUA. 8. Antonio. 

All the ancient monuments were afterwards destroyed during the immi- 
gration of the barbarian hordes. In the middle ages the town sided with 
the Guelphs, and in 1318 appointed Jacopo da Carrara to the Signoria. 
The princes of this family were much harrassed by the Scalas of Verona 
and the republic of Venice, and at length succumbed in 1405, when Padua 
was annexed to Venetia. The University, founded by Bishop Giordano in 
1222, and extended by Emp. Frederick II. in 1238, rendered Padua a very 
famous seat of learning throughout the middle ages. 

In the History of Art Padua is also an important place, its reputa- 
tion as the chief seat of Italian learning having attracted many artists 
The Florentine masters Oiotto, Donatello, F. Lippi, and Uccelli found abun- 
dant occupation here. The native artists were introduced to the antique 
by the classical scholars ; and the school of art founded here by Squarcione 
in the first half of the 15th cent, exhibits a peculiar doctrinaire character. 
Squarcione, though not a professional artist, made a valuable collection of 
works of art during his travels, and employed young artists to make draw- 
ings from these models. The greatest Paduan master was Andrea Man- 
tegna (p. 180), and the school materially influenced that of Venice. The 
austere style peculiar to the Paduan pictures is perhaps due to the doc- 
trinaire training of the artists and to their predilection for richness of 
decoration, for which Squarcione's collection doubtless supplied abundant 

*S. Antonio (PI. D, E, 4), the sepulchral church of St. Anthony 
of Padua (d. 1231 ; a contemporary of St. Francis of Assisi), com- 
monly called l Il Santo 1 , was begun in 1231 ; the principal part was 
completed in 1307, and the remainder in 1475 (when the domes 
were raised). The church was restored in 1749 after a lire. This 
huge structure with its six domes is 126 yds. long, 60 yds. across 
the transepts, 336 yds. in circumference, and 123 ft. high in the 
centre. The combination of the rich domed structure (after the 
style of St. Mark's at Venice) with the Gothic basilica gives the 
building a distinctly ungainly appearance. 

In the lunette over the Portal: SS. Bernardino and Antonio holding 
the monogram of Christ, a fresco by Mantegna (1452). 

The Interior is white-washed. The nave and aisles are borne by 
twelve pillars •, the semicircular choir has eight clustered columns , an 
ambulatory, and a series of eight chapels. — On the right and left near 
the entrance are two Beneliers, with statuettes of John the Baptist and 
Christ, by Tiz. Aspelti (15th cent.). 

Right Aisle. By the 1st pillar a *Madonna enthroned with SS. Peter, 
Paul, Bernard, and Anthony, an altarpiece by Antonio Bos elli of Bergamo. 
— 1st Chapel : Altar with bronze reliefs below by Donatello, representing 
the miracles of St. Anthony; on the left the sarcophagus of General Gatta- 
melata (p. 192), and on the right, that of his son. 

Right Transept. Cappella S. Felice, formerly S. Jacopo, erected in 
1372, restored in 1773, with a fine altar of 1503, and -'Frescoes by Altichieri 
and Jac. Avanzi (1376), chief representatives of the earlier Verona School. 
Behind the altar a Crucifixion, in three parts. In the lunettes above and 
on the side-walls, scenes from the legend of St. James. 

Left Transept. "Cappella del Santo, a florid Renaissanc edifice by 
Jac. Sansovino and others, with four columns in front, and two elegant 
corner-pillars with reliefs by Matteo and Tommaso Gauro; between the 
arches are the Evangelists. Walls embellished with nine *Reliefs of the 
16th cent., Scenes from the life of St. Anthony: (beginning to the left of 
the altar) 1. Ordination of St. Anthony, by Antonio Minelli (1512); 2. 
Murder of a woman, afterwards resuscitated by the saint, by Giovanni 
Dentone; 3. Resuscitation of a youth, by Girolamo Campagna; 4. Resusci- 
tation of a suicide surrounded by women, by Jac. Sansovino ; 5. Resus- 
citation of a child, begun by Minelli, completed by Sansovino (1528); 6, 

Scuola del Santo. PADUA. 35. Route. 191 

7. Tullio Lombardo (1525), Discovery of a stone in the corpse of a miser 
instead of a heart, and Cure of a broken leg; 8. Miracle with a glass, 
begun by Gian Maria da Padova, finished by Paolo Stella (1529) ; *9. St. An- 
thony causes a child to bear witness in favour of its mother, by Antonio 
Lombardo (1505 ; beautiful, but somewhat cold). The bones of the saint 
repose beneath the altar, which is adorned with many votive tablets. Two 
magnificent silver candelabra, borne by angels in marble. Beautiful white 
and golden *Ornamentation on the vaulting. To the right, in the ambulatory, 
is the handsome early-Renaissance tomb of Fulgoso (1427). 

Left Aisle. Adjoining the Cap. del Santo is the monument of the Ve- 
netian Admiral Caterino Cornaro (d. 1674), with two figures as supporters, 
two prisoners in fetters, and his life-size statue by Giusto le Curt; *Mon- 
ument oi Antonio Roselli (A. 1466), in the early Renaissance style. 

Choir. Twelve reliefs in bronze, from the Old Testament, ten by 
Vellano, a pupil of Donatello, end of 15th cent.; two ("David before the 
Ark, *Judith and Holofernes) by Andrea Riccio (1507). The full-length por- 
trait of St. Anthony, by the exit on the left, is said to be the best like- 
ness. The *Reliefs on the altar and the symbols of the four Evangelists 
on the right and left are by Donatello. By the altar is a bronze Candela- 
brum, lli/ 2 ft. high, by Andrea Riccio, with a variety of Christian and 
heathen representations (1507). The *Crucifix in bronze, with the Virgin 
and the tutelary saints of Padua, is by Donatello; the marble work is 
attributed to Girol. Campagna. Above the door at the back of the ambu- 
latory is a terracotta relief of the Entombment, by Donatello. 

Nave. By the 2nd pillar on the left, ^Monument of Aless. Contarini (d. 
1553), Venetian general, with six slaves as supporters. By the opposite 
pillar (2nd on right), the simple and chaste monument of Cardinal Pietro 
Bembo (d. 1547) ; by the 4th pillar on the left, monument of the Venetian 
admiral Hieron. Michael (d. 1557). The Sacristy contains mosaics in wood 
by the brothers Canossa (15th cent.). 

The Cloisters , entered from the S. aisle, with their wide and lofty 
pointed arches, contain many ancient tombstones. 

The Sanctuary (adm. 6 fr.) , added to the church in 1690, contains a 
collection of admirable * Goldsmith's Work of the 15th and 16th cent., in- 
cluding the marshal's baton of Gattamelata, a reliquary with the tongue 
of St. Anthony, a Gothic censer, and a credence plate. 

The * Scuola del Santo (PL D, E, 6), adjoining the church, 
the hall of the brotherhood of St. Anthony, is adorned with seventeen 
frescoes from the life of the saint, like those in the Capp. del Santo 
(p. 190). Several of them are by Titian (1511), who had settled in 
Padua probably in consequence of the depressed state of Venice 
after the war with the League of Cambrai. Written catalogue. Best 
light in the afternoon ; fee 50 c. 

By the entrance, to the right: *I. Titian, St. Anthony giving speech 
to an infant to enable it to prove its mother's innocence; II. & III. by 
pupils of Titian ; IV. by an unknown early Paduan master ; V. by a pupil 
of Titian; *VI. by Montagna (according to Frizzoni); VII & IX. by Girol. 
del Santo; VIII. & X. by Filippo da Verona; *XI. Titian, Jealous husband, 
who has slain his wife; in the background St. Anthony promises her resus- 
citation to the penitent ; *XII. Titian, A youth, who has struck his mother 
in anger, punishes himself by cutting off his own foot, while the mother 
calls upon St. Anthony; XIII. & XIV. disfigured; XV. painted in 1775; 
XVI. also by a later artist;' XVII. by Dom. Campagnola. 

The adjacent Cappella S. Giorgio contains twenty-one admir- 
able frescoes of 1377 by Jacopo Avanzi and Altichieri. 

To the right, below, Legend of St. Lucia; above, Legend of St. Ca- 
tharine ; to the left, above and below, Legend of St. George. Altar-wall : 
Crucifixion, Coronation of the Virgin. Wall of the door : Flight into Egypt, 
Adoration of the Magi, Nativity. Afternoon-light best. 

192 Route 35. PADUA. Museo Civico. 

In front of the church rises the equestrian *Statue of Erasmo 
da Narni, surnamed Gattameluta, general of the army of the Re- 
public of Venice in 1438-41, by Donatello (1443), the first great 
specimen of bronze-casting of the modern Italian period (com. p. 195). 

To the right of the Santo is the Museo Civico (PI. D, E, 6), re- 
modelled in 1881 by Boito, with a fine facade and staircase, con- 
taining the civic Library, Archives, and Pinacoteca (fee). 

In the Cloisters are columns, friezes, and other remains of a Roman 
temple, excavated near the Cafe" Pedrocchi (see p. 189); also numerous Ro- 
man tombstones, the ^Monument of the Volumnii, mediaeval coats-of-arms, 
memorial stones, etc. 

On the upper floor, to the left, is the Municipal Picture Gal- 
lery, containing numerous paintings, though few of importance. 
No. 209, a Madonna by Romanino, is the gem of the collection. 

We first enter the Sala Emo-Capodilista: entrance-wall, 403. Girol. 
da Santa Croce, Madonna in clouds; left of the entrance, 12. Girol. da 
Santa Croce, Holy Family with God in glory ; '36. Fr. Morone, Madonna 
and Child; opposite the windows, 50. Bonifazio, Adoration of the Child; 
86. School of Palma Vecchio (forged signature), Madonna and Child, with 
donors; 91. Vincenzo Catena, Madonna with saints, and worshipping Driests, 
an early work; 116. School of Lotto, Madonna, SS. John the Baptist and 
Catharine , and donor ; *139. Mai co Basaiti , Madonna worshipping the 
Child, between SS. Peter and Liberale; 159. Bonifazio J J., Madonna and 
four saints; 169. Attributed to Titian {Paris Bordone according to Morelli), 
Christ meeting his mother (much injured); 187. Francesco delia Croce 
(attributed to Donato Veneziano), Betrothal of St. Catharine ; 204. Boccaccino, 
St. Agatha. — Adjoining Room: unimportant paintings, drawings, etc. — 
Passage to Laege Hall: 1. Ant. Bonazza, Pieta, in Carrara marble. — 
Large Hall: 132. Flemish tapestry representing a procession of knights; 
beneath, 1273. School of Giov. Bellini (forged signature), Madonna. Opposite 
the entrance, Bom. Campagnola, 142. Decapitation of John the Baptist 
(fresco), 149. Baptism of a saint before the Madonna. Entrance wall, 94. 
Attributed to Jac. Bellini, Christ in Purgatory. — III. Hall: '287. Garofalo, 
Holy Family; 296. Marco Pcdnezzano, Holy Family; 659. Torbido , Half- 
length portrait of a youth with a wreath (injured) ; ; 297. Tiepolo , St. 
Patrick, Bishop of Ireland, healing a sick man; 300. Galeazzo Campi (attri- 
buted to Boccaccino), Madonna; '"209. Romanino, Madonna (large altar- 
piece in a handsome frame); 203. Style of Paolo Veronese, Martyrdom; 
226. Luca Long hi, St. Justina; 231. Romanino, Madonna and. Child, with 
two saints (1521); 244. Pelrus Paulus Sassoferrato, Madonna between SS. 
Sebastian and Peter (1497). — Bottacin Collection: waler-colours and 
sculptures ; articles once belonging to Emp . Maximilian of Mexico. — 
Cabinet of Coins : a complete and valuable collection of coins and medals 
of Padua. Then a room with modern paintings and sculptures. — Library : 
books relating to Padua. — Archives: original documents concerning the 
canonisation of SS. Anthony and Francis; a 'Raccolta Dantesca', a 'Raccolta 
Petrarchesca', etc. We return by a passage containing antiquities dis- 
covered at and near Padua and some Egyptian antiquities. 

In the Yia del Santo, No. 3950 (E. of S. Antonio), in a neglected 
garden, stands the dilapidated Palazzo Giustiniani, (PI. E, 5), built 
by Falconetto in 1524, with interesting frescoes and stucco-work. 

Eremitani (PI. D, 3), an Augustinian church of the middle 
of the 13th cent. , judiciously restored in 1880, a long building 
with painted vaulting of wood, contains *Frescoes by Andrea Man- 
tegna and his contemporaries of the school of Squarcione, which are 
among the most important examples of Northern Italian art. 

Madonna delV Arena. PADUA. 35. Route. 193 

On the right and left are two old monuments of Princes of Carrara, 
the ancient lords of Padua, in a style peculiar to this town. By the en- 
trance-wall are plastic decorations with statues, and a fresco of 1512. In 
the centre of the left wall is the tomb of Count Benavidus (d. 1582), by 
the Florentine B. Amanati. — The walls of the Choir are covered with 
indifferent frescoes by Guariento (beginning of 15th cent.), Scenes from the 
history of the Augustinian Order. 

The *Cappella S. Jacopo e Cristoforo, adjoining the right transept, 
is embellished with celebrated frescoes , now damaged , yet still very at- 
tractive , with ornamentation showing the indebtedness of the School of 
Squarcione to its study of the antique. The Evangelists on the ceiling are 
the poorest, and probably the earliest part of the work. The four upper 
sections on the wall on the right are also by inferior artists ; the St. Chris- 
topher with the Infant Christ is by Bono of Ferrara; the two highest 
scenes, representing St. James as a worker of miracles, and St. James be- 
fore the king, are by an unknown master (Zoppo ?) ; the adoration of the 
giant saint (central section on the right) is by Ansuino da Forli. The 
paintings on the wall and vaulting of the recesses of the choir, are by Nic- 
colb Pizzolo, an able Paduan, who ciied young. By far the most important 
are the ^Pictures with which Andeea Mantegna completed the cycle in the 
second half of the 15th century. The left wall presents to us the life of 
St. James from his call to his execution. The lower scenes exhibit greater 
ability and maturity than the upper , so that we can almost trace the 
master's progress step by step. The Execution and Burial of St. Christo- 
pher, the lowest pictures on the right wall, subsequently added by Man- 
tegna, are sadly injured. — The large terracotta altar-relief of the Ma- 
donna and saints is by Oiov. da Pisa, a pupil of Donatello (p. 1E0). 

Chapel on right of high -altar: Coronation of Mary, School of Giotto. 

The Sacristy (entrance from the choir, to the left) contains an altar- 
piece by Guido Reni (covered), Jobn the Baptist, and a Pieta by Canova, 
on the monument of a Prince of Orange who died at Padua in 1799. 

On the N. side of the Piazza in front of the church is the 
entrance (a pinnacled iron gate; if closed, ring; adm. 9-4, 1 fr. ; 
holidays 9-2, 20 c. ; on high festivals, free) to the ^Madonna dell' 
Arena [Annunziata, PI. D, 2, 3), situated in an oval garden which 
shows. the outlines of an ancient amphitheatre. The chapel, oblong 
in form, was erected by the Paduan Scrovegno in 1303. Its walls 
and vaulting are completely covered with a series of **Frescoes by 
Giotto, most of them well preserved (restored by Botti). The period 
of their execution is determined by the fact that Dante and Giotto 
met at Padua in 1306 (comp. pp. xxxvin seq.). Morning-light best. 

These frescoes represent the History or the Virgin and Christ, from 
the apocryphal Proto-Evangelium and the New Testament, and end, accord- 
ing to ancient custom, with the Last Judgment painted on the entrance- 
wall. The lower part of this last work, much injured, was probably exe- 
cuted chiefly by Giotto's pupils , but the master-hand is revealed in the 
youthful Christ at the top , surrounded by apostles, angels, and saints. 
The painting's on the side-walls are arranged in four rows, one above 
another. The Uppermost Row (beginning to the right of the choir-arch) 
relates the history of the Virgin from the rejection of Joachim's sacrifice 
to Mary's bridal procession. The Birth of the Virgin and the Presentation 
of the Virgin in the Temple show scrupulous fidelity to nature. The Sec- 
ond Row begins with the Annunciation (choir-arch), and depicts the youth 
of Christ and his ministry up to the driving of the money-changers out 
of the Temple. The finest scenes are the Adoration of the Magi, the Flight 
int~ Egypt, and the Entry into Jerusalem. — The grandest flight of Giotto's 
imagination is seen in some of the paintings in the Third Row, mainly 
devoted to the Passion. The representation of Christ's sorrows as begin- 
ning with the Corruption of Judas (to the left of the choir-wall) is a fine 

Baedeker. Italy I. 9th Edit. 13 

194 .Route 35. PADUA. Cathedral. 

dramatic touch. In the Crucifixion Giotto has not only surpassed his 
predecessors in the nobility of his conception of the Sufferer, but has 
added a most effective and pathetic feature in the cherubs, who show 
every degree of sympathy and sorrow. The gem of the series , however, 
is the Pieta, or Christ wept over by the Virgin and his friends, its tone 
of composition being in admirable keeping wilh its tragic content. — The 
Lowest Row consists of allegorical figures of the Virtues and Vices in 
grisaille, and leads up to the Last Judgment, the Vices standing on the 
side of Hell, the Virtues on that of Paradise. The Christ enthroned with 
angels, above the choir-arch, shows that Giotto was as much at home in 
the domain of placid gracefulness as in that of emotion and 1 passion. 
(Photographs from the originals sold by Naya of Venice, p. 201.) — The 
Frescoes in the Choik (Coronation of the Virgin) are by a later hand, 
and of little importance. Behind the altar is the monument of the founder 
of the church, by Giovanni Pisano, 1821. 

Near the Porta Codalunga , in the vicinity , is the church of 
I Carmini (PI. C, 2) , with dome and large choir, six chapels on 
each side, and unfinished facade. — In the adjacent open space 
rises a monument to Petrarch, erected by the town on 18th June, 
1874, the 500th anniversary of his death. 

On the right is the Scuola del Carmine (PI. C, 2 ; now a bap- 
tistery ; sacristan in the cloisters") , with sadly - damaged frescoes 
from the lives of Christ and SS. Joachim, Anna, and Mary. 

Left of the altar: attributed to Titian, Meeting of Joachim and Anna, 
executed before the frescoes in the Scuola del Santo (p. 191) ; Girolamo da 
Santa Croce, Birth of Mary, Presentation in the Temple, Purification, and 
Sposalizio; on the end-wall, Bom. Campagnola, Birth of Christ and Adora- 
tion of the Magi; the others by inferior masters. Altarpiece, Madonna 
and Child in an attitude of benediction, by Palma Vecchio. 

The Palazzo Oiustiniani, Via Pensio, contains a private gallery, 
the best pictures of which have been recently sold. 

The Cathedral (PI. B, 4) , with a plain facade , was built by 
Righetto and Delia Voile about 1550, from a plan by Michael An- 
gelo altered by the architects. The Baptistery (PL B, C, 4), ad- 
joining it on the N., an elegant brick structure of the 12th cent., is 
adorned with frescoes of 1380; the sacristy contains miniatures of 
the 12-1 5th centuries. — In the adjacent Episcopal Palace is a 
hall with portraits of the archbishops, painted in fresco by Mon- 
tagnana, including a portrait of Petrarch. The vestibule and the 
Library of the Cathedral Chapter each contain an interesting 
painting by Semitecolo of Venice (1367). 

In the Piazza dell' Unita d'lTALiA (formerly P. de Signori ; 
PI. C, 4) rises the Loggia del Consiglio, by Biagio Ferrarese, a fine 
early-Renaissance work, consisting of an open arcade above a broad 
flight of steps, and containing a statue of Victor Emmanuel II. 
by Tabacchi. In front of it stands an ancient Column with the Lion 
of St. Mark. At the end of the piazza is the Pal. del Capitanio, with 
a clock-tower, once the seat of the Venetian governor, now the Uni- 
versity Library ; portal by Falconetto. 

Opposite are two streets leading to the Piazza dei Frutti 
and the Piazza delle Erbe. On the E. side of the latter is the 
Palazzo del Municipio (PI. C, D, 4), of the 16tb cent., and on the 

University. PADUA. 35. Route. 195 

W. side the modern Palazzo delle Debite. Between the Piazza delle 
Erbe and the Piazza dei Frutti rises the Palazzo della Ragione 
(PI. 0, 4), briefly called II Salone , a 'Juris Basilica' as the in- 
scription records, erected in 1172-1219. The logge (containing 
Roman inscriptions and other antiquities) were added in 1306. The 
name 'Salone' it derives from its great Hall with vaulted wooden 
ceiling, formed in 1420, 91 yds. in length, 30 yds. in breadth, and 

78 ft. in height. 

At the entrance (Via del Municipio 1, by the iron gate; fee V2 fr.) 
are two colossal Egyptiaa statues of Neith, brought to Padua by the Italian 
Egyptologist Belzoni. The Great Hall contains a wooden model of Dona- 
tello's horse in the monument of Gattamelata (copied from the ancient 
horses of St. Mark's at Venice, p. 208). Behind the horse is the tombstone 
of T. Livius Halys, a freedman of the family of the historian Livy, who 
is believed to have been born at Abano (p. 273). The walls are adorned 
with 300 frescoes, painted after 1420 by Qiov. Miretto and others (much 
retouched), representing the influence of the constellations and the seasons 
on mankind. 

The University (PI. D, 4; about 1200 students) occupies a 
building called l Il Bb\ from a tavern with the sign of the ox which 
once existed in the vicinity. In the handsome colonnades in the 
court, erected in 1552 by Jac. Sansovino, are numerous names and 
armorial bearings of distinguished l cives academic? . 

In the Via delle Torricelle (PI. O, 5, 6), near a small bridge over 
the Bacchiglione, is a round marble tablet in the wall, marking 
the spot where Ezzelino doffed his helmet and kissed the town-gate 
on capturing Padua in 1237. — This street leads S. to the — 

Prato della Valle (PL D , 6) , now Piazza Vittorio Ema- 
nuele II., originally a grassy dale, now a promenade adorned with 
a double series of 82 statues of illustrious men connected with Pa- 
dua. In the inner row to the left, No. 76. Steph. Bathori, 75. John 
Sobieski ; in the outer row Tasso, Ariosto, Petrarch, Galileo, Gusta- 
vus Adolphus , Livy , Morosini , etc. A few only possess artistic 
value , such as those of Poleni and Capello by Ganova. This spa- 
cious Piazza presents a busy scene at the time of the fair (fiera), 
which begins on the festival of St. Anthony (13th June) and lasts 
for three days. — On the W. side of the Prato is the Loggia Amu- 
lea (PL C, 6), a modern Gothic structure, used by the judges at 
the horse-races held on the Prato annually on 12th June. Below 
are marble Statues of Dante and Giotto, by Vincenzo Vela. 

"A Dante poeta massimo di patria concordia propugnatore festeggiando 
Italia il 6 centenario dal suo natale Padova gloriosa di sua dimora p. 1865"; 
and "A Giotto per lo studio del vero rinovatore della pittura amico di 
Dante lodato nel sacro poema Padova da suoi affreschi illustrata p. 1865". 

Dante's House is No. 3359, Ponte S. Lorenzo (PL D, 4). In front 
of it is a mediaeval sarcophagus , said to contain the bones of the 
Trojan Antenor, who, according to Virgil, was the founder of Padua. 

To the S.E. of the Prato is *S. Giustina (PL D, 7), a church 
of imposing proportions (132 yds. long), completed in 1532 by Mo- 
rone. The bare facade of brick is approached by a handsome flight 


196 Route $6. CASTELFRANCO. 

of twelve steps. The interior consists of nave and aisles, flanked 
with rows of chapels; it is 364 ft. long and 98 ft. wide, with a 
transept 250 ft. long. The aisles are roofed with barrel vaulting, 
the na\e with three flat domes. The transept and choir terminate 
in semicircular recesses and are surmounted by four lofty cupolas. 
The church is paved with coloured marble. In the left transept is the 
sarcophagus of St. Luke, in the right transept that of St. Matthew. Over 
the high-altar, which contains the tomb of St. Justina, is the ^Martyrdom 
of St. Justina, by Paolo Veronese. Beautifully carved *Choir-stalls from 
drawings of Campagnola (1560), in 50 sections, New Testament subjects 
above, and Old Testament below. In the chapel on the right of the choir, 
a Pieta, a large group in marble by Parodi (17th cent.). The old choir, 
the only remnant of the original church (entrance by door on the right of 
high-altar) also possesses fine carved stalls with intarsia-work. 

The neighbouring Botanic Garden (PI. D, E, 6) was founded 
by tbe Republic of Venice in 1545 at the suggestion of Prof. Bona- 
fede, and is the oldest in Europe. It contains a Vitex agnus castus 
planted in 1550; a superb palm (Chamaerops, Palma di Goethe), 
planted about 1580, once visited and described by Goethe, and en- 
closed within a building of its own since 1876 ; also a huge hollow 
plane-tree, planted in 1680; a grove of exotic trees planted in 
1760, including a hickory (Carya) 117 ft. high; and a hothouse 
with a splendid Araucaria excelsa, planted in 1829. 

From Padua to Bassano, see p. 197; to Bologna, see R. 42. — Branch- 
line in IV2 hr. from Padua (principal station) to Conselve and (17V2 M.) 
Bagnoli. Another from Padua (S. Sofia station) in 1 hr. to (11 M.) Piove. 

36. From Vicenza to Treviso. From Padua to 


From Vicenza to Treviso, 37'/2 M., railway in 2 1 /* hrs. ; fares 5 fr. 
50, 4 fr., 2 fr. 40 c. 

Vicenza, see p. 184. — 8 M. S. Pietro in Gu ; 10 M. Carmi- 
gnano, beyond which the Brenta is crossed ; I2Y2 M- Fontaniva. 

14 M. Cittadella, with 9000 inhab., junction of the Padua and 
Bassano railway (p. 197). The town, with its walls, towers, and 
moat, was founded in 1220 for protection against the Trevisans, 
who had built Castelfranco in 1216. The Cathedral contains a Last 
Supper by Jacopo Bassano ; the Chiesa del Torressino an Entomb- 
ment of the School of Mantegna. — 18 M. S. Martino di Lupari. 

22 M. Castelfranco (*Alh. della Spada, prettily situated, R. & 
A. 2 fr. ; Alb. fy Tratt. at Vapore ; Caffe del Genio, at the Spada, 
clean), a pleasant country-town, in the centre of which rise the 
towers and walls of its old castle, was the birthplace of the painter 
Giorgio Barbarella , surnamed II Giorgione (about 1477-1511), a 
marble statue of whom by Benvenuti adorns the piazza. Behind 
the high-altar of the Cathedral is a *Madonna with SS. Francis and 
Liberalis by that master ; in the sacristy are frescoes of Justice, 
Prudence, Time, Fame, and four Cupids, by P. Veronese, early 
works brought from the Yilla Soranza. 

BASSANO. 36. Route. 197 

From Castelfranco (or better from Cornuda, p. 252) a visit may be 
paid to the Villa Giacomelli, near Maser, which may be reached by car- 
riage in l 3 /t hr. A small detour may be made by Fanzolo and the Villa 
Emo, with frescoes by P. Veronese and Batt. Zelotti. — The *Villa Giaco- 
melli (formerly Maniii) , often called Villa Mash' , erected by Palladio 
(1535-80), is celebrated for its * 'Frescoes by 7 P. Veronese, executed in 1566-68 
for the Venetian patrician Marcantonio Barbaro , and ranking among the 
master's best works. They consist of mythological representations and 
scenes from social life, grandly conceived, while some of the illusive figures 
so common in the later period of art are introduced. Thus , by the en- 
trance, a girl and a page, who through a half-opened door apparently 
watch the persons entering. In the dining-room , upon its fantastically- 
painted architecture , are seated Ceres with her train and Cupids. The 
ceiling of the great hall is decorated with the Councils of the Gods and 
the Feast of the Gods on Mount Olympus. Those who wish to obtain a 
good idea of a patrician abode of the luxurious 16th cent, should not omit 
this excursion (open on week-days in fine weather only). The chapel 
attached to the villa contains stucco-work by Al. Vittoria. 

257 2 M. Albaredo ; 30 M. Istrana ; 33 M. Paese ; 377 2 M. Tre- 
viso, see p. 283. 

From Padua to Bassano, 30 M. , railway in|l 3 /4-2 hrs. ; fares 4 fr. 20, 
3 fr. 15, 1 fr. 95 c. 

Padua, p. 189. The train crosses the Brenta. 3M. Vigodar- 
zere ; 7M. Campodarsego ; 9 M. 8. Giorgio delle Pertiche ; 12 M. Cam- 
posampiero (branch to Montebelluna, p. 252); 16 M, Villa del Conte. 

207 2 M. Cittadella, see p. 196. —25 M. Rossano; 26 M. Rosa. 

30 M. Bassano (*S. Antonio ; Mondo) , a charmingly-situated 
town of 13,600 inhab., with old ivy-clad walls. The houses of the 
long market-place show traces of the early facade-painting so com- 
mon in the towns of the Venetian Terra Ferma (comp. p. 252). 

Near the market is the Civic Museum (10-1, in autumn 10-3; 
at other times, fee), containing a number of works by the Da Ponte 
family, surnamed Bassano from their birthplace. 

Room I. : Francesco Bassano (father of Jacopo), Madonna with SS. Peter 
and Paul (1509) ; Jacopo Bassano (1510-92 ; the most eminent of this group 
of artists, who all paint in his manner), Nativity of Christ, and St. Val- 
entine baptising a dumb girl ; Leandro Bassano (d. 1623 ; son of Jacopo), 
Portrait of the Podesta Capello. — Room II: Voogd, Landscape, once the 
property of Canova. — Room III. : The original models of Canova's Venus 
and Hebe, and casts of Canova's works. — An adjoining room contains 
a collection of memorials of that master and drawings by eminent artists. 

The Cathedral, on the N. side of the town, beyond the Piazza 
del Terraglio, contains paintings by Jacopo Bassano: right, As- 
sumption of the Virgin , with portraits of Charles V. , the Doge of 
Venice, the Pope, etc.; left of the high-altar, Adoration of the 
Child; right, Martyrdom of Stephen. — The old palace of Ezzelino, 
the cruel Ghibelline leader, is now partly occupied by the arciprete 
(dean). The promenades encircling the town command beautiful 
views of the Alps and their spurs , and of the brawling Brenta, 
spanned by a picturesque timber bridge. 

The Villa Rezzonica , 172 M. from the town, contains a bas- 
relief by Canova (Death of Socrates') and other works of art. In 
the suburb Borgo Leone is the Villa Parolini, with a beautiful park. 

198 Route 37- VENICE. Hotels. 

Bonaparte defeated the Austrians tinder Wurmser at Bassano on 8th 
Sept. 1796, four days after the battle of Rovereto , having marched hither 
from Trent in two days. The covered timber bridge over the Brenta 
occupies the place of one blown up by the French on that occasion. — 
In 1809 Napoleon erected the district of Bassano into a duchy and con- 
ferred it upon Maret, his secretary of state. 

Possagno , Canova s birthplace, beautifully situated at the base of 
Monte Grappa, Yl x li M. to the N.E. of Bassano, is reached by a good road 
passing Romano, the birthplace of Ezzelino , and Crespano. The domed 
church, in the style of the Pantheon, designed by Canova, contains his tomb, 
an altar-piece painted by him, and a fine bronze relief of the Entombment. 
The church and the bridge at Crespano (see above) , which crosses the 
river by a single arch 118 ft. in span, were built with funds bequeathed 
by Canova for the purpose. The Palazzo, as his house is called, contains 
models and casts of his works. 

From Bassano to Trent, see p. 19. 

37. Venice. 

Arrival. The Railway Station (Cafe, mediocre) is on the N.W. side 
of the town, at the end of the Canal Grande (PI. B, C, 2; the town-office 
is by the Ponte della Guerra; comp. Introd. xvii). — Gondolas (p. 189; 
with one rower 1 (at night 1 fr. 30 c, with two rowers 2 fr. ; each heavy 
box 15 c.) and 'omnibus-boats' (not recommended ; to the Piazzetta 25, 
each box 15, fee 5 c.) are always in waiting. Steam-launches, which, 
however, only take lighter articles of luggage, are also at hand. — Gondola 
tariff for those who arrive by sea, see p. 199. Office of the Florio Rubattino 
Steamship Co., Via Ventidue Marzo (PL F, 6). 

Hotels (table-d'hote usually at 5 or 6 p.m.). *Eukopa (Pl.b;G, 6), in 
the Pal. Oiustiniani, on the Grand Canal, opposite the Dogana di Mare and 
near the Piazza of St. Mark; *Grand Hotel Rotal (Danieli ; PI. a, H 5), 
in the old Pal. Dandolo , E. of the Palace of the Doges, with the depen- 
dance Beaurivage , on the Riva degli Schiavoni , suitable for some stay ; 
"•Grand Hotel (PL o ; F, 6), in the old Pal. Ferro, opposite S. Maria della 
Salute: all of the first rank, with high charges, R., L., & A. 5, B. 2, 
D. 5, dej. 4 fr. ; *H6tel Britannia (PL c; G, 6), in the Pal. Zvcchelli, oppo- 
site S. Maria della Salute, R. 3-5, L. 1/2, A. 1, B. l 3 /4, dej. 3i/ 2 , D. 5, pens, 
from 12, omn. 1 fr., well managed. — "Grand Hotel d'Italie (PL h; G, 
6), S. Moise, Via Ventidue Blarzo, with its S. side facing the canal, pa- 
tronized by Germans, R. from 2y 2 , L. 3/ 4 , A. 3 A, D- 5, B. I1/2, dej. 3, pens. 
9-15 fr. ; *Ldna (PL f; G, 6), opposite the royal garden, close to the S.W. 
side of the Piazza of St. Mark, R. 27 2 fr., A. 70, L. CO c, B. I1/4, D._4, 
pens. 9 fr. — Hot. de Rome & Pens. Suisse, on the Grand Canal, opposite 
S. Maria della Salute. — Bellevde (PL d; G, H, 5), Piazza of St. Mark, 
R. 2-3, L. & A. 1, D. 4, pens. 8-9 fr.; S. Marco (PL e; G, 5), in the an- 
cient Procuratie, Piazza of St. Mark, R , L., & A. 2'/ 2 -6, B. IV2 fr. ; "Hotel 
d'Angleterre, Riva degli Schiavoni, R., L., & A. 3-5, B. l'/2, dej. 2'/2, 
D. 4, pens. 7-10, omn. 1 fr. ; *Citta di Monaco (PL 1 ; G, 6), Canal Grande, 
not far from the Piazza of St. Mark, It., L., & A. 3Vz, B. IV4, dej. 2V2, 
D. 4, pens. 8-10 fr. ; Victoria (PL g; G, 5), R., L., & A. 31/2-4, B. l l /-z, 
dej. 2 1 /2, D. 472, pens. 8-10 fr., well spoken of. — Good second-class 
hotels, in the Italian style, with trattorie : Albergo Orientale & Cap- 
I'Ello Nero, Procuratie Vecchie ; Vapore (PL i; G, 5), in the Merceria ; 
S. Gallo (PL k; G, 5); Cavalletto, well spoken of; all near the Piazza 
H. Marco; La Calcina, Fondamenta della Zattere782, opposite theGiudecca, 
convenient for visitors to the Academy and frequented by artists. Sand- 
wirtii, Riva degli Schiavoni, R., L., & A. from 2, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 3 fr. 

Pensions (even for a .short stay). Hotel Milan & Pension Anglaise, 
Canal Grande, R. from 2 1 /?, pens. 7-9 fr. (English spoken) ; Aurora (PL p ; 
I, 5), Riva degli Schiavoni, R. 2-4, L. & A. 1, B. 1, dej. 21/2, D. 3'/ 2 , pens. 
8-9 fr. ; Casa Kirsch, Biva degli Schiavoni 4156, R., L., & A. 27 2 -3 ] /2, B. 
IV4, dej. 21/2, I>. 4, pens. 6-8 fr. ; Opitz, S. Polo-Trayhetio alia Madonetta 

Gondolas. VENICE. 37. Route. 199 

1430; Casa Petrakca, Riva deali Schiavoni 4146 I.; Ul. Right, Calle del 
Balloni 203, S. Marco. 

Private Apartments (distinguished by a white placard on the shutters), 
easily obtained, are dearest on the Grand Canal and the Riva degli Schiavoni. 
The Fondamenta delle Zattere is quiet and pleasant, though somewhat 
remote from the Piazza of St. Mark. Also in the Calle del Ridotto, close 
to S. Marco, R. 1-2 fr. per day, 30-50 fr. per month. The following are 
recommended : Signora Foresti, Riva degli Schiavoni 41G1 ; Signora Pacchessi, 
Calle S. Gallo 1073; Frau Grundel, Palazzo Swift, Canal Grande (S. Maria 
del Giglio 2467); Casa Fumagalli, Calle del Ridotto. It is usual to pay 
for one month in advance, before which the tenant should take care that 
every necessary arrangenaent is made , Hutto compreso\ — Travellers are 
cautioned against sleeping with open windows on account of the gnats (most 
troublesome from June to Oct.). Mosquito - curtains (zanzarieri) and the 
pastilles Cfidibus contro le zanzare") sold by the chemists afford protection. 

Restaurants ( Trattorie). "Bauer-Grilnwald, Via Ventidue Marzo, by 
the Gr. Hot. dTtalie (p. 198), Viennese cookery, expensive but much fre- 
quented; "Restaurant on the Lido (see p. 200); others, where beer is sold, 
see below. In the Italian style: '-'Alb. Orientate & Cappello Nero (p. 198); 
"Vapore (p. 193); La Calcina, Cavattetlo (p. 198); simpler; La Panada, 
Call j . dei Specchieri, near S. Marco, often crowded in the evening; Citta 
di Firenze, good wine, Calle del Ridotto, opposite the Europa; Tre Stelle, 
beside S. Giuliano (PI. G, 5); all these good and moderate. — Cyprus and 
other wines are sold by Giacornuzzi, Calle Vallaressa, near the S.W. corner 
of the Piazza of St. Mark, and others. 

Beer. Bauer-Grilnwald (see above); Birreria Dreher, behind the N.W. 
corner of the Piazza S. Marco, with restaurant; Birreria Pschorr, Campo 
S. Angelo (PI. F, 5); at the Birrerie near the Caffe Quadri in the Piazza 
S. Marco; Air Antico Trovatore, Campo S. Bartolommeo (PI. G, 4); Caffe 
Franc. Morosini, at the Ponte Rialto, No. 5339; and at many of the cafes. 

Cafes. In the Piazza of St. Mark, S. side: "Florian, the best known 
cafe" in Venice, good ices, numerous newspapers; "Caffe Svizzero , news- 
papers. N. side : Degli Specchi; "Quadri, with restaurant on the first floor. 
After sunset hundreds of chairs and small tables are placed in front of 
these cafes for the use of customers. — The flower-girls are often im- 
portunate. — Giardino Reale (PI. G, 6). — Cafe Oriental, on the Riva degli 
Schiavoni, somewhat cheaper. 

The Gondola and Barca take the place of cabs at Venice. Their chief 
station is by the Molo in front of the Piazzetta (p. 211; PL H, 6). The light, 
old Venetian Gondolas, with a low black cabin (felze) and black leather 
seat, hold 4 persons. They are painted black in conformity with a law 
passed in the 15th century. The Barca is a larger craft, open at the 
sides, covered with coloured material, and carrying six or more persons. 
The heavy indented iron prow (ferro), resembling a halberd, is partly 
intended to counterbalance the weight of the rower, and partly as a mea- 
sure of the height of the bridges, which cannot be passed unless the ferro, 
the highest part of the craft, clears them. The rower himself is hailed 
as l Poppe\ from the poppa on which he stands. 

i Cavar il felze" 1 means 'to uncover the cabin 1 . The shouts of the gon- 
doliers on turning a corner are peculiar. 

The Tariff, which must be shown on demand, includes not only the 
city, but also the islands of Murano, S. Lazzaro, and the Lido. Gondolas 
without numbers should be avoided. Gondola for 1-4, or a barca for 
1-6 persons, with one rower (barcajuolo), for the first hour 1 fr., by night 
1 fr. 30 c, for each additional hour by day 50 c. ; whole day (10 hrs.) 
5 fr. — To or from the station, see p. 198. From the steamers to the 
Piazzetta (two rowers required) 40 c, each box 15 c. For short distances 
a bargain should be made. Gondolas supplied by hotels are dear. For a 
second rower double the ordinary fare is charged, but a bargain may be 
made. One, however, suffices for trips in the town Cbasta uno"). For 
public festivities a bargain must be made. Loiterers who assist passengers 
to disembark expect a few centimes. The traveller should select a boat 
without minding the importunities of the boatmen, whereupon the owner 

200 Route 37. VENICE. Baths. 

will soon present himself. If the gondola is hired by the hour, which is 
best for sight-seeing, the passenger shows his watch, saying '•alV ora\ In 
addition to the fare a small fee is always expected (for half-day V2-I fr.). 
If any difficulty arises it is best to apply to a policeman (Oudrdia municipale). 

Ferries ( Traghetti) across the Grand Canal (5 c, after dusk 10c, comp. 
Plan); from the Fondamenta delle Zattere to the Giudecca, 15 c. ; from 
the Molo (Piazzetta) to the Giudecca 20, to II Redentore 30, to the Punta 
della Salute 15, to S. Giorgio Maggiore 15 c; from the Molo to the Giar- 
dini Pubblici (evening included) 50 c. The tariff is binding only at the 
fixed points shown on the Plan ; travellers should let it be distinctly 
understood when they wish the 'traghetto' only. 

Steam-launches. Since 1883 a service of small steamboats (Vaporetti, 
also called Tramway) ply from 7 a. m. till dusk on the Canal Grande, and 
E. to the Giardini Pubblici. They start every 12 min. (1st Nov. to 31st 
March every ^4 hr.), f are 10 c - f° r each stage or for the whole distance 
(Sun. and festivals 15 c). Stations (comp. the Plan): 1. Giardini Pubblici 
(PI. L, 7): — 2. Veneta Marina (PI. K, 6) for Via Garibaldi and the Ar- 
senal; — 3. S. Zaccaria (PL H, 5), on the Riva degli Schiavoni; — 4. S. 
Marco (PI. G, 6), by the Calle Valleressa, near the S.W. corner of the Pi- 
azza of St. Mark; — 5. Accademia (PL E, 6), for the picture-gallery of the 
Academy; — 6. S. Tcma (PL E, 5), for the church of the Frari; — 7. S. 
Angelo (PL F, 5); — 8. S. Silveslro (PL F, 4, 5) ; — 9. Carbon & Rialto 
(PL G, 4), for the church of S. Salvatore and the Rialto Bridge; Carbon 
for travellers towards the railway-station, Rialto for those going towards 
the Piazza S. Marco-, — 10. Ca d'Oro (PL F, 3), for the Pal. Giovanelli 
and Madonna dell' Orto ; — 11. Museo Civico (PL F, 3) ; — 12. S. Gerem'a 
(PL E, 3); — 13. Ferrovia (PL C, D, 3), for the railway-station; — 14. S. 
Chiara (PL C, 4), for the Giardino Papadopoli. 

Steamers also ply as follows: every hr. from the Riva degli Schiavoni 
to the Cotonificio (PL B, 6), via S. Croce (for the Redentore, p. 248), Fon- 
damenta delle Zattere, and S. Eufemia; every IV2 hr. from station Rialto 
No. 9 for Mestre (p. 189), fare 40 c. ; to Fusina (p. 189) from the Riva degli 
Schiavoni or the Fondamenta delle Zattere. To the Lido, see below ; to 
Murano, p. 249; to Torcello, p. '250; to Chioggia, p. 251. 

Guides (comp. pp. xv, 202), other than tbose attached to the hotels (who 
are as a rule preferable), are generally to be found in the Piazza of St. 
Mark. They wear a silver badge with a number. 

Consulates. American Consul, H. A. Johnson, Esq., Campo S. Polo 2177; 
British, E. de Zuccato, Esq.. Traghetlo S. Felice, Grand Canal; French, 
S. Maria del Carmine, Calle Giustinian 3229; German, S. Benedetto, Pal. 
Mcmmo 3949 ; also others for all the principal European states. 

Money-changer: Gael. Fiorentini , Bocca di Piazza 1239, opposite the 
Telegraph Office. 

Baths of every kind (also for swimming : galleggiante) at the entrance 
to the Grand Canal, but muddy except at high tide. The excellent *Lido 
Sea-baths are much pleasanter (season from May to Octr. ; temperature of 
the water 70-80° Fahr.). In summer a steamboat plies every hour (in the 
height of the season every half-hour, except between 12 and 2) between 
the Riva degli Schiavoni (near the Ponte della Paglia; PL H, 6), and the 
Lido in 12 min. (Tickets must be taken before embarking, 25 c; there and 
back 40 c, or including tramway and bath, \ X J2 fr.). From the landing- 
place (Cafe's, not recommended ) to the baths a walk of 10 min. (tramway 
10 c). Bath 1 fr. (ladies to the left, gentlemen to the right); less to sub- 
scribers ; for taking care of valuables 10 c ; fee to attendant, 10 c. — 
Connected with the baths are chalets for lodging visitors (R. 5 fr. ; also 
pension) and a "Cafi-Restaurant (adm. 25 c. for non- bathers), where a 
band plays on summer afternoons. There is also an open-air theatre, for 
which tickets may be taken on board the steamer. — Warm Baths at 
most of the hotels (fresh water); also in the Luna (p. 198; salt and fresh 
water; 2 fr.) ; the Stabilimento Idroterapico, Pal. Orseolo, S. Gallo 1092 
(PL G, 5), and at Chilarin's (salt-water), near S. Maria della Salute, l'/2-2 fr. 
— Liecx d'Aisanct; (10 c.) near Piazza S. Marcn, N. side, and Campo 
S. liartolommeo, by the Ponte Rialto. 

Shops. VENICE. 37. Route. 201 

Post Office {Ufftzio delta Posta-, PI. G, 4,5), to the N. of the Piazza 
of St. Mark (beyond the Merceria hands at the street-corners point out the 
'Via alia Posta'); open from 8 a.m. till 9 p.m. — Telegraph Office (PI. G, 
6), to the W. of the Piazza of St. Mark. 

Theatres. La Fenlce (PI. F, 5, 6), the largest in Venice, holding 3000 
spectators, is rarely used. The following are open throughout the year : 
Goldoni (PI. G, 5), prettily fitted up, Rossini (PI. F, 5), and Malibran (PI. G, 4 ; 
popular). In winter Marionette Theatre, Via Ventidue Marzo (6-9 p.m.). 
The box-office for all the theatres is at No. 112, under the Procuratie. 

Bookseller. Milnster , with lending-library, Piazza of St. Mark, S.W. 
corner ; Olschki, Riva del Vin 678 (PI. G, 4), second-hand books. — Read- 
ing Rooms in the Pal. Quei-ini (PI. H, 4, 5; p. 234), with library, open 
3-11 (Sun. and holidays 11-11), adm. free, on application to the librarian. 
Also Ateneo Veneto, Campo S. Fantin (PI. F, 5), with periodicals and library 
(adm. 25 c). — Newspapers. Gazzetta di Venezia, evening-paper ; La Ve- 
nezia and IS Adriatico , morning-papers. 

Photographs : JVaya , in the Piazza of St. Mark , views of all sizes ; 
from the smallest at about 50 c. to the large and expensive size (28 by 
36 inches), copies from drawings 75 c, from original pictures 2 1 /z fr. ; Ponli 
(optician); G. B. Brusa (architectural pieces); Salviati, etc. 

Bankers. Blumenthal & Co., S. Benedetto, Calle del Traghetto 3945 ; 
Fischer & Rechsteiner, Ponte delle Ballotte 4700; Levi Jacob <t Sons, S. Maria 
Formosa, Calle Casselleria 5314; Papadopoli Brothers, S. Silvestro. Calle 
Malvasia 1364; Treves & Co., S. Maria del Giglio, Corte Barozzi 2156. 

Shops. (The recommendations and even the attendance of guides or 
boatmen increase the prices; comp. Introd. xv.) The best are in the Piazza 
of St. Mark, in the Merceria (p. 230), and in the Frezzaria, entered from 
the Piazza of St. Mark, to the W. of the church. The Venetian glass, 
wood-carving, lace, jewellery, mosaics, etc., are excellent of their kind. 

The Venetian Glass Industry is described at p. 250. The chief manu- 
factories, all at Murano (p. 249), with shops and offices in Venice, are 
those of Dr. A. Salviati & Co., Pal. Bernardo, S. Polo (p. 227), on the Canal 
Grande, with two shops in the Piazza S. Marco (branch in London) and 
the Cornpagnia de' Vetri e Musaici di Venezia e Murano (manager G. Castel- 
lani), Campo S. Vio 731, on the Canal Grande. — Among many smaller 
manufactories may be mentioned those of Decio Podio , Campo S. Moise 
1464; Forlani , Ponte dei Dai S. Marco; Testolini, Piazza S. Marco; Dr. 
Nap. Candiani, Pal. Tron, Canal Grande. 

Sculptors (in wood): Besarel, S. Barnaba, Canal Grande; V. Cadorin, 
S. Sebastiano ; F. Toso, S. Barnaba; Girardi & Capon, S. Giobbe 923, Can- 
naregio (in connection with the Industrial Home for Destitute Boys; see 
p. 202). — Lace: M. Jesurum <fc Co., SS. Filippo e Giacomo (PI. H, 5), 
with interesting exhibition of ancient and modern lace, fixed charges; Me- 
rini & Co., etc. — Antiquities and Objects of Art: Antonio Mercato, Pal. 
Delia Vida, Canal Grande; V. Facenza. Calle dei Cerchieri 1263, Canal Grande, 
near S. Barnaba; Ricchetti, Pal. Garzoni, S. Samuele 3146; and many others. 

Painters. Italian: P. Fragiacomo , Pal. Brusa, S. Pantaleone 3825 A; 
G. Ciardi, Ponte Pugni; JV. Bordignon, Fondamenta del Soccorso, Car- 
mine 25S5; Milesi, F. Ognisfanti 145S ; L. Nono, Zattere 14S6; A. & S. 
Rota, Ponte Lungo 929, Zattere; L. Lancerotto, Calle Gambara, near the 
Academy of Arts; and others. German: Prof. Blaas, Accademia; v. Hahnen, 
S. Eremite 1335, S. Trovaso; L. Passim, F. Carmine 3462; C. Reichard, 
F. Carmine 3462; Ruben, Campiello delle Mosche 82, S. Pantaleone; A. 
Wolf. Pal. Brupa, S. Pantaleone 3825 A. 

Permanent Exhibition of Art of the Societa Protettrice di Belle Arti, 
Pal. Rota, next to the Academy. 

English Church, Campo S. Vio 731; services Sun. at 8.30, 10.30, 11.30, 
and 3.30 (Oct. to May). Rev. Evelyn G. Hodgson, M. A., Grand Hotel — 
Scottish Presbyterian Church, Piazza S. Marco; serv. Sun. 11 and 3. Rev. 
Alex. Robertson, Calle S. Leonardo Catecumeni. — Episcopal Methodist 
Church, Campo Manin 4233. — Baptist Church, S. Maria Mater Domini 
2122. — Italian Protestant Church, Campo S. Margherita. — Waldensian 
Church, S. Maria Formosa, Pal. Cavagnis. — Sailors'' Institute, Fondamenta 

202 Route 37. VENICE. Plan of Visit. 

Minotto 156, at the back of the Church of Tolentini; Scripture Eeader. 
Mr. P. H. Hansen. — Industrial Home for Destitute Boys, S. Giobbe 923, 
Cannaregio; secretary, Mrs. Hammond (articles in carved wood, see p. 201). 
The Climate of Venice is tempered by the sea and the Lagune, though 
cold N.E. winds are not. uncommon in winter. The mean temperature of 
the year is 57 1 /'-' Fahr. •, that of January, the coldest month, 37°, of February 
41°; March 48°; April 56°; May 65°: June, July, and August 72-77°; Sep- 
tember 69°; October 59°; November 4bV2°; December 40°. The air is very 
humid, and often favourable to catarrhal affections, but rheumatism is 
prevalent. Its perfect immunity from dust is one of the chief advantages 
of Venice, and nervous patients will find another in its noiseless highways. 
The water-works completed in 1890 supply good drinking water from the 
district of Castelfranco (p. 198). Invalids who intend wintering in Venice 
should choose rooms with a southern aspect. — Chemists : Pisanello, Campo 
S. Polo; Zampironi, near S. Moise (PI. G, 6); Bbtner, Ponte S. Antonio 
3305; Galvani. Campo S. Stefano ; at the Ponte dei Baratteri. — Physi- 
cians: Dr. Casey, Ponte delle Ostriche 2356; Br. Keppler, S. Polo, Palazzo 
Barbarigo della Terrazza 2765 B. (2 p. m.); Dr. Kurz, Calle Fiubera 951, 
near the Merceria ; Prof. Barker (English oculist, from Oct. to May only) ; 
Dr. Massaria, S. Moise, Campiello Teatro 2243; Dr. de Angelo, Merceria 
del Capitello (speaks English); etc. — International Clinical Institute 
( Poliambulanza Internazionale) in the Campo S. Polo, Calle del Marzer 
2009, under the management of Drs. Cavagnis and Keppler (3 p.m.). — 
Dentist. Dr. Giissfeld, Via Ventidue Marzo. 

Plan of Visit. For a short stay of 3-4 days the following plan is 

Afternoon or Evening of arrival. Preliminary Voyage from the Piazzetta 
through the "''Grand Canal (p. 225) to its extremity; then under the iron 
bridge to the Canal di Mestre , to the left of which is the Jews' quarter 
(the Ghetto, inhabited by the lowest classes); back hence by the Grand 
Canal to the Ponte Rialto, where we land; lastly walk through the Mer- 
ceria to the Piazza of St. Mark : an expedition of 2-2 J /2 hrs. in all. 

1st Day. **£. Marco (p. 208) ; -'Palace of the Doges (p. 212) ; *S. Giorgio 
Maggiore (p. 248 ; ascend campanile); "Redentore (p. 248); "S. Sebastiano (p. 275). 

2nd Day. S. Maria della Salute (p. 247) ; "" Accademia delle Belle Arh 
(p. 218); '"Fran (p. 242); "Scuola di S. Rocco (p. 244). Better distributed 
between two days if time permit. 

3rd Day. "S. Zaccaria (p. 234); S. Giorgio degli Schiavoni (p. 237); *S. 
Maria Formosa (p. 234); **&. Giovanni e Paolo (p. 235); <S. Francesco delta 
Vigna (p. 237); Arsenal (p. 238; open till 3 p.m.); Giardini Pubblici (view, 
p. 238). 

4th Day. *S. Salvatore (p. 231); *S. Giovanni Crisostomo (p. 231); Ma- 
donna deW/iracoli (p. 236); Palazzo Vendramin (p. 229); Museo Civico Correr 
(p. 240). 

Lastly ascend the Campanile of S. Marco (p. 211). 

Those who stay longer may visit the Lido (sea-baths, p. 249), Murano 
and Torcello (pp. 249, 250; by gondola 5 hrs. there and back), S. Lazzaro 
(p. 251), Malamocco, and Chioggia (p. 251). 

Admission is generally obtained to the Churches from 6 a.m. till 12 
or i o'clock, after which apply to the sacristan (sagrestano, 50 c). At the 
Frari , Salute, S. Giovanni e Paolo, and S. Sebastiano visitors knock at 
the door; at the other churches one of the officious loungers may be sent 
for the sacristan (5 c). During the fortnight before Easter the altar-pieces 
are not shewn. 

* 'Academy (p. 248): week-days 10-3, 1 fr., on Sundays and holidays, 
10-2, gratis; closed on Christmas Day and Easter Sunday. 

'Arsenal (p. 238) : week-days, 9-3 ; visitors announce their names at 
the entrance. 

•'■ "-'1'alace of the Doges (p. 212) : week-days, 10-3.45, 1 fr. 20 c., including 
the Pozzi; Sun. and holidays, 10-2, gratis; closed on public holidays. 
The tickets are in four parts and are valid for one day only, though the 
visit may be interrupted if desired. 

History. VENICE. 37. Route. 203 

Museo Civico Correr (p. 240) : daily, 9-3, 1 fr. ; Sun. and holidays, 10-2 
free. The Museum is a steamboat-station (p. 200). 

The Private Palaces (* Vendramin , Giovanelli, Papadopoli, Eezzonico, 
Pesaro) are generally shown between 9 and 4, in some cases by written per- 
mission only (pp. 229, 232, 227, 226). Fee to attendant 1 fr., to porter 25-50 c. 

"Scuola di San Rocco (p. 244), daily 9-4 or 5, 1 fr. 

Seminario Patriarcale (Galeria Manfredini; p. 247), daily 10-12, 1/2 fr. 

The gondoliers name the palaces and churches as they pass. Interest- 
ing walks may also be taken with the aid of the plan. Some of the chief 
routes, e. g. from the Piazza of St. Mark to the station and the post-office, 
are indicated by notices on the street-corners. In case of doubt a boy may 
easily be found to show the way (5-10 c). 

During the Carnival no city in Italy, Rome excepted, presents so gay 
and lively a scene as Venice, though the festival has lost much of its 
former magnificence. The last days of the carnival are the most animated. 
The Piazza S. Marco is the centre of attraction. Balls ( Veglioni) take 
place in the Ridotto and in some of the theatres. — The city authorities 
sometives give Serenades, i.e. concerts with illuminations on the Canal 

History. For the early history of Venice, see p. 166. The foundation 
of the Eastern supremacy of Venice was laid by Doge Enrico Dandolo 
(1192-1205), who conquered Constantinople in 1204. In consequence of this 
Venice gained possession of numerous places on the coasts of the Adrialic 
and the Levant, from Durazzo to Trebisond, and of most of the Greek 
islands , including Candia. During the conquest and administration of 
these new territories there arose a class of nobles, who declared themselves 
hereditary in 1297 and excluded the rest of the people from all share in 
the government. The supreme authority lay with the Great Council (Con- 
siglio Maggiore), which consisted of all members of the Nobili above twenty. 
The executive was vested in a Doge, or Duke, and six counsellors, with 
whom was associated the Council of the Pregadi. The Pregadi were after- 
wards united with the higher officials to form the Senate. The duty of 
the Avvogadori di Comune was to see that the public officials governed 
constitutionally. After the conspiracy of 1310 the sovereignty was vested 
in the Council of Ten ( Consiglio dei Died), which controlled every depart- 
ment of government, and from which the Inquisition was developed in 
the 16th century. 

With her rival Genoa the Republic came repeatedly into violent 
conflict, losing many of her conquests in the East, but the Genoese were 
at length totally defeated by Doge Andrea Dandolo in 1352. His successor 
Marino Falieri plotted for the overthrow of the aristocracy, but his scheme 
was discovered , and he was beheaded on 17th April , 1355. During the 
regime of Andrea Contarini (1367-82) Padua, Verona, Genoa, Hungary, and 
Naples formed an alliance against Venice. In 1379 the Genogse captured 
Chioggia, but were surrounded in the Lagune and compelled to surrender, 
24th June, 1380. Peace was concluded in 1381. In 1386 Antonio Venier 
(1382-1400) occupied the island of Corfu , and afterwards Durazzo, Argos, 
etc. Under Michele Steno (1400-14) the Venetian general Malatesta con- 
quered Vicenza, Belluno, Feltre, Verona, and Padua (1405); in 1408 the 
Republic gained possession of Lepanto and Patras, and in 1409 of Guastalla, 
Casalmaggiore, and Brescello. In 1421 Tommaso Mocenigo waged war suc- 
cessfully against Hungary. In 1416 the Venetian fleet under Loredan defeated 
the Turkish at Gallipoli, and in 1421 subdued all the towns of the Dal- 
matian coast , so that Venice now held the entire coast from the estuary 
of the Po to the island of Corfu. 

Mocenigo's successor was Francesco Foscari (1423-57). In 1426 Brescia 
fell into the hands of the Venetian general Carmagnola ; but in 1431 fortune 
turned against him, he was arraigned for treason, and in 1432 executed. 
In 1449 the Venetians took Crema, but were unable to prevent the elevation 
of Sforza to the dukedom of Milan (1450). A sad ending awaited the long 
and glorious career of Fuscari. Suspected by the Council of Ten, and 
weakened by contentions with the Loredani and other private feuds, he 

204 Route 37. VENICE. History. 

was deposed in 1457 and died a few days afterwards. — Under Gristoforo 
Moro (1462-71) the Turks conquered the Morea, where a few fortresses 
only were retained by Venice. In 1483 the Republic acquired Zante, and 
in 1489 Cyprus also, which was ceded by Catharine Cornaro, wife of King 
James of Cyprus. 

The 15th cent, witnessed the zenith of the glory of Venice. It was the 
focus of the commerce of Europe, numbered 200,000 inhab., and was univer- 
sally respected and admired. Its annual exports were valued at 10 million 
ducats , 4 millions being clear profit. It possessed 300 sea-going vessels 
with 8000 sailors, 3000 smaller craft with 17,000 men, and a fleet of 45 
galleys carrying 11,000 men, who maintained the naval supremacy of the 
Republic. But in the middle of the 15th cent, an event of evil omen 
occurred: Constantinople was captured by the Turks in 1453, and the 
supremacy of Venice in the East was thus undermined. The crowning 
blow, however, was the discovery of the new sea-routes to India at the 
close of the century, by which its commerce was diverted to the Portuguese. 
Yet 'the arts, which had meanwhile been silently developing, shed a 
glorious sunset over the waning glory of the mighty Republic'. 

The opening of the 16th cent, brought new losses. In 1503 Venice 
signed a humiliating peace with Bajazet II., to whom she ceded the whole 
of the Morea. The League of Cambrai, formed by the Pope, the Emperor, 
and the kings of France and Aragon against Venice in 1508, and the victory 
of the French at Agnadello in 1509 occasioned serious losses to the Republic. 
The wars between Emp. Charles V. and Francis I. of France (1521-30) were 
also prejudicial to Venice, but her power was most seriously impaired by 
her continuous struggle against the Osmans. In 1540 she lost Nauplia, the 
islands of Chios , Paros , and others , and in 1571 Cyprus also , notwith- 
standing its brave defence by Bragadino. In the naval battle of Lepanto 
(1st Oct. 1571) the Venetian fleet distinguished itself greatly. In 1659 the 
island of Candia was conquered by the Turks. The Venetians however, 
under Francesco Morosini and Konigsrnarck , were victorious in the Morea 
in 1684, and conquered Coron, Patras, Corinth, etc. ; in 1696 and 1698 they 
again defeated the Turkish fleets , and by the Peace of Carlowitz in 1709 
they regained the Morea ; but in 1715 the Turks reconquered the peninsula, 
and" in 1718 were confirmed in their possession by the Peace of Passarowitz. 

From this period Venice ceases to occupy a prominent position in 
history. She retained her N. Italian possessions only , remained neutral 
in every war, and continued to decline in power. On the outbreak of the 
French Revolution Venice at first stoutly opposed the new principles; on 
the victorious advance of the French she endeavoured to preserve her 
neutrality, and repeatedly rejected Bonaparte's proposals of alliance. 
Irritated by this opposition, he broke off his negotiations and took possession 
of the city on 16th May, 1797. The last doge was Lodovico Manin (1788-97). 
By the Peace of Campo Formio (1797) Venetia was assigned to Austria, by 
that of Pretilmrg (1805) to the kingdom of Italy, and in 1814 to Austria. 
At length in 1848 Venice declared herself a Republic under the presidency 
of Daniel e Manin; but after a siege of 15 months it was taken by Radetzky 
in Aug. 1849. Lastly, the war of 1866 led to the union of Venetia with the 
kingdom of Italy. 

In the History of Art Venice has shown herself as independent of 
the mainland as in situation and political history. The surprise of the 
traveller who beholds Venice for the first time , even after having seen 
the rest of Italy, will also be felt by those who study her art. The earliest 
monuments of Venice at once betray the fact that her greatness was 
founded on her Oriental commerce. The church of St. Mark is in the 
Byzantine style, the oldest mosaics bear a Byzantine impress, and the 
same type is observable in other branches of art. The Palazzi Farsetti, 
Loredan, and Zorzi, and the Fondaco dei Turchi are Romanesque. Even 
during the period of Gothic Art the Venetians differed in their style from 
the rest of Italy, although several architects from the mainland (including 
perhaps Niccolb Pisano) appear to have aided in building their churches. 
Their palaces , which , as generally in Upper Italy, are the chief Gothic 
buildings, possess a still more marked individuality, and foremost among 

History. VENICE. 37. Route. 205 

them is that of the Doges. They possess a large entrance colonnade ; a 
loggia (portego) on the upper floor with windows close together in the 
middle; wings chiefly used for painting; and everywhere a wealth of de- 
coration and colour. Such are the Ca tfOro and the Palazzo Foscari. 
Still more zealously did the Venetians cultivate the Renaissance Archi- 
tecture, naturalised at the end of the 15th cent., much later than in the 
rest of Italy. In point of size the early-Renaissance buildings in Venice 
bear no comparison with those of Tuscany, but they are more richly de- 
corated, and retain the articulation peculiar to the earliest period. At a 
later period Venetian architecture may justly boast of holding out against 
the rococo style longer than Central Italy. Chief among Venetian archi- 
tects were several of the Lombardi family, Jacopo Sansovino of Florence 
(1477-1570), Antonio da Po'nte, and lastly Andrea Palladio of Vicenza (1518- 
80), who inaugurated a new era, especially in church -architecture, by 
limiting the facade to a single range of massive columns. Palladio's chief 
successors were Scamozzi and Longhena. 

In the province of Sculpture the city possessed at the end of the 14th 
cent, two important masters in the brothers Massegne. The Judgment of 
Solomon, on the Palace of the Doges (p. 212) was the most famous sculp- 
ture of the late Gothic period in Venice. From the middle of the 15th 
cent, onwards (he growing taste for monumental tombs gave abundant 
employment to the sculptors, and led to the execution of those magnificent 
monuments which still fill the churches of Venice. The names of the 
Bregni or Rizzi, of the Lombardi (probably not natives), and of Alessandro 
Leopardo are the most important. At a later period Jacopo Sansovino, 
sculptor and architect, was the leading master. His works, though often 
designed for pictorial effect, are more pleasing than those of Michael An- 
gelo's school. His pupils were Girolamo Campagna and Alessandro Vittoria 
(d. 1608). 

Venetian Painting did not begin to attract universal attention till 
the beginning of the 16th cent. (comp. p. lxi). In the 14th cent, it was 
far inferior to that of other Italian schools , and though Giotto was en- 
gaged in the neighbouring town of Padua, it remained unaffected by his 
influence. In 1419 Qentile da Fabriano and Vittore Pisano were invited to 
Venice to decorate the doges' palace. In the 15th cent, the most noted 
masters were Giovanni (also named Alamannus), Antonio, Bartolommeo, and 
Alvise (Luigi) Vivarini , known as the Muranesi, Jacopo Bellini, father- 
in-law of Mantegna, who influenced the Paduan school (p. 180), and Carlo 
Crivelli. Antonello da Messina introduced painting in oils into Venice about 
1473, and the new method contributed powerfully to the development of 
the first purely Venetian artists in Gentile (1421-1507) and Giovanni Bellini 
(1426-1516), the sons of Jacopo. Giovanni Bellini, who had many pupils, 
is with Mantegna the most important master of the early Renaissance in 
N. Italy. Alike "in composition (as in his 'sacra conversazione 1 , a peaceful, 
yet expressive group of saints with the Madonna), in his love of colour 
and appreciation of landscape, and in his conception of female figures, 
he may be regarded as the precursor of the glorious prime of Venetian 
painting. One of his contemporaries was Vittore Carpaccio (d. after 1519), 
a lively pictorial narrator, and to his school belonged Gima da Conegliano 
(about 1489-1508), Catena, and Marco Marziale. 

The first of the great masters was Giorgione (Barbarella, 1477?- 1511), 
but unfortunately only the altar-piece at Castelfranco, (p. 196) is tho- 
roughly authenticated as his work; though at Venice a Famiglia in the 
Pal. Giovanelli (p. 232) and an Apollo and Daphne in the Seminario Patri- 
arcale (p. 247) are attributed to bim. The peculiar glow of his colouring, 
an attribute which seems natural rather than acquired, imparts even to 
his isolated half-figures unwonted life and poetical charm. The first artist 
who fully developed that type of female beauty in which simple enjoyment 
of life is so admirably expressed, was Jacopo Palma {Vecchio, 1480-1528). 
Surpassing all his fellows in celebrity, in fertility, and in the length of 
his career, next comes the great Tiziano Vecelli (1477? -1576). His finest 
frescoes are in the Scuola del Santo and Scuola del Carmine at Padua, and 
though his oil-paintings are distributed throughout the galleries of Europe, 

206 Route 37. VENICE. Situation. 

several of his most striking works, chiefly religious compositions, are still 
preserved at Venice. 

Such was the vitality and vigour, and so great were the resources of 
the Venetian School, that even masters of secondary rank frequently pro- 
duced works of the highest excellence. Foremost among these are Sebastiano 
del Piombo (1485-1547), who afterwards yielded to the fascinating influence 
of Michael Angelo, Rocco Marconi, the dreamy Lorenzo Lotto, Bonifazio, 
Giovanni Antonio (da) Pordenone (d. 1539), whose carnation-tints are un- 
surpassed, and Paris Bordone (1500-70), whose portraits rival those of Ti- 
tian. To a younger generation belongs Jacopo Tintoretto (Robusti, 1518-94), 
who squandered excellent abilities on superficial works (Vasari calls him 
'il piu terribile cervello, che abbia avuto mai la pittura'), and in his eager- 
ness for effect lost the golden tints of his school. Paolo Caliari, surnamed 
Veronese (1528-86), on the other hand, though more realistic, maintains the 
best traditions of his school. Last among the masters of note were the 
Bassano^s, Palma Giovane, and Padovanino. To the 18th cent, belong Tie- 
polo (d. 1770), a spirited decorative artist, Antonio Canale, an architectural 
painter, and his pupil Bern. Bellotto, both surnamed Canaletto, all much 
admired by their contemporaries. 

Visitors to Venice should be familiar with Buskin's 'Stones of Venice', 
or at least with the 'Introductory Chapters and Local Indices, printed sep- 
; rately for the use of travellers 1 (in 2 octavo vols. \ 1881). His 'St. Mark's 
Rest, the History of Venice written for the help ot the few travellers who 
still care for her Monuments' is issued in the same form as the better- 
known 'Mornings in Florence'. The 'Venice' of Mr. J. C. Hare (1884) is 
an interesting and convenient manual, and the 'Venetian Life 1 of Mr. W. 
D. Howells may also be mentioned. Mr. Ruskin advises the traveller who 
is fond of paintings to devote his principal attention 'to the works of 
Tintoret, Paul Veronese, and John Bellini; not of course neglecting Titian, 
yet remembering that Titian can be well and thoroughly studied in almost 
any great European gallery, while Tintoret and Bellini can be judged of 
only in Venice, and Paul Veronese .... is not to be fully estimated until 
he is seon at play among the fantastic chequers of the Venetian ceilings 1 . 

Venice, Ital. Venezia , in 45° 27' N. latitude, lies 2i/ 2 M. from 
the mainland in the Lagune, a shallow bay of the Adriatic about 
25 M. in length and 9 M. in width. Its 15,000 houses and palaces, 
chiefly built on piles, and about 6Y2M. in circumference, stand on 
117 small islands, formed by 150 canals, and connected by 378 
bridges. The population, which had dwindled from 200,000 to 
96,000 after its dissolution as an independent state (1797), 
amounted in 1890 to 153,000 (including the suburbs), ofwhom one- 
fourth are paupers. Its trade has also improved since the middle 
of the century. 

The Lagoons are protected from the open sea by long sand-hills 
(lidi) , strengthened with bulwarks (murazzi) of masonry, 30 ft. in 
height and 40-50 ft. in width. On the side next the Lagune the 
Murazzi are perpendicular , while towards the sea they descend in 
four terraces. The Murazzi on the lidi of Pelestrina and Chioggia 
(p. 251) date from the last period of the Republic. The Diga of 
Malamocco, a pier iy 4 M. long, extending into the open sea, was 
constructed by the Austrian government, after 1825, to prevent the 
harbour from becoming choked with mud. The Lagoons are connected 
with the open sea by four entrances , of which those of the Lido 
and Malamocco are the most important. 

Piazza of St. Mark. VENICE. 37. Route. 207 

The Lagoons consist of the 'laguna viva\ and the 'laguna morta\ 
which are of about equal extent. In the former the tide rises and 
falls about 2 l /% ft. ; the latter , shallower , and nearer the main- 
land, is unaffected by the tide. Venice is situated in the 'laguna 
viva'. At high water innumerable stakes , rising from the water 
in curious groups (best seen from the tower of St. Mark), mark the 
sand-banks which surround the city, forming a complicated network 
of navigable channels. 

The city is intersected by innumerable canals (rii), from which 
most of the houses rise direct , though some of them are flanked 
with narrow foot-paths. Among these houses extends a labyrinth 
of lanes (calli, lacalle), paved with stone , brick, or asphalt, and 
alive with picturesque and busy throngs. 

A. Piazza of St. Mark and Environs. Biva degli Schiavoni. 

The **Piazza of St. Mark (PL G, 5), usually called l La Piazza' 
(the other open spaces being ' campV) , a square paved with 
trachyte and marble, 192 yds. in length, on the W. side 61 , and 
on the E. 90 yds. in breadth, affords the most striking evidence 
of the ancient glory of Venice. 'The Place of St. Mark is the heart 
of Venice, and from this beats new life in every direction, through 
an intricate system of streets and canals , that bring it back again 
to the same centre' (Howells). On three sides it is enclosed by 
imposing buildings , which appear to form one vast marble palace, 
blackened by age and the elements; on the E. it is bounded by 
the Church of St. Mark and the Piazzetta (p. 211). The palaces on 
the N. and S. side were once the residence of the nine 'procurators', 
the highest officials of the Republic after the Doge , whence their 
name Procuratle. The Procuratie Vecchie, or N. wing, were erected 
in 1496-1520 by Pietro Lombardo , Bartolommeo Buon, and Oug- 
lielmo Bergamasco. The Procuratie Nuove, or S. wing, begun by 
Scamozzi in 1584, together with the adjoining building (formerly 
the Library, p. 211), now form the Palazzo Reale, and contain hand- 
some modern apartments with ancient and modern pictures (open 
from 12-3 , entrance under the New Procuratie ; custodian 1 fr. for 
l-3pers.). The edifice on the W. side, iheAtrio, or NuovaFabbrica, 
was erected in 1810, partly on the site of the church of S. Gemi- 
niano. The ground-floors of these structures consist of arcades, and 
contain the cafes and shops mentioned at pp. 199, 201. 

The Piazza of St. Mark is the grand focus of attraction at Ven- 
ice. On summer-evenings all who desire to enjoy fresh air con- 
gregate here. The scene is liveliest towards 8 p.m., especially 
when the military band plays (Sun., Mon., Wed., and Frid., 
8-10). In winter the band plays on the same days, 2-4 p.m., and 
the Piazza is then a fashionable promenade. By moonlight the 
piazza is strikingly impressive. 

A large flock of Pigeons enlivens the Piazza. In accordance with an 
old custom pigeons were sent out from the chuivlies on Palm Sunday, and 

208 Route 37. VE1N1UE. S. Marco. 

nestled in the nooks and crannies of the surrounding buildings. Down 
to the close of the Republic they were fed at the public expense, but they 
are now dependent upon private charity. Towards evening they are perched 
in great numbers under the arches of St. Mark's. 

The three richly decorated *Pedestals of the flag-staffs in front 
of the church wero executed by Aless. Leopardo in 1505. The 
banners of the Republic which once waved here are now succeeded 
on Sundays and holidays by those of the Kingdom of Italy. 

The nucleus of **S. Marco (PI. 17; E, 4), the Church of St. 
Mark, the tutelary saint of Venice, whose bones are said to have 
been brought by Venetians from Alexandria in 828, is a Roman- 
esque building of the 9th cent., which was burned down in the 
following century. Its brick walls are incrusted with marble 
(drawings in the Musco Civico, p. 240). In the 11th and following 
centuries it was remodelled in a Byzantine style , and decorated 
with lavish and almost Oriental magnificence. In the 15th cent, 
the facade received Gothic additions which enhance its fanciful 
effect. The edifice (83 yds. long, 56 yds. wide) is in the form of 
a Greek cross (with equal arms), covered with Byzantine domes in 
the centre and at the end of each arm. Around the W. and part of 
the N. transept is a vestibule covered with a series of smaller domes. 
On the S. side this contains the treasury, baptistery, and Cappella 
Zeno; and on the W. side it forms the facade. Above it a gallery 
runs round the upper part of the church. Externally and internally 
the church is adorned with five hundred marble columns (mostly 
Oriental), with capitals in an exuberant variety of styles. The 
mosaics cover an area of 45,790 sq. ft., and the interior is pro- 
fusely decorated with gilding, bronze, and Oriental marble. The 
mosaics, some of them said to date from the 10th cent., belong 
chiefly to the period between the 12th and 16th centuries, and 
afford interesting evidence of the aptitude of the Venetians for 
pictorial composition. — Since 1807 St. Mark's has been the 
cathedral of Venice, a dignity which formerly belonged to S. 
Pietro di Castello (p. 239). 

Mr. Ruskin, in the 'Stones of Venice'', lays great stress upon the colour- 
ing of St. Mark's, reminding the reader 'that the school of incrusted archi- 
tecture is the only one in which perfect and permanent chromatic decoration 
is possible\ And again: — 'the effects of St. Mark's depend not only upon 
the most delicate sculpture in every part , but , as we have just stated, 
eminently on its colour also, and that the most subtle, variable, inexpressible 
colour in the world, — the colour of glass, of transparent alabaster, of 
polished marble, and lustrous gold'. 

Over the principal portal are 'Four Houses in gilded bronze, 5 ft. in 
height, which are among the finest of ancient bronzes, and the sole exist- 
ing specimen of an ancient quadriga. They probably once adorned the 
triumphal arch of Nero, and afterwards that of Trajan. Constantine sent 
them to Constantinople, whence the Doge Dandolo brought them to Venice 
in 1204. In 1797 they were carried by Napoleon to Paris, where they 
afterwards graced the triumphal arch in the Place du Carrousel, and in 
18 15 they were restored to their former position by Emp. Francis. 

Facade. 'Mosaics: Below, over the principal entrance, the Last Judg- 
ment, executed in l.StfG; on the right Embarkation of the body of St. Mark 
at Alexandria, and its Arrival at Venice, both of 1660; on the left the 

8. Marco. VENICE. 37. Route. 209 

Veneration of the saint, of 1728, and the Church of St. Mark into which the 
relics are conveyed, of the 13th century. — Above, on the left and right, 
are four mosaics of the 17th cent., Descent from the Cross, Christ in Hell, 
Resurrection, Ascension. — The quaint Sculptures, especially at the 
main entrance (allegorical representation of the months, etc.), and the 
Byzantine reliefs in the walls deserve notice. Above are statues of the 
Evangelists under canopies; at the end, the Annunciation; above the 
large central arch, a statue of St. Mark. 

Entrance Hall (Alrio). The Mosaics in the vaulting, of which the 
older date from the 12th cent., represent Old Testament subjects, beginning 
on the right: 1st Dome, Creation of the World, and Fall of Man; in the 
following arch the Deluge;. 2nd Dome, over the entrance to the church, 
St. Mark, executed in 1545 by the brothers Zuccati. — The three red slabs 
in the pavement commemorate the reconciliation between Emp. Fred. 
Barbarossa and Pope Alexander III., effected here on 23rd July, 1177 
through the mediation of the Doge Seb. Ziani. According to an old tra- 
dition the emperor kneeling before the pope said , 'won tibi sed Petro\ to 
which the pope replied, '■et mihi et Petro\ — In the next arch, Noah, and 
the Building of the Tower of Babel; 3rd Dome, History of Abraham; 4th 
(corner) Dome, Joseph's dream, Joseph sold by his brethren, and Jacob's 
lament; 5th and 6th Domes, Joseph in Egypt; 7th Dome, History of Moses. 

The middle and right -Bronze Doors are adorned with figures of 
saints in enamel (niello) work, and are of Byzantine origin. 

The **Interior consists of nave and aisles, crossed by a transept with 
aisles, with five domes and an apse. Its charm consists in the beauty of 
the ma ; n lines, the noble perspectives, and the magnificent decoration. 
The Mosaics have lost their venerable appearance by recent restoration, but 
have gained in magnificence. Above the door are Christ, Mary, and St. Mark 
(13th cent.); in the arch above, the Apocalypse by Zvccato (1579). The 
toot of the Benetier on the right is enriched with fine antique reliefs. 
The Mosaics in the right aisle represent Christ in Gethsemane, with 
legends of the Apostles above (12th cent.); 1st Dome, Descent of the 
Holy Ghost; in the left aisle, Paradise, and Martyrdom of the Apostles 
(16th cent.). At the entrance-door of the left, aisle is a gilded Byzantine 
relief of the Madonna (10th cent.), and the Altar by the central pillar 
has an elegant Byzantine canopy. The Mosaics in the central dome of 
the nave represent the Ascension, and those on the S. and W. ribs, 
scenes from the Passion (12th cent.). The other mosaics are chiefly of 
the 16th and 17th centuries. The stone mosaic Pavement is of the 12th 
century. By the screen, right and left of the approach to the high-altar, 
are two Pulpits in coloured marble, one placed on nine, the other on 
eleven columns. On the Screen are '"Fourteen Statues in marble by the 
brothers Massegne (1393) : St. Mark, Mary, and the twelve Apostles, with 
a gilded Crucifix. On the Rood-arch above, "Mosaics by Tintoretto. — 
Left Transept: above, on the left, a Mosaic of 1542, representing the 
genealogy of Mary ; fine Renaissance Altar , and two bronze Candelabra, 
dating from 1520. Below is the entrance to the Cappellu di S. Isidoro, 
with the tomb of the saint, admirably restored. — The Right Transept 
also contains two bronze Candelabra , of the end of the 16th century. — 
In the corner is the entrance to the Treasury (p. 210). 

On the arched Parapet on each side of the Choir are three reliefs in 
bronze, by Jac. Sansovi?w, from the life of St. Mark. On the parapet 
of the Stalls are (centre) the four Evangelists in bronze, by Sansovino, 
and (sides) four Fathers of the church, by Caliari (1614). — Tickets for 
the choir (25 c.) and for the treasury (see below) are obtained in a chamber 
on the first floor, accessible from the left side-apse. 

The High Altar (Altare Maggiore) stands beneath a canopy of verde 
antico, borne by four columns of marble with reliefs of the 11th century. 
The Pala d^Oro, enamelled work with jewels, on plates of gold and silver, 
executed at Constantinople in 1105, forms the altar-piece; it is uncovered 
on high festivals only, but is shown daily, 12-2, by tickets (25 c), obtained 
from the custodian; at other times a fee of 6 fr. is charged. It was ori- 
ginally intended to embellish the front of the altar. Under the high-altar 

Baedeker. Tt.-i.iw t 9th "RHit ^4 

210 Route 37. VENICE. S.Marco. 

repose the relics of St. Mark, as the marble slab at the back records. — 
Behind the high-altar is a second Altar with four spiral columns of ala- 
baster, said to have belonged to the Temple of Solomon, of which the two 
white ones in the middle are semi-transparent. The Mosaics in the Dome 
represent Christ surrounded by Old Testament saints; those of the apse, 
Christ enthroned (1506). The door leading from the high-altar to the 
sacristy bears "Reliefs of the Entombment and Resurrection of Christ, 
and Evangelists and Prophets (said to be portraits of the leading Vene- 
tian artists of the time) executed in bronze by Sansovino (1556). 

The Sacf.isty (Sagrestia), to the left, contains some fine mosaics on the 
vaulting. In the lunette above the door is a Madonna by M. L. Rizzo 
(1530). Cabinets with inlaid work of 1523. — To the right of the high- 
altar: Cappella di S. Clemente, with altar-relief of the 16th cent., re- 
presenting SS. Nicholas, James, and Andrew, and the Doge Andr. Gritti. 

In the right aisle, close to the principal entrance, is the Battistero 
(closed, 1 /2 fr.), in the centre of which is a large font of 1545 with bronze 
lid; above it is John the Baptist. Opposite the door, the monument of 
Doge Andrea Dandolo (d. 1354). The stone over the altar is from Mt. 
Tabor. To the left of the altar the Head of John the Baptist, of the 15th 
cent. ; below it is the stone on which he is said to have been beheaded. 
The mosaics in the vaulting date from the 13th and 14th centuries. In 
the central dome, Christ commanding his disciples to baptize the Gentiles 
in his name ; the other mosaics are chiefly from the life of John the 
Baptist. — From the Baptistery we enter the *Cappella Zeno, containing 
the handsome "Monument of Cardinal Giambattista Zeno (d. 1501), entirely 
in bronze, designed like the altar by the Lombardi and Aless. Leopardi; 
on the sarcophagus is the figure of the cardinal, over life-size ; below are 
the six Virtues by Pietro Lombardo. The *Altar and canopy are also 
cast in bronze, with the exception of the frieze and the bases of the co- 
lumns. Over the altar are groups in bronze, of the Madonna, St. Peter, and 
John the Baptist, and above, a relief of God the Father, by P. O. Cam- 
panato (1515) ; on the altar itself a relief of the Resurrection. To the right 
and left two lions in coloured marble. 

In the right transept is the entrance to the Treasury ( Tesoro di S. Marco, 
open daily, on festivals 12V2-2 o'clock; 25 c. ; see p. 209): in front, 
an episcopal throne of the 6th cent., with symbolical reliefs; in a glass- 
case to the left, valuable Byzantine book-covers; in another glass-case 
two Gothic silver candelabra and batons. Also an agate vase with hieio- 
glyphic inscription. In the central cabinets is sumptuous church-furniture. 
Also an antependium in beaten silver (14th cent.). 

The Crypt (entered from the Sacristy), restored in 1868, is generally 
under water and seldom accessible. It is one of the oldest parts of the 
edifice, and contains numerous short columns of Greek marble. On the 
right a well-executed Christ in relief by Sansovino. 

The visitor is strongly recommended to walk round the Gallekt in- 
side the church in order to inspect the mosaics more closely. Ascent 
from the principal portal (sacristan 1 /2 fr.). The gallery outside the church 
should then be visited for the purpose of examining the bronze horses. 

On the N. side of St. Mark's, under the arch of the transept, 
is the marble sarcophagus, borne by lions, of Daniele Manin, pre- 
sident of the republic in 1848 (d. at Paris, 1857). 

On the S. side of the church (see p. 212) are two short square 
*PUasters, with Greek monograms, brought in 1256 from the church 
of St. Saba at Ptolemais (6th cent.) , which was destroyed by the 
Venetians. From the Pietra del Bando, a block of porphyry at the 
S.W. corner, the decrees of the Republic were promulgated. Two 
curious Reliefs in porphyry, immured by the entrance to the Palace 
of the Doges, represent two pairs of knightly figures embracing each 
other. They are said also to have been brought from Ptolemais. 

Piazzetta. VENICE. 37. Route. 211 

Opposite St. Mark's, to the S.W., rises the isolated square 
*Campanile (di S. Marco), 322 ft. in height. It was founded in 
888, restored in 1329, provided with a marble top in 1417, and 
in 1517 crowned with the figure of an angel nearly 16 ft. high. — 
The Loggetta, or vestibule , on the E. side of the campanile, 
erected by Sansovino in 1540 and lately restored, was once a rendez- 
vous of the Nobili and afterwards a waiting-room for the guards 
during the sessions of the great Council. The bronze statues of 
Peace, Apollo, Mercury, .and Pallas, and the reliefs on the coping, 
by Sansovino, and the Bronze Doors, cast in 1750, deserve inspec- 
tion. In the interior is a Madonna and Child with St. John, in 
terracotta (formerly gilded), by Sansovino. 

The tower is always open (15 c. for each person ; no one is permitted 
to ascend alone •, if necessary a by-stander may be induced to accompany 
the traveller for 20-30 c). The ascent by a winding inclined plane of 38 
bends, and lastly by a few steps, is easy and well-lighted. At the top is 
stationed a fire-watchman with a telescope. The view embraces the city, 
the Lagune (comp. p. 206), the Alps, and part of the Adriatic; W. the 
Monti Euganei near Padua (p. 274); E. in very clear weather the Istrian 
Mts., rising above the Adriatic, a magnificent spectacle towards sunset. 

The Clock Tower (La Torre delV Orologio), on the opposite side, 
at the E. end of the old Procuratie, erected in 1496, probably from 
designs by the Veronese architect and sculptor Ant. Bizzo , rises 
over a lofty gateway, which forms the entrance to the Merceria 
(p. 230). On the platform are two giants in bronze , who strike 
the hours on a bell. The custodian of the clock explains the me- 
chanism (Y2 fr-)- Entrance under the archway to the left, indicated 
by a notice. 

From the S.E. corner of the Piazza of St. Mark to the Lagune 
extends the *Piazzetta (PI. H, 5, 6), bounded on the W. by the 
Library, and on the E. by the Palace of the Doges. 

The former *Library (Libreria Vecchia), now united with the 
Procuratie Nuove to form the royal palace (p. 207), begun by San- 
sovino in 1536, is a magnificent building of the 16th cent., and one 
of the finest secular edifices in Italy. In plan it consists of a double 
colonnade with arches and embedded columns. In the upper col- 
onnade the arches rest upon a series of smaller fluted columns of the 
Ionic order. The effect is so fine as to justify certain liberties 
Sansovino has taken , such as that of enlarging the metopes at 
the expense of the triglyphs and architrave. The caryatides at 
the main portal are by Al. Vittoria. The interesting interior con- 
tains a large hall with ceiling-paintings by P. Veronese, Schiavone, 
and. others, and wall-paintings by Tintoretto and Molinari. 

In the direction of the Lagune are two Granite Columns, from 
Syria or Constantinople, erected here in 1180; one of them bears 
the Winged Lion of St. Mark (wings modern) ; the other St. Theo- 
dore on a crocodile, patron of the ancient republic, placed here in 
1329. This used to be the place of execution , and is now the 
headquarters of the gondoliers (comp. p. 199). — On the Lagune, 


212 Route 37. VENICE. Pal. of the Doges. 

between the Library and the Royal Garden, is the old Zecca or 
Mint, also built by Sansovino in 1536. 

The **Palace of the Doges [Palazzo Ducale; PL H, 5), the W. 
side of which (82yds.) faces the Piazzetta, and the S. side (78 yds.) 
the Lagune, was founded in 800, afterwards destroyed five times, 
and as often re-erected in grander style. The facade and the 
two pointed arcades of 107 columns (36 below, 71 above) , one 
above the other, are said to have been built in the Gothic style in 
1424-42 by Giovanni Buon and his sons Pantaleone and Barto- 
lommeo Buon the Elder. The upper arcade, called L La Loggia 1 , is 
remarkably rich. From between the two columns of red marble 
(9th and 10th from the principal portal), the Republic caused its 
sentences of death to be proclaimed. The capitals of the short 
columns below (which have no bases) are richly decorated with 
foliage, figures of men, and animals. On the corner-pillar to the left 
of the portal are interesting figures of Numa Pompilius, Scipio, Em- 
peror Trajan judging the cause of a widow, and Justice, with inscrip- 
tions. The group above these is the *Judgment of Solomon by two 
unknown Florentines (comp. p. 205). At the corner towards the La- 
gune , Adam and Eve. Mr. Ruskin, who gives an elaborate de- 
scription of these sculptures in his 'Stones of Venice', affirms that 
the capital under this group, 'in the workmanship and grouping of 
its foliage', is, on the whole, the finest he knows in Europe. (Por- 
phyry-reliefs on the corners to the left, see p. 210.) At the S.E. 
angle, the sin of Noah ; and in the centre of the facade, Vcnetia 
enthroned. All these are Gothic. A thorough restoration of the 
exterior was completed in 1869. 

The transition from late-Gothic to Renaissance forms is illus- 
trate d by the fine portal adjoining St. Mark's, built about 1439- 
1463 by Giov. and Bart. Buon the Elder. It is called *Porta della 
Carta from the placards which announced the decrees of the Republic 
here. The figure of Temperance, below to the left, the charming 
Putti, climbing among the Gothic foliage of the tympanum, and the 
figure of Justice, above, are especially attractive. 

The magnificent *Coub,t, begun at the end of the 15th cent, by 
Ant. Bregno and Ant. Scarpagnino, but only partly completed, has a 
florid facade on the E. side, probably by Ant. Rizzo. The little *Fa- 
cade adjoining St. Mark's at the N.E. corner, by Gugl. Bergamasco 
(1520), is less gorgeous, but more happily proportioned. Within 
one of the highest windows to the left was the prison of the poet 
Count Silvio Pellico in 1822, before he was removed to the Spiel- 
berg at Briinn. In the centre of the court are two Cistern Fronts in 
bronze, of 1556 and 1559. On the facade of the Clock Tower, to 
the right, is a statue of the Venetian general Duke Francis Maria I. 
of Urbino by the Florentine sculptor G. Bandini. The other statues 
ar^ antique, but freely restored. 

The richly ornamented *Scala dei Giyanli, the flight of steps 

Pal. of the Doges. VENICE. 37 . Route. 213 

leading to the palace, derives its name from the colossal statues of 
Mars and Neptune at the top, by Sansovino (1554). On the highest 
landing of these steps in the later period of the Republic the doges 
were crowned. Opposite are statues of *Adam and Eve, by Antonio 
Rizzo (1462). 

The *Interior (admission , see p. 202; office on the first floor, 
to the right) is another noble specimen of Venetian art. Had not the 
fire of 1577 destroyed so many paintings, we should have been able 
here to trace the whole progress of Venetian art during its golden 
era. While the earliest Venetian painters devoted their energies to 
the church of St. Mark, the great masters of the 15th and 16th cent, 
were chiefly engaged in the Palace of the Doges. Their works 
having unfortunately perished , the palace now forms a museum 
of later masters only, such as Tintoretto, Palma Giovane, and Paolo 
Veronese, but still presents a most brilliant and attractive display of 
Venetian painting, so far as executed for behoof of the state. The 
excellent condition of the paintings is noteworthy; the gorgeous 
colouring of P. Veronese is nowhere better illustrated. Printed lists 
of the pictures are placed in each room. 

We ascend the Scala dei Giganti. Around the upper colonnade 
are modern busts of Venetian scholars, artists, and doges. The first 
staircase is the richly decorated Scala d'Oro of Sansovino, com- 
pleted in 1577, once accessible to those only whose names were 
entered as 'Nobili' in the Golden Book. The stucco-work is by Al. 
Vittoria, the paintings by Q. B. Franco. By this staircase we 
ascend on week-days (tickets on the second landing) direct to the 
upper story. — The next staircase, the Scala dei Censori, is the en- 
trance on Sundays and festivals (p. 215). 

The Upper Floor, to which the Scala d'Oro leads, contains the 
apartments in which the authorities of the Republic held their 
meetings, and which retain much of their ancient splendour. We 
first enter a small anteroom, the — 

I. Atrio Quadrato, with ceiling-paintings by Tintoretto, Doge 
Priuli receiving the sword of justice. On the walls portraits of sen- 
ators, by Tintoretto. — To the right is the — 

II. Sala belle Quattro Porte, restored in 1869 ; architectonic 
decorations by Palladio, 1575. Entrance-wall, to the right : *Doge 
Ant. Grimani kneeling before Religion, by Titian (a late work); the 
figures next the sides are by Marco Vecelli. 

'One of the most striking examples of Titian's want of feeling and 
coarseness of conception. As a work of mere art, it is, however, of great 
value 1 . — Ruskin. 

The side-pictures are by Titian's pupils : left, Verona conquered 
by the Venetians in 1459, by Giov. Contarini. Opposite, Arrival of 
Henry III. of France at Venice, by Andrea Vicentino; Doge Cicogna 
receiving the Persian ambassadors in 1585, by Carletto Caliari, son 
of P. Veronese. Magnificent ceiling : stucco-work by Sansovino, 
painting by Jac. Tintoretto and others. — Next we enter the — 

214 Route 37. VENICE. Pal. of the Doges. 

III. Anticollegio. Architectonic decoration and fine chimney- 
piece designed by Scamozzi. Opposite the windows, *Rape of Europa, 
by P. Veronese; Jacob's return to Canaan, by Bassano. Also, Forge 
of Vulcan, Mercury with the Graces, opposite to it, Minerva driving 
back Mars, and Ariadne and Bacchus, all by Jac. Tintoretto. 

IV. Sala del Collegio. On the left, chimney-piece with sta- 
tues of Hercules and Mercury, by Campagna. Over the door, Nup- 
tials of St. Catharine (below, Doge Franc. Dona); to the left, Virgin 
in glory (with Doge Niccolo da Ponte), Adoration of the Saviour 
(with Doge Alvise Mocenigo), all by Jac. Tintoretto ; over the throne a 
memorial-picture of the Battle of Lepanto, *Christ in glory (below, 
Doge Venier, Venetia, St. Mark, St. Justina, etc.), by P. Veronese; 
opposite, Prayer of Doge Andrea Gritti to the Virgin, by Tintoretto. 
*Ceiling-paintings (considered the finest in the palace), Neptune and 
Mars, Faith, Venetia on the globe with Justice and Peace, all by 
P. Veronese. 

'The roof is entirely by Paul Veronese, and the traveller who really 
loves painting ought to get leave to corne to this room whenever he chooses 
and should pass the sunny summer mornings there again and again .... 
He will no otherwise enter so deeply into the heart of Venice 1 . — Ruskin. 

V. Sala del Senato. Over the throne, Descent from the 
Cross by Jac. Tintoretto; on the wall, to the left, Doge Franc. Ve- 
nier before Venetia, Doge Cicogna in presence of the Saviour, Ve- 
netia on the Lion against Europa on the Bull (an allusion to the 
League of Cambrai, see p. 204), all by Palrna Qiovane; DogePietro 
Loredan imploring the aid of the Virgin, by Jac. Tintoretto. Cen- 
tral ceiling-painting: Venice, Queen of the Sea, by Dom. Tintoretto. 

Beyond this room (to the right of the throne) is the Ante- 
Chamber to the chapel of the Doges, containing two pictures by J. 
Tintoretto, SS. Jerome and Andrew, and SS. Lewis, Margaret and 
George with the dragon ; also several cartoons of mosaics from the 
facade of the cathedral. — Straight on from this point are three 
rooms with a natural history collection (generally closed). — In the 
Chapel, over the altar, a Madonna by Sansovino. On the entrance- 
wall, Bonifazio, the Israelites crossing the Red Sea; after Oior- 
gione{l~), Christ in Purgatory. Exit wall, School of Giov. Bellini, 
Madonna in an elaborate landscape (retouched) ; Early Netherlands 
School, Mocking of Christ; Paris Bordone, Body of Christ, with 
two angels ; P. Veronese , Forest-landscape with accessories — We 
return through the Sala del Senato and from the Sala della Quattro 
Porte pass through an anteroom (left) to the — 

VI. Sala del Consiglio dei Dieci. Entrance-wall: Pope 
Alexander III. and Doge Ziani, the conqueror of Emp. Fred. Bar- 
barossa, by Jac. Bassano; opposite, the Peace of Bologna between 
Pope Clement VII. and Emp. Charles V., 1529, by Marco Vecelli. 
Back-wall: Adoration of the Magi, by Aliense. Ceiling-paintings by 
Zelotti and others, except (at the back) the old man supporting his 
head with his hand, by P. Veronese. 

Pal. of the Doges. VENICE. 37 . Route. 215 

VII. Sala bella Bussola, ante-chamber of the three Inquisitors 
of the Republic. On the entrance-wall (the present egress) an opening, 
formerly adorned with a lion's head in marble, into the mouth of which 
(Bocca di Leone) secret notices were thrown. This room contains 
two pictures by Aliense: on the entrance- wall, Taking of Brescia, 
1426, opposite, Taking of Bergamo, 1427; chimney-piece by Sanso- 
vino ; opposite, Doge L. Donato kneeling before the Madonna, by 
Marco Vecelli. On the ceiling, St. Mark surrounded by angels, by 
Paolo Veronese (a copy). — The room to the right is the — 

VIII. Stanza dei Tre Capi del Consiglio. Central ceiling- 
painting, an angel driving away the vices, by Paolo Veronese; 
chimney-piece by Sansovino; caryatides by Pietro da Salb. A Pieta. 
by Oiov. Bellini. On the left, Madonna and Child, two saints and 
Doge Leon. Loredan, by Vine. Catena. — We now return to the 
iSala della Bussola and descend the stairs to the — 

Central Floor, to which the Scala dei Censori leads direct (on 
Sun. and holidays, see p. 213). To the left is the Library (p. 216) 
to the right the Archaeological Museum (p. 217). Straight in front 
is the — 

*Sala. del Maggior Consiglio (door generally open ; if not, ring), 
55 yds. long, 26 yds. broad, 47 ft. high, which was the assembly- 
hall of the Great Council, composed of all the Nobili above 20 years 
of age. In 1848-49 the House of Representatives under the Dic- 
tator Manin also met here. The ceiling-paintings, which represent 
battles of the Venetians, are by Paolo Veronese, Bassano, Jac. Tin- 
toretto , and Palma Giovane; the best are the *Fame of Venice (in 
the large oval next the entrance) by Paolo Veronese, and the De- 
livery of the Doge's insignia to Niccolo da Ponte (in the rectangle 
in the centre), by Palma Giovane. On the frieze are the portraits 
of 76 doges, beginning with Obelerio Antenoreo (d. 810). — On the 
walls are 21 large scenes from the history of the Republic by Bassano, 
Paolo Veronese, Tintoretto, etc. On the E. wall Jac. Tintoretto's 
*Paradise, the largest oil-painting in the world, with a bewildering 
multitude of figures, many of the heads of which are admirable. 

'The whole composition is divided into concentric zones, represented 
one above the other like the stories of a cupola, round the figures of Christ 
and the Madonna, at the central and highest point •, both these figures are 
exceedingly dignified and beautiful .... The picture is on the whole won- 
derfully preserved, and the most precious thing that Venice possesses 1 . 

The historical pictures consist of two series. The first illustrates 

in somewhat boastful fashion the life of Doge Sebastiano Ziani 

(1173-79), who accorded an asylum to Pope Alexander III. (comp. 

p. 209) and (in league with the towns of Lombardy) resisted the 

imperial demands ; the second depicts the exploits of Doge Enrico 

Dandolo (p. 203). 

The first series begins on the upper part of the wall to the right of 
the entrance, and runs to the left towards the opposite end : 1. Meeting 
of Pope Alexander III. and Doge Ziani at the Monastery della Carita, 

216 Route 37. VENICE. Pal. of the Doges. 

2. Parting audience of the Ambassadors of the Pope and the Doge on their 
departure from Parma, both by Pupils of Paolo Veronese; 3. (above the 
window) Presentation of the consecrated candle, by Leandro Bassano; 4. 
Ambassadors of the Pope and the Doge presenting to Emp. Fred. Barba- 
rogsa a petition for cessation of hostilities, by Jac. Tintoretto; 5. The 
Pope presenting a sword to the Doge, by Franc. Bassano; 6. (above the 
window) Departure of the Doge with the papal benediction, by Paolo 
Fiammingo ; 7. Battle of Salvore (Pirano), defeat of the Imperial fleet, and 
capture of Otho, the Emperor's son, 1177, by Dom. Tintoretto; 8. (above 
the door) The Doge presenting the captive Otho to the Pope, by Andrea 
Vicentino ; 9. Pope Alexander permits Otho to repair to his father in order 
to negotiate a peace, by Palma Giovane; 10. Fred. Barbarossa kneeling 
before the Pope (p. 209), by Federigo Zuccaro; 11. (above the door) Con- 
clusion of peace between the Pope, Doge, and Emperor at Ancona, by 
Girolamo Gambarato. — On the end-wall, 12. The Pope presents gifts to 
the Doge, including the ring, the symbol of supremacy with which the 
Doge annually 'wedded the Adriatic 1 , 1177, by Giulio dal Moro. 

The series of pictures in honour of Doge Dandolo also begins on the 
entrance-wall, to which we return after seeing the first series. They run 
from left to right: 1. The Doge and French Crusaders swear alliance at 
St. Mark's in 1201 for the liberation of the Holy Land, by Giov. Le Clerc ; 
2. Storming oi: Zara in 1202, by Andrea Vicentino; 3. Surrender of Zara 
in 1202, by Dom. Tintoretto (over the door to a balcony, which affords a 
fine *View of the Lagune and the islands of S. Giorgio and Giudecca); 4. 
Alexius, son of the dethroned Greek Emp. Isaac Angelus, invoking the aid 
of the Venetians for his father in 1202, by Andrea Vicentino ; 5. Taking 
of Constantinople by the Venetians and French, 1204, by Dom. Tintoretto; 
7. Count Baldwin of Flanders elected Greek Emperor, 1204, by Andr. Vi- 
centino; 8. Coronation ofBaldwin by Doge Enrico Dandolo, 1204, by Aliense. 
(Above this, a black tablet on the frieze among ihe portraits of the Doges 
bears the inscription : Hie est locus Marini Falethri decapitati pro crimini- 
bus; comp. p. 203.) — Lastly: *9. Return of the Doge Andrea Contarini from 
his victory over the Genoese fleet near Chioggia, 1379, by Paolo Veronese. 

The Corridor contains a bust of the Emp. Francis and por- 
traits of several senators. — The Sala dello Scrutinio, or Voting 
Hall, is decorated similarly to the preceding room. 

On the frieze are portraits of the last 39 doges, down to Lod. Manin 
(1797). Entrance-wall : Last Judgment, by Palma Giovane, with portraits 
of his wife (in blue) in Heaven, Purgatory, and Hell ; above, prophets. 
Left wall, towards the Piazzetta: 1. Victory over King Roger of Sicily, 
1148, by M. Vecelli. A balcony, to which the next door leads, affords a 
good survey of Sansovino's library. 2. Subjugation of Tyre under Dome- 
nico Michieli in 1125, by Aliense; 3. Victory of Michieli over the Turks at 
Jaffa, 1123, by S. Peranda; 4. Victory in the Lagoons over Pepin, son of 
Charlemagne, in 815, 5. Siege of Venice by Pepin in 809, both by A. Vicen- 
tino. — Opposite the entrance: Monument to Doge Francesco Morosini 
'Peloponnesiacus', who in 1684-90 conquered the Morea and Athens (p. 20i). 

— "Right wall : 6. Lazaro Mocenigo defeats the Turks near the Dardanelles, 
1657, by P. Liber i ; 7. (over the window towards the court), Destruction 
of Margaritino, 1571, by P. Bellotti; 8. Battle of Lepanto, 1571, 9. (over 
the second window), Conquest of Cattaro during the war against Genoa, 
1378, both by A. Vicentino; 10. Recapture of Zara, 1346, by J. Tintoretto. 

— On the ceiling other scenes from the history of the Republic. 

The celebrated Library or St. Mark (open daily, 9-3, ex- 
cept Sun. and festivals) contains many rare MSS., beautiful minia- 
tures, ancient cameos (two heads of Zeus"), and the *Breviario Gri- 
mani, with miniatures by early Flemish painters of the beginning 
of the 15th century. — The reading-room is open to the public 
at the same hours. 

Pal. of the Doges. VENICE. 37. Route. 217 

The Archaeological Museum, founded in 1846, occupies the 
rooms in which the doges resided down to the close of the 16th 
century. It contains ancient sculptures in marble, Greek and Ro- 
man, most of them brought home as booty by the Venetians from 
their campaigns, but ill-preserved and in some cases spoiled by 

I. Room (Galleria d'Ingresso) : 85. Bacchus and Satyr ; 80. Resting 
Apollo; 70, 68. Candelabra-pedestals, with armed Cupids; 69. Lower part 
of a sitting colossal female figure, of the Hellenistic or Augustean era; *5l, 
56. Statues of Muses, the latter found at Ossero, before 1587. 

II. Room (Stanza degli Scarlatti): 169. Hermaphrodite; "148. Rape 
of Ganymede, freely restored; *144, 145, *153. Conquered Gauls, resem- 
bling the Dying Gladiator at Rome and similar statues at Naples, probably 
from the groups erected on the Acropolis of Athens by Attalus, King of 
Pergamum, about B.C. 239, after his victory over the Gauls at Sardes in 
Asia Minor ; 138. Leda with the swan ; 112. Ulysses (?). Chimney-piece of 
the end of the 15th century. Fine wooden ceiling. 

III. Room: Old maps, including the famous *Map of the World by the 
Camaldulensian monk Fra Mauro , 1457-59 ; six tablets of carved wood and 
a copy of the planisphere of Haji Mehemet of Tunis (1559), captured by 
the Venetians in the 17th cent. ; plans of Venice of 1500 and 1728. — We 
pass through the door on the left to the — 

IV. Room (Stanza d'Udienza): chiefly busts of Roman emperors; the 
best, 292. Vitellius. Other works are 250, 299. Colossal heads, Satyr and 
Satyra; 296. Apollo; 245. Poor replica of the archaic Diana at Naples. — 
The last rooms (closed), containing interesting bronzes, are shown by spe- 
cial permission only. We now return and cross Room III. to the — 

V. Room (Stanza degli Scudieri) : 190. Warrior sacrificing; 196. Front 
of a Roman sarcophagus, representing the death of the children of Niobe; 
"200. Greek votive-relief to Theseus, unfinished, restored in some of the 
details (joints, flutings, trees); '220. Fragment of a Greek tomb-relief; 222. 
Two centaurs standing over a female centaur asleep on the ground (16th 
cent.); 228. Front of a child's sarcophagus, with the story of Cleobis and 
Biton, restored at the top and bottom; *231. Fragment of an Attic frieze 
of a naval battle, belonging to the similar relief mentioned at p. 155; '239. 
Square altar, perhaps of the 3rd cent. B.C., with charming represen- 
tations of Satyrs. 

The handsome E. side of the Palace of the Doges towards the 
canal, more harmonious in appearance than the W. side, with a 
basement of facetted stone, is connected with the Carceri oiPrigioni 
Criminali, built in 1512-97 by Ant. da Ponte, by means of the lofty 
Bridge of Sighs {Ponte deiSospiri; PI. H, 5). Too much senti- 
ment need not be wasted on the Bridge of Sighs, as the present 
structure — that 'pathetic swindle' as Mr. Howells calls it — has 
scarcely ever felt the foot of a prisoner. The Piombi, or prisons 
under the leaden roof of the Palace, were destroyed in 1797, while the 
Pozzi, a series of gloomy dungeons, v.-ith a torture-chamber and the 
place of execution for political criminals, have recently been again 
made accessible. (Entrance from the first floor.) 

A good survey of the Bridge of Sighs is obtained from the Ponte 
della Paglia, which connects theMolo with the adjacent Biva degli 
Schiavoni (PI. H, I, 5), a quay paved with marble. This quay pre- 
sents a busy scene, being the most popular lounge in Venice. In 
1887 it was embellished with an equestrian Statue of Victor Em- 
manuel II., by E. Ferrari; at the back of the pedestal is Venetia 

218 Route 37. VENICE. Academy. 

enslaved, in front Yenetia liberated. — Beyond the next bridge 
rises the church of S. Maria della Pieta (PL I, 5) : in the high- 
choir, above the principal entrance, *Christ in the house of the 
Pharisee by Moretto; on the ceiling, Coronation of Mary by Tiepolo. 
For the adjoining churches of S. Zaccaria, S. Giorgio dei Oreci, 
and S. Giovanni in Bragora, see pp. 234, 237; the Arsenal, p. 238. 
— Farther down the bank of the canal, at the S.E. extremity of 
Venice, lie the Giardini Pubblici (p. 238). 

B. The Academy. 

The **Accademia di Belle Arti (PI. E, 6) occupies the old 
Scuola di S. Maria della Carita, the assembly-hall of this brother- 
hood, on the Grand Canal, by the iron bridge (steamboat-station, 
p. 200), and may be reached on foot from the Piazza of St. Mark in 
10 min. (comp. p. 245). The entrance is to the right, under a figure 
of Minerva with the lion, on the first floor. (Admission, seep. 202.) 
Permission to copy, free tickets for artists, etc., obtained at the office 
(court of the doge's palace, first floor, on the right). The numbers 
over the doors apply in each case to the following rooms. — Ca- 
talogue lfr., sold at the entrance only. 

The gallery chiefly contains pictures by Venetian masters. The 
non-professional visitor will be most interested in those of the Bel- 
lini and their successors, and in the historical paintings by Gentile 
Bellini and Carpaccio in Room VIII., which present a most lifelike 
picture of ancient Venice, while the brilliance of their colouring 
makes us forget the poverty of their execution and the want of in- 
dividuality in their figures and groups. It is instructive to compare 
the Venetian manner with the mode in which contemporary Flor- 
entine artists arrange their groups and describe historical events. 
In the case of the numerous pictures of Giovanni Bellini (Room 
XIII, No. 10; Room II, No. 17, etc.) the attention is chiefly ar- 
rested by his conversation-pieces (p. 205), by the beauty of his 
nude figures, and by his vigorous though not very saintlike male 
figures. A picture by Boccaccino da Cremona (Room II, No. 55), a 
little-known master of the earlier school, is one of the best of that 
period. Palma Vecchio is not represented here by his best works. 
On the other hand Rocco Marconi's Descent from the Cross (R. 
VII, No. 30) is one of his finest efforts. Titian's master-piece, the 
Assumption of the Virgin (R. XIII, No. 1), requires no comment; 
the glowing rapture of the apostles, the jubilant delight of the 
angels, the beaming bliss of the Madonna, and the magnificence 
of the colouring cannot fail to strike the eye of every beholder. 
The gallery comprises what is perhaps the earliest known work of 
this master, and his last, uncompleted creation : the Visitation, and 
the Descent from the Cross. His Presentation in the Temple (R. 
VII, No. 21) is also very attractive owing to the spirited grouping 
and the beauty of the individual figures. Bonifazio I.'s wealth of 



37. Route. 219 

colour is displayed in the History of the Rich Man (R. VII, No. 
35), the Massacre of the Innocents (R. VII, No. 59), and his small 
Madonna (R. V, No. I). The Miracle of St. Mark (R. XIII, No. 4) 
and the Portrait of Cappello (R. V., no number) by Tintoretto, and 
the Supper in the house of Levi (R. VIII, No. 21) by Paolo Vero- 
nese, are specially interesting. 

The ticket-office is in the hall at the foot of the stairs, on the 
right. Turning to the left, we enter — 

Room I (Sala degli Antichi Dipinti). Ancient pictures, with 
fine original frames. Ceiling-decoration in carved wood (15th cent.). 
1. Bart. Vivarini, Mary and four saints (1464); 4. Gentile da Fabriano, 


Madonna and Child ; 8, 11. (companion pictures), Marco Basaiti, 
St. James and St. Anthony; between them, 10. Lorenzo Veneziano, 
Altarpiece in sections, in the centre the Annunciation (1358), 
above it God the Father by Franc. Bissolo ; 13. Marco Basaiti, Dead 
Christ; below, 14. Giovanni and Antonio da Murano, Coronation 
of the Virgin in an assembly of saints, in the centre 'putti' with 
instruments of torture (1440); 15, 21. Bart. Vivarini, St. Mary 
Magdalene, St. Barbara (1490); 16, 22-26. Alvise (Luigi) Vivarini, 
Saints ; *29. Giovanni and Antonio da Murano, Madonna enthroned, 

220 Route 37. VENICE. Academy. 

with four Fathers of the church (1446), interesting also on account 
of the peculiar architecture, a masterpiece of the early Venetian 
school, but badly lighted. 

We return to the vestibule and ascend a few steps to an ante- 
room with casts and modern statues. On the left is the Sala delle 
Statue, with the Bearing of the Cross, one of Tiepolo's finest ceil- 
ings formerly in S. Alvise (recently restored). This room contains 
the Communion of S. Lucia, by Tiepolo, casts from the antique, etc. 
— Opposite is — 

Room II, which contains the Eaccolta Contarlni, presented by 
Count Contarini in 1843. By the door, 109. Bissolo, Madonna. Left 
wall : 16. J. Bassano, Flight into Egypt. — *17. Oiov. Bellini, Ma- 
donna and Child, painted in 1487, but spoiled by retouching. 

l We know not which to admire most, the noble gravity of the mother, 
or the pulsation of life in the child. Bellini certainly never so com- 
pletely combined relief with transparence, or golden tinge of flesh with 
rich and tasteful harmony of tints 1 . — G. & C. 

19. Marco Marziale, Supper at Emmaus (1506); *24. Oiov. 
Bellini , Madonna and Child in a beautiful landscape ; 30. Sasso- 
ferrato, St. Cecilia; 33. Andrea Cordegliaghi (or perhaps Porde- 
none), Madonna with SS. Catharine and John; 40. Pierfrancesco 
Bissolo, Body of Christ mourned over by angels ; 47. Bened. Diana, 
Madonna with John the Baptist and St. Jerome ; 48. Cima da 
Conegliano, Madonna with John the Baptist and St. Paul ; *55. 
Boccaccino da Cremona, Madonna and saints ; 56. Polidoro Vene- 
ziano, Madonna and Child, with John the Baptist and angel. Right 
wall : 74. Market at Impruneta near Florence, a large picture with 
numerous figures, 87. Pont Neuf at Paris, both after engravings 
by Jacques Callot; 78. Schiavone, Circumcision. In the centre, Dae- 
dalus and Icarus, executed by Canova when 21 years of age. 

Room III (Gabinetto Contarini), containing 66 small pictures : 
Nos. 42-44, 54-56, all by Pietro Longhi, are interesting as show- 
ing the Venetian costumes and habits of last century. Also: *47- 
51. Oiov. Bellini, Allegories, late works, with admirable land- 
scapes ; opposite : 33. School of Oiov. Bellini (M. Basaiti ?), Head 
of Christ. 

Room IV. (closed) contains carved furniture and sculptures by 
BrustoLoni (18th cent.). 

We return through the anteroom to the I. Corridor: 4. Bart. 
Vivarini, St. Augustine ; *13. Gentile Bellini, S. Lorenzo Giusti- 
niani, a tempera painting on canvas (1465) , much injured by 
damp. Adjoining, no number, Bart. Vivarini, St. Bartholomew 
(1473); 22. Paduan School, Crucifixion with SS. Mary and John. 
— Good view of Palladio's building (p. 225) from the windows. — 
In the II. Corridor: 36. Andrea da Murano, Four saints on a 
golden ground. A small adjoining room on the right contains mo- 
dern copies, etc. — We then pass through a door to the long — 
Loggia Palladiana, containing chiefly Dutch pictures : 7, 8. 

Academy. VENICE. 37. Route. 221 

Hondekoeter, Chickens, Victorious cock; 10. Fyt, Poultry (1642); 
13. Claude Lorrain, Landscape; 20. N. Berchem, Shepherdesses; 
*24. Metsu, Woman asleep ; 27. A. van Dyck (?), Christ on the 
cross; 32. J. Steen, The forger's family; 40. Nieulandt, John the 
Baptist preaching (1653); 45. Memling (?), Crucifixion, with saints 
and donors; 48. Rogier van der Weyden, Portrait; *57. J. Steen, 
Grace before meat; 65. W. van de Velde, Sea-piece; 67. Isaac van 
Ostade, Snow-landscape ; 69. Michael Mierevelt, Portrait of a general ; 
78. Ribera (Spagnolftto), Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew. — Oppo- 
site the pictures, by the window-wall, busts and other sculptures. 
— Parallel with the Loggia on the left is the — 

Sala Palladiana (VI) , consisting of five rooms , the first 
containing bronzes, terracottas, and sculptures, the others pictures 
with consecutive numbers : *13. Bart. Montagna , Madonna en- 
throned with SS. Sebastian and Jerome ; 11. C. Crivelli, SS. Jerome 
and Gregory ; *33. Qiov. Bellini, Madonna, Magdalene, and Ca- 
tharine ('the three women are characterised by an extraordinary 
union of dignity, earnestness, and beauty' : C. fy C. j ; 39. Cima da 
Conegliano, Entombment. — *44. G. Bellini, Madonna, with SS. 
Paul and George (after 1483). 

'Unrivalled for its extreme precision of drawing, its breadth of light 
and shade, easy cast of drapery, and bright enamel of colour'. — 0. & C. 

Opposite, 49. Piero della Francesca, St. Jerome with the donor; 
48. Raima Vecchio (?), Portrait (injured). Between the windows: 
52. Fr. Vecelli (brother of Titian), Madonna and Child, with the 
Baptist. Then 58. Titian, Portrait of Ant. Cappello (1523 ; comp. 
the portrait by Tintoretto in Room V, p. 224); *61. Oarofalo, Ma- 
donna transfigured, with four saints (1518) ; 63. P. Veronese, Naval 
battle, with saints in the clouds ; *65. Cima da Conegliano, Christ, 
with SS. Nicholas andThomas; 72. Tintoretto, Madonna and Child, 
with two Nobili ; 73. Leandro Bassano, Adoration of the Shepherds ; 
75. Tintoretto, Portrait of Marco Grimani. 

We now return to the Loggia Palladiana, where a glass-door 
at the opposite end leads to — 

Room VII, At the end-wall : Canova, Original model of the 
group of Hercules and Lichas. — 6. Pietro da Cortona, Daniel in 
the lions' den; 14. Padovanino, Descent of the Holy Ghost. 

*21. Titian, Presentation in the Temple, painted in 1539 for the 
Brotherhood della Carita, and destined for a wall with two doors, be- 
tween which the central part of the picture descended. The two 
lower corners (on the right the opening in the flight of steps, and 
on the left the boy and the lower half of several figures) are later 
additions, made after the removal of the picture from its original 

'It was not to be expected that Titian should go deeper into the per- 
iod from which he derived his gospel subject than other artists of his 
time. ... It was in the nature of Titian to represent a subject like this 
as a domestic pageant of his own time, and seen in this light it is ex- 

222 Route 37. VENICE. Academy. 

ceedingly touching and surprisingly beautiful. Mary in a dress of celesti- 
al blue ascends the steps of the temple in a halo of radiance. She pauses 
on the first landing place, and gathers her skirts , to ascend to the sec- 
ond. . . . Uniting the majestic lines of a composition perfect in the bal- 
ance of its masses with an effect unsurpassed in its contrasts of light 
and shade, the genius of the master has laid the scene in palatial archi- 
tecture of grand simplicity. . . . The harmony of the colours is so true 
and ringing, and the chords are so subtle, that the eye takes in the scene 
as if it were one of natural richness, unconscious of the means by which 
that richness is attained. ... In this gorgeous yet masculine and robust 
realism Titian shows his great originality, and claims to be the noblest 
representative of the Venetian school of colour 1 . — C. & C. 

22. Pordenone, Madonna of Carmel and saints ; *24. Marco 
Basaiti, Jesus at Gethsemane (comp. R. XIII, No. 11). 

*25. Pordenone, S. Lorenzo Giustiniani, with John the Baptist, 
St. Francis, St. Augustine, and three other figures. 

'The composition unites all the peculiar qualities of the master, and 
we can see that a supreme effort has been made to produce a grand im- 
pression. The work, however, cannot be put on a level with the great 
creations of Titian'. — G. & C. 

*27. Paris Bordone, The fisherman presenting the Doge with 
the ring received from St. Mark, probably the most beautiful cere- 
monial picture in existence (Burckhardt); *28. L. Bassano, Raising 
of Lazarus ; *30. Bocco Marconi, Descent from the Cross ; 33. Tinto- 
retto, Assumption ; **35. Bonifazio I. , Banquet of Dives ; 38. Tin- 
toretto , Madonna , Child , and four senators ; 40. Bonifazio II. , 
Christ enthroned, with saints (1530); 42. Tintoretto, Madonna in 
clouds, with SS. Cosmas and Damianus ; 48. Heirs of P. Veronese 
(i.e. his sons after his death), Banquet in the house of the Phari- 
see ; 51. Bonifazio II., Christ and the Apostles ; 54. Carpaccio, 
Martyrdom of 10,000 Christians on Mt. Ararat (1515); 59. Boni- 
fazio I., Massacre of the Innocents. 

Room VIII. Entrance-wall: *2. Carpaccio, Cure of a lunatic, 
with the Rialto Bridge in the background ; 5. Gentile Bellini, 
Miraculous finding of a fragment of the 'True Cross', which had 
fallen into the canal ; *21. Paolo Veronese, Jesus in the house of 
Levi (1573), a master-piece of the artist, who has used the histo- 
rical incident as a pretext for delineating a group of handsome 
figures in the unfettered enjoyment of existence (much damaged). 
Left wall (Carpaccio, see below), 6. Tintoretto, Adoration of the 
Kings (1566). Right wall, 34. Carpaccio, SS. Anna and Joachim 
between SS. Louis and Ursula (1515); *29. G. Bellini, Procession 
in the Piazza S. Marco (1496), where the piazza differs materially 
from its present form ; 22. Mansueti, Miracle of the Cross. 

Also, on the right and left walls, *Vittore Carpaccio, Nine 

scenes from the legend of St. Ursula, painted in 1490-95 for the 

Scuola di S. Ursula in Venice. 

10. The ambassadors of the pagan king of England bring to King 
Maurus, father of S. Ursula, the proposals of their master for the hand 
of his daughter; 16. S. Ursula's vision; 11. The ambassadors depart 
with the answer that the bride desired the postponement of the marriage 
for three years, in order to make a pilgrimage to Rome; 23. Return of 

Academy. VENICE. 37- Route. 223 

the ambassadors to England and their report to the king-, 14. Double 
picture, representing the Departure of the English monarch, who has re- 
solved to share in the pilgrimage, and his Meeting with Ursula (on ship- 
board) ; 20. Ursula, her companions, and the prince receive the blessing 
of Pope Cyriacus ; 18. Arrival of S. Ursula at Cologne; 27. Martyrdom 
of the saint and her virgins, who are pierced with arrows ; 32. Apotheosis 
of S. Ursula. — The style in which the legend is narrated is almost too 
simple, but interesting on account of the admirable perspective and faith- 
ful rendering of real life. The traveller who has visited Belgium cannot 
fail to compare this work with the celebrated shrine of S. Ursula at Bruges, 
painted by Hans Memling about (be same time (1489) for the Hospital of 
St. John there. The execution of the northern artist is tender and grace- 
ful, almost like miniature-painting, while the extensive canvases of his 
Venetian contemporary are vigorous, almost coarse in character. 

Room IX : 4. Bonifazio-, Temptation of St. Bernard, with St. 
Sebastian; b. Bonifazio, The adulteress before Christ ; 6. Boni- 
fazio. Solomon's Judgment (1533). — *8. Talma Vecchio , Peter 
enthroned and six other saints (spoiled by retouching). 

'None of Palma's works was executed with more energy and force 
than this. ... In keeping with forcible attitudes and movements are the 
solid breadth and substance of the impast, the large cast and unusually 
fine style of the drapery, the massively modelled surfaces, the grand shapes, 
and clean articulations.' — C. & C. 

11. Alvise Vivarini , Madonna with saints (1480) ; 15. Titian, 
Visitation of Mary (an early work); 16. Titian, John in the wilderness; 
18. Bonifazio III., SS. Francis and Paul; 21. Cima da Conegliano, 
Madonna and saints; 29. Bonifazio III., SS. Anthony and Mark; 31. 
Bened. Diana, Madonna and four saints; 32. Carletto Caliari, Ma- 
donna in clouds ; 33. Palma Vecchio, Assumption; 35. Bonifazio, 
Adoration of the Magi; 37. Rocco Marconi, Christ, Peter, and 
John; 40. Bonifazio III., SS. Philip and Sylvester ; *41. Bonifazio, 
St. Mark ; *43. Carletto Caliari, Coronation of the Virgin. 

Room X. Divisions 1 and 3 contain unimportant modern paint- 
ings. In the central division : entrance-wall , Rosalba Carriera, 
Crayon portraits. Then 29. Ant. Canaletto, Scuola di S. Marco ; 6. 
0. B. Tie-polo, St. Joseph and the Child, with four saints; 21 and 
26. Zuccarelli. Landscape with Holy Family. Exit-wall: 41. Ca- 
naletto, Court of a palace. 

Room XI (Sala dei Disegni), containing smaller works by Ti- 
tian and numerous old drawings. In the centre a stand with draw- 
ings of the Venetian school, and another with drawings of various 
schools. Left wall : 29. Frame with drawings by Michael Angelo ; 
23-27, 35. So-called sketch-book of Raphael (of doubtful genuine- 
ness). Right wall : 4-6. Frames with *Drawings by Leonardo da 
Vinci , including some of his famous caricatures ; 2-6. Venetian 
School. — We now proceed to the right to — 

Room V, with ceiling-paintings by Benedetto Caliari (Assump- 
tion) and Tintoretto (Allegories), the assembly-hall of the Acade- 
micians. Entrance-wall : 7. Boccaccino (?) , Christ washing the 
disciples' feet; 1. Bonifazio I., Madonna and saints; 30. Moretto, 
John the Baptist; *35. Cima da Conegliano, Tobias and the arch- 
angel, and two saints ; 24. Moretto, Apostle Peter; 33. Bissolo, Holy 

224 Route 37. VENICE. Academy. 

Family; 15. School of P. Veronese, Martyrdom of St. Justina. Op- 
posite, 2. Unknown Artist (not Giorgione), Portrait; 37. Tintoretto, 
Portrait; *28 Giov. Bellini., Madonna; 25. Marco Basaiti, St. Jerome ; 
no number, Polidoro Veneziano, Madonna with the donor and SS. 
John the Evangelist and Catharine; *32. Buonconsiglio (surnamed 
Marescalco), Three saints (1497); no number, *Jac. Tintoretto, Por- 
trait of the Venetian procurator Ant. Cappello ; *11. A. Mantegna, St. 
George, grandly conceived, and executed with the delicacy of a 
miniature; 6. Antonello da Messina, Ecce Homo; *5. Antonello da 
Messina, Portrait; 9. Girol. da Santa Croce, Holy Family; no number, 
Diana, Madonna with saints ; Tintoretto, Portrait of Soranzo (1564). 
— We return through Room IX. to — 

Room XIII (Sala bell' Assunta) : **1. Titian, Assumption 
('Assunta'), painted in 1516-18 for the Frari (p. 274), whose 
high-altar it once adorned. 

'There is nothing so remarkable in this enchanting picture as the con- 
trast between the apparent simplicity of the results, and the science with 
which these results are brought about. Focal concentration is attained by 
perspective science, applied alike to lines and to atmosphere, at the same 
time that a deep and studied intention is discoverable in the subtle 
distribution of radiance and gloom. . . . Something indescribable strikes 
us in the joyful innocence of the heavenly company whose winged units 
crowd together singing, playing, wondering and praying, some in light, 
some in half light, others in gloom, with a spirit of life moving in them 
that is quite delightful to the mind and the eye. Like the bees about 
their queen this swarm of angels rises with the beauteous apparition of 
the Virgin, whose noble face is transfigured with gladness, whose step is 
momentarily arrested as she ascends on the clouds , and with upturned 
face and outstretched arms longs for the heaven out of which the Eternal 
looks dov/n. To this central point in the picture Titians invites us by all 
the arts of which he is a master. . . . The apostles we observe are in 
shade. An awfully inspired unanimity directs their thoughts and eyes 
from the tomb round which they linger to the circle of clouds beauti- 
fully supported in its upward passage by the floating shapes of the 
angels. The lifelike semblance of nature in these forms, and the marvellous 
power with which their various sensations of fear, devotion, reverent 
wonder, and rapture are expressed, raise Titian to a rank as high as that 
held by Raphael and Michaelangelo.' — C. & 0. 

Tintoretto, *2. Death of Abel ('one of the most wonderful works 
in the whole gallery', says Mr. Ruskin) ; *4. St. Mark releasing a 
condemned slave ; *5. Fall of Man ; 7. Gentile Bellini, High-altar 
with veneration of a relic of the Cross. Over the door *P. Veronese, 
Ceres offering her gifts to the enthroned Venetia. 8. Carpaccio, 
Presentation in the Temple ; *9. Paolo Veronese, Madonna and saints. 

*10. Giov. Bellini, Madonna enthroned in a richly-decorated 
niche, with(l.)SS. Francis, Job, John, and (r.) Sebastian, Dominic, 
and Louis, and three angels on the steps of the throne (one of his 
finest works). 

'Finely thought out is the concentration of light on the Virgin seated 
with the babe on her knee. . . . By means essentially his own, BelliDi 
was here creating for the Venetian school something distantly akin to 
the ecstatic style of Angelico. . . . The 'canon' of Venetian art is truly 
stated to have been laid down in this picture.' — C. & C. 

*11. Marco Basaiti, Call of the Sons of Zebedee, 1510, marking, 



37. Route. 225 

with No. 24 in Room VII, painted the same year, the highest level 
reached by Basaiti under the influence of Giov. Bellini. 

Boom XIV. Entrance-wall, 1. Jac. Tintoretto, Resurrection, with 
three senators ; Unknown Artist (not Giorgione), Storm at sea (in- 
jured); 3. Tintoretto, Madonna and Child, with three senators. 

*4. Titian, Pieta, his last picture , with which he was 

engaged at the time of his death in his 99th year, completed by 

Palma Giovane in 1576, as the inscription records. 

'It may be that looking closely at the 'Pieta 1 , our eye8 will lose 
themselves in a chaos of touches; but retiring to the focal distance, they 
recover themselves and distinguish all that Titian meant to convey. In 
the group of the Virgin and Christ — a group full of the deepest and 
truest feeling — there lies a grandeur comparable in one sense with that 
which strikes us in the 'Pieta' of Michaelangelo.' — G. & C. 

8. Padovanino, Madonna in clouds; 13. Le Brun, Christ and 
Mary Magdalene; Palma Giovane, 18. Vision from the Apocalypse 
(angel marking the elect with the cross), 19. The four horsemen of 
the Apocalypse; 23. Tintoretto, Resurrection; 25. Padovanino, 
Marriage at Cana (1682) ; 27. Tintoretto, Doge Alvise Mocenigo ; 30. 
School of P. Veronese, Madonna in glory, with St. Dominic below, 
distributing rosaries to pope, emperor, and king, doges, cardinals, 
and others(1573) ; 33. Style of P. Veronese, Scourging of St. Christina. 

Adjoining the Academy on the left is the Reale Istituto di 
Belle Arti. To the left of the first court is a second, with the 
inner *Facade of Palladio's unfinished Convent of Carita. 

C. Canal Grande. 

The ** Grand Canal, the main artery of the traffic of Venice, 
nearly 2 M. in length, and 33-66 yds. in width, intersects the city 
from N.W. to S.E., dividing it into two unequal parts, and resem- 
bling an inverted S in shape. Steam-launches and hundreds of 
gondolas and other craft are seen gliding in every direction. Hand- 
some houses and magnificent palaces rise on the banks, for this is 
the street of the Nobili, the ancient aristocracy of Venice. A trip 
on the canal is extremely interesting ; 3 / 4 hr. at least should be de- 
voted to it in order to obtain a glimpse of the principal palaces. 
The gondolier points out the chief edifices. The posts (pali) are 
painted with the heraldic colours of their proprietors. The follow- 
ing list begins at the Piazzetta. 

DoganadiMare(Pl. G, 6), the 
principal custom-house , erected 
by Benoni in 1682; the vane on 
the tower is a gilded Fortuna. — 
A little back, the Seminario Pa- 
triarcale (p. 247). 

Baedeker. Italy I. 9th Edit. 

Palazzo Giustiniani, now Ho- 
tel Europa (PL b; G, 6), in the 
pointed style of the 14th cent. 

Pal. Emo-Treves (17th cent.), 
containing Hector andAjax, over 
life-size , Canova's last works 
(fee 1/2-I fr.). 


226 Route 37. 


Canal Grande. 

S. Maria della Salute (PI. F, 
G, 6), see p. 247. 

Pal. Dario-Angarani, in the 
style of the Lombard! (1 5th cent. ; 
now the American Consulate). 

Pal. Venier, a grand building, 
but the ground-floor only com- 
pleted (now 'Maison Barbier'). 

Pal. Da Mula , pointed style 
of the 15th cent. Adjacent are the 
Venezia-Murano mosaic works. 

Pal. Zichy-Esterhazy. 

Pal. Manzoni - Angarani , by 
Tullio Lombardo (15th cent.), 
now a store. 

Pal. Tiepolo- Zucchelli , now 
Hotel Britannia (PI. c ; G, 6). 

Pal. Contarini, 15th cent. 

*Pal. Contarini-Fasan, restor- 
ed in 1857, and — 

Pal. Ferro, now the Grand 
Hotel, two handsome buildings. 

Pal. Fini - Wimpffen , now 
united with the Grand Hotel. 

*Pal. Corner della Ca Grande, 
built by Jac. Sansovino in 1532, 
with spacious inner court, now 
seat of the prefecture. 

Pal. Barbaro, in the pointed 
style of the 14th cent. 

Pal. Cavalli, in the pointed 
style of the 15th cent., with fine 
windows, property of Baron Fran- 
chetti, who has restored it (ob- 
serve the new *Staircase). 

Church of S. Vitale. 

Iron Bridge (PI. E, 6), constructed in 1854, between the 
Campo della Carita (steamboat-station) and Campo San Vitale. 


Accademia di Belle Arti, see 
p. 218. 

Pal. Oambara, 17th cent. 
Palazzi Contarini degli Scri- 
gni, one by Scamozzi, of the 16th, 
the other of the 15th cent. 

Pal. degli Ambasciatori, 15th 
cent. , with two statues on the 
facade (German embassy in 18th 

*Pal. Kezzonico, the former re- 
sidence of Robert Browning who 
died here in 1889, a large edifice 
jf the 17- 18th cent., with arched 
windows and pillared balconies, 
erected by Longhena and Massari. 

Two Pal. Giustiniani, in point- 
ed style ; now a mosaic- factory. 

*Pal. Foscari (called Pal. Gius- 
tiniani before the addition of 


Pal. Giustinian-Lolin, of the 
17th century. 

Ch del Duca, a plain house on 
the grand foundations of a pal- 
ace begun for Francesco Sforza, 
duke of Milan, but left unfinish- 
ed by order of the Republic. 

Pal. Malipiero, Renaissance. 

Campo S. Samuele, with a 
church of that name. 

Pal. Grassi, 18th cent., restor- 
ed by the late Baron Sina. Fres- 
coes in the staircase by P. Longhi 

Canal Grande. 


37. Route. 227 

the upper story "by Doge Fran- 
cesco Foscari), pointed style of 
15th cent., a handsome structure, 
situated at the point where the 
Canal turns to the E., containing 
the Scuola Superiore di Com- 

Pal. Balbi, Renaissance, erect- 
ed by Aless. Vittoria. 

Pal. Grimani, early - Renais- 

Pal. Persico. 

Pal. Tiepoletto , beginning of 
16th cent. 

*Pal. Fisani a S. Paolo, in the 
pointed style of the 14th century. 

Pal. Barbarigo della Terrazza. 

Ca Cappello, at the corner of 
the side- canal Rio di S. Polo, 
property of Sir H. Layard, con- 
tains an interesting collection 
of pictures (Ercole di Giulio 
Grandi, Savoldo, Cosima Tura, 
Moretto, Boccaccino, Giov. Bel- 
lini, Carpaccio, Cima da Conegli- 
ano, and others ; portrait of Sultan 
Mahomet II. by Gentile Bellini). 

Pal. Grimani, erected by one 
of the Lombardi, Renaissance. 

Pal. Bernardo , now the Rus- 
sian consulate , is said to he the 
oldest Gothic edifice in Venice, 
with good tracery in the side- 

*Pal. Papadopoli, formerly 
Tiepolo , Renaissance , recently 
fitted up in the Venetian style. 
Adm. only in absence of the 
owner, on special recommen- 

Pal. Pisani-Moretta , pointed 


Pal. Moro-Lin (PI. E, 5), 17th 
cent., erected by Mazzoni. 

*Pal. Contarini delle Figure, 
early-Renaissance, 1504-64, with 
trophies on the walls. 

Pal. Moeenigo, three contiguous 
palaces, that in the centre occu- 
pied by Lord Byron in 1818. 

Pal. Garzoni, 15th cent. 

*Pal. Corner Spinelli, early- 
Renaissance, in the style of the 

Pal. Cavallini, pointed style of 
15th cent. 

*Pal. Grimani , Renaissance, 
chef d'ceuvre of Michele Sammi- 
cheli, middle of 16th cent. , now 
the Corte d'Appello ; 'the prin- 
cipal type in Venice, and one of 
the best in Europe , of the cen- 
tral architecture of the Renais- 
sance schools' (Ruskin). 


228 Route 37. 


Canal Grande. 

Lbpt. Right. 

*Pal. Farsetti (originally Dan- 
dolo^), Eomanesque style of ll'th 
cent., now occupied (like the fol- 
lowing) by the municipal offices 

*Pal. Loredan, coeval with the 
last, with coloured incrustation, 
once the residence of King Pe- 
ter Lusignan of Cyprus, husband 
of Catharine Cornaro , whose 
armorial bearings are seen on 
different parts of the edifice. 

'This palace, though not conspi- 
cuous, will he felt at last, by- 
all who examine it carefully, to be 
the most beautiful palace in the 
whole extent of the Grand Canal 1 . 
— Ruskin. 

Pal. Dandolo , early-Gothic, 
the modest residence of the cele- 
brated Doge Enrico Dandolo (p. 
203 ; cafe on the ground-floor). 

*Pal. Bembo, pointed style of 
14th cent. 

Pal. Manin, with facade by 
Jac. Sansovino, 16th cent., be- 
longed to the last Doge Lod. Ma- 
nin (p. 204) ; now Banca Nazio- 

The *Ponte di Rialto (i.e. 'di rivo alto' ; PI. G, 4), 
built in 1588-91 by Antonio da Ponte, 158 ft. long, 90 ft. wide, 
consists of a single marble arch of 74 ft. span and 32 ft. in height, 
resting on 12,000 piles. It is situated midway between the Dogana 
di Mare and the railway-station, and down to 1854 (p. 226) was the 
sole connecting link between the E. and "W. quarters of Venice. — 
Description of the quarter near the Ponte Rialto, see pp. 230-233 
and p. 239. 

Pal. de' Camerlenghi, early- 
Renaissance, erected by Gugliel- 
mo Bergamasco (1525), once the 
residence of the chamberlains or 
officers of finance. 

Fondaco de' Tedeschi, a Ger- 
man warehouse from thel 3th cent, 
onwards. After a fire in 1 505 it was 
re-erected by the state from a 
design by Girolamo Tedesco and 
again let to the Germans. The ex- 
terior and the turrets (removed) 
were decorated with frescoes by 
Giorgione and Titian, of which the 
only vestiges are a figure on the 

Canal Grande. 


37. Route. 229 


Erberia , vegetable market (p. 

Pescherla (PI. F, 4) r fish-mar- 
ket, with modern iron colonnade. 

Pal. . Corner della Regina, 

erected by Rossi in 1724, on the 
site of the house in which Catha- 
rine Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus, 
was born ; now the 'monte di 
pieta' or pawn-office. 

*Pal. Pesaro, now Bevilacqua, 
Renaissance, of 17th cent., by 
Longhena (not shown at present) 
contains sumptuous apartments 
and a hall with pictures for sale. 
Some of the grotesque heads on 
the exterior are clever. 

Church of S. Eustachio ('S. 
StaV), with rich baroque facade. 

Pal. Tron, 16th cent. 

Pal. Battagia, by Longhena. 

Tondaco de' Turchi, Roman- 
esque style of 10th cent., once 
(after 1621) a Turkish depot, en- 
tirely restored of late and fitted 
up for the Museo Civicoty Correr 
(p. 240). Steamboat-station (see 
p. 200). 

side facing the canal and a Jus- 
tice by Titian above the door in 
the lane. The building is now 
the custom-house (Dogana). The 
lion over the door is modern. 

Corte del Remer, 13th cent. 

Ca da Mosto, 12th cent. 

Pal. Mangilli-Valmar ana, built 
by Visentini. 

Pal. Michieli dalle Colonne, 
17th cent. 

Pal. Sagredo, pointed style of 
14th cent. 

*Ca Doro (15th cent.), the 
most elegant of the palaces in the 
pointed style (p. 205). Steam- 
boat-station (p. 200). 

Pal.Fontana, late-Renaissance. 

Pal. Qrimani della Vida, 16th 
cent., in the style of Sammicheli. 

Pal. Erizzo , pointed style of 
15th cent. 

*Pal.Vendramin Calergi, early- 
Renaissance style, erected at the 
beginning of the 16th cent., one 
of the finest palaces in Venice, 
is the property of the Duca della 

Motto on the exterior, 'wore nobis 1 . 
It contains some fine old paintings 
(frieze by Palma Giovane, Triumph 
of Caesar), and modern works (por- 
ter 25 c, attendant 1 fr. ; not always 
accessible). Richard Wagner, the 
composer, died in this house in 1883. 

Church of S. Marcuola, con- 
taining an early work by * Titian : 
The boy Christ between SS. An- 
drew and Catharine. 

Church of S. (?eremm,with Pal. 
Labia (see below) behind it. 
Steamboat-station (PI. D, E, 3). 

Pal. Flangini , Renaissance 
(unfinished ; facade terminating 
with a half-column). 

230 Route 37. 


Canal Grande. 



*Gli Scalzi (PI. D, 3; steam- 
boat-station), built by eight Ve- 
netian noble families in 1649-89, 
is perhaps the most imposing 
specimen of the Venetian baroque 
style (facade bySardi). It was much 
damaged by the bombardment of 
1849,. but restored in I860. 

The high-altar, with its eight twist- 
ed columns, is a characteristic exam- 
ple of the architectonic errors of the 
age of its construction. Behind it is 
a Madonna, erroneously ascribed to 
Giov. Bellini (retouched). 

Iron Bridge, completed in 1858. 

S. Simeone Piccolo (PI. D, 3, 
4), erected in 1718-38, is an 
imitation of the Pantheon at 
Rome. — Adjacent is a house 
with a painted facade. 

Stazione della Strada Ferrata 
(Rail. Station), See p. 198. 

To the left, near the point where the Canal turns to the N.W., 
is the well-kept Oiardino Papadopoli (PI. C, D, 4; permesso at 
the Pal. Papadopoli, p. 227). 

In the Canareggio, which diverges from the Canal Grande at 
S. Geremia, rises, on the left, the Pal. Labia (PI. D, E, 3; adm. 
1 fr.), of the 17th cent. , with *Frescoes by Tiepolo (on the first 
floor, Antony and Cleopatra). — Farther on, to the left, is the Pal. 
Manfrin, containing a picture-gallery , the best works of which 
were sold in 1856. It still contains about 200 pictures, all for sale 
(adm. 10-3; 50 c). 

Opposite, on the right side of the canal, is the Ghetto Vecchlo 
(PI. D,E, 2). Following the Canareggio farther, we pass Pal. Sa- 
vornian on the left, and reach *S. Giobbe (PI. C, 2), an early- 
Renaissance church with a fine portal. 

The Interior is embellished with fine stone-carving, particularly in 
the first chapel on the left, constructed by Pietro Grimani (d. 1553), above 
the first and second altars, and in the choir, which was decorated in 1462 
by Doge Moro, who is buried here. Above the fourth altar to the left, SS. 
Peter, Andrew, and Nicholas, by Paris Bordone. The sacristy contains 
three early-Venetian paintings. 

Adjoining the church is the former Botanic Garden (PI. C, 2, 
3), with gigantic cacti, now a nursery-garden. 

D. From the Piazza of St. Mark to the Rialto Bridge and the 

Northern Quarters. 

The Merceria (PI. C, 5), which enters the Piazza of St. Mark 
under the clock- tower (p. 211), is the principal business- street of 

8. Salvatore. VENICE. 37. Route. 231 

Venice , containing attractive shops. It leads direct to the Rialto 
Bridge. In the second short street to the right is — 

S. Giuliano [ l San Zulian\ PL G, 5), erected "by Sansovino in 
1553. The bronze statue of the founder, Thomas of Ravenna, 
in a sitting posture, is by the same master. 

Inteeioe. 1st Altar to the left: Boccaccino da Cremona, Madonna and 
four saints. Chapel to the left of the high-altar : Girolamo Campagna''s Dying 
Christ supported by angels, a relief in marble; Paolo Veronese, Last Supper. 
Above the high-altar : Oirol. da Santa Croce, Coronation of the Virgin. 

Returning to the Merceria , we soon observe the lofty choir of 
S. Salvatore appearing between the houses. 

*S. Salvatore (PI. G, 5), by Giorgio Spavento and Tullio Lom- 
bardo, completed in 1534 (facade 1663) and recently restored, sur- 
mounted by three flat domes resting on circular vaulting, which is 
supported in turn on square domed corner-spaces. Burckhardt styles 
it the finest modern church in Venice. It is open all day. 

Right Aisle. Between the 1st and 2nd altars: Monument of Proc. 
Andrea Dolfm (d. 1602) and his wife; on the 2nd altar: Madonna with 
angels, by Campagna; between the 2nd and 3rd altars: "Monument of 
Doge Franc. Venier (d. 1556), by Sansovino; over the 3rd altar an ''Annun- 
ciation by Titian, executed in his 89th year, in which 'the grandeur 
attained brings the painter as near to Michaelangelo in conception as it 
was possible for Titian to come' (C. & C). The frame is by Sansovino. — 
Teansept. On the right the monument of Catharine Cornaro (d. 1510), 
Queen of Cyprus, who abdicated in 1489 in favour of Venice. — Choie. 
"Transfiguration, high-altar piece by Titian, painted, like the Annunciation, 
about 1560 (injured; best light at midday); the chased silver * Altar- 
covering with 27 Scriptural representations, executed about 1290, is only 
seen on high festivals. — Chapel on the left: *Christ at Emmaus, by Vitt. 
Carpaccio (attributed by Mr. Ruskin to Bellini). — Left Aisle. Monument 
of three cardinals of the Cornaro family ; below, Baptism of Christ by N. 
Renieri. — By the altar to the right of the organ, statues of SS. Rochus 
and Sebastian, by Al. Vittoria; over the altar to the left, a statue of St. 
Jerome, by Tullio Lomoardo. SS. Augustine and Theodore on the sides of 
the organ are by Franc. Vecelli. Lofty architectural monument of the 
doges Girolamo (d. 1567) and Lorenzo Priuli (d. 1559), with gilded recumbent 
figures of the brothers. 

Then to the right (N.) to the Campo S. Bartolommeo, in which 
a bronze statue , modelled by Dal Zotto , was erected in 1883 to 
Carlo Goldoni, the poet (1707-93). For the church of S. Barto- 
lommeo , otherwise uninteresting, Diirer painted his celebrated 
Madonna and Child with the garlands of roses (now in Prague). 
To the right and left of the organ, SS. Lewis and Sinibald, and to 
the right and left in the aisles, SS. Sebastian and Bartholomew, all 
by Sebastian del Piombo (under Giorgione's influence). — The street 
to the E. leads past the church of S. Lio (PL G, H, 4 ; over the first 
altar on the left Titian's S. Jago de Compostella, 1565) to 8. Maria 
Formosa, see p. 234. The Ponte Rialto lies to the W. of the Campo 
S. Bartolommeo (p. 228). 

We cross the piazza in a straight (N.) direction, pass the Fon- 
daco de Tedeschi (p. 228) on the left, and reach, on the right — 

S. Giovanni Crisostomo (PL G, 4), erected in the Renaissance 
style in 1483 by Tullio Lombardo (?). 

232 Route 37. VENICE. SS. Apostoli 

First Altar on right, *Giov. Bellini, SS. Jerome, Christopher, and Augus- 
tine in a mountainous landscape (his last signed work, in his 87th year, 
1513): 'John Bellini is the only artist who appears to me to have united, 
in equal and magnificent measures, justness of drawing, nobleness of 
colouring, and perfect manliness of treatment, with the purest religious 
feeling 1 (Ruskin). At the sides are two saints by Oirol. da Santa Croce, for- 
merly the panels of an organ ; two others are in the aisle to the left, in the 
chapel next the high-altar. High-altar (good light only at midday), '-'Seb. 
del Piombo, St. Chrysostom with SS. Augustine, John the Baptist, Liberale, 
Catharine, Agnes, and Magdalene, the master's most important work 
while under the influence of Giorgione, painted about 1508, immediately 
before his departure 5 " or Rome: 'there is much to characterise Sebastian 
in the ideal sensualism and consciously attractive bearing which distinguish 
the females on the left foreground' (C. & C). Base of the altar, Entomb- 
ment, a relief by an unknown master. Altar to the left, Coronation of the 
Virgin , and the Apostles, reliefs by Tallio Lombardo. 

Beyond the church is the Teatro Malibran (PL G, 4); then, 
farther on, beyond the second bridge, the church of — 

Santi Apostoli (PI. G, 3), rebuilt in 1672, containing the 
Cappella Corner (which belonged to the earlier church), erected by 
Gugl. Bergamasco , 16th cent., with two monuments of the Corner 
family. To the right in the choir: Cesare da Conegliano , Last 
Supper ; left, Paolo Veronese, Shower of Manna. 

Opposite is the Scuola delV Angelo Custode (PL Gr, 3, 4 ; Ger- 
ma n Prot. church), containing a Christ by Titian. 

To the N.W. of the Campo SS. Apostoli runs the new Corso 
Vi torio Emanuble (PL F, G, 3), the broadest street in Venice, 
by which we may proceed past the church of S. Felice and the 
two canals of the same name to the — 

*Palazzo Giovanelli (PL F, 3 ; adm. generally by written per- 
mission procured beforehand), of the 15th cent., with sumptuously- 
furnished modern apartments, a handsome ball-room (with family- 
portraits by Titian and Tintoretto^) , and a room with modern 
pictures ; in the boudoir, Giov. Bellini (according to Morelli, Nic- 
colb Rondinelli), Madonna; *Giorgione, Landscape ('La Famiglia di 
Giorgione'); *Titian, St. Jerome; *Paris Bordone, Madonna and saints. 

The more remote quarters of the city are best visited by gondola. 
From the Rio S. Felice a side-canal , the Rio della Misericordia, 
leads to the left to the church of S. Marciliano (PL F, 2), which 
contains a Tobias and the Angel by Titian f above 1st altar on left), 
and Tintoretto 's last work, a St. Marcilius (2nd altar to the right). 
— We now return to the Rio S. Felice , follow it to the N. for a 
short way, and then turn to the right into a side-canal, the N. 
bank of which is formed by the Fondamenta Zen. The high-altar- 
piece of the church of S, Caterina here (PL E, F, 2; if closed, 
entrance through the Lyceum, Convitto Nazionale) is a *Marriage 
of St. Catharine by Paolo Veronese. — Returning once more to 
the Rio S. Felice, we pass the Abbadiazza della Misericordia (closed), 
and reach the church of the — 

*Madonna dell' Orto (PL F, 2), also called S. Cristoforo 
Martire, with a beautiful late-Gothic *Facade and a curious tower. 

Madonna delV Orto. VENICE. 37. Route. 233 

Above the main portal are an Annunciation and a statue of St. 
Christopher by Bart. Buon the Elder. The interior, with a flat wooden 
ceiling supported by ten columns and modern painted decorations, 
contains many good pictures. 

Right, 1st altar: * Cima da Conegliano, St. John the Baptist with SS 
Peter, Mark, Jerome, and Paul. At the 3rd altar: Sansovino, Conception of 
the Virgin. Between the 3rd and 4th altars : Monument of the Patrician 
Hieronymus Cavassa (17th cent.). At the 4th altar: A. van Dyck, St. Law- 
rence. Adjoining the 4th altar: Talma Vecchio, St. Vincent surrounded by four 
other saints. Above the entrance of the sacristy, a sculptured head of 
the Virgin (15th cent.). In the Sackisty: Virgin and Child, half-figure 
found in a garden (whence the name of the church), and restored by 
Giovanni de Sanctis. — Chapel on the Right of the choir: Oirolamo da 
S. Croce, SS. Augustine and Jerome; memorial tablet to Tintoretto (d. 
1594), who is buried here. — In the Choir, (right) the Last Judgment (elo- 
quently described and explained in 'Modern Painters', Vol. 2) and (left) 
Adoration of the golden calf, large works by Tintoretto. Over the high- 
altar an Annunciation, by Palma Giovane , with surrounding pictures by 
Tintoretto. — Chapel on the Left of the choir, altarpiece, a copy from 
Pordenone (p. 222, No. 25, R. vn). — In the Left Aisle the Capp. Con- 
tarini, containing busts of six members of the celebrated family of that 
name ; among them those of the Cardinal and the Procurator, the two in 
the middle on the left and right respectively, by Alessandro Vittoria ; altar- 
piece by Tintoretto, Miracles of St. Agnes; 2nd chapel on the left: (r.) 
Tintoretto, Presentation in the Temple; (1.) Palma Giovane, Crucifixion. 
4th Chapel, to the left by the entrance : altarpiece by Bellini, Madonna 
(restored) ; (r.) Lor. Lotto, Pieta. 

We now return and skirt the Fondamenta Nuove (PI. G, 3, 1 ; 
view of the cemetery island and Murano) to the church of the — 

Gesuiti (PL G, 3), erected in 1715-30 in the baroque style, 
entirely lined with marble inlaid with verde antico, and sumptuously 
decorated like all the churches of this order. 

At the High-Altar are ten spiral columns of 'verde di Verona', or 
encrusted mosaic; in the centre a globe, with God the Father and the 
Son. The chapel to the right of the high-altar contains the monument 
and statue of Orazio Farnese (d. 1654); in the chapel on the left is the 
♦Monument of Doge Pasquale Cicogna (d. 1595), with the recumbent 
"Statue of the deceased, by G. Campagna ; then, in the Left Transept, the 
Assumption, an altar-piece by Tintoretto. In the 1st chapel on the left of 
the principal door is the 'Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, one of the finest 
of the altar-pieces by Titian , who 'never made a nearer approach to the 
grand art of the Florentines than when he painted this piece, in which 
he applied the principle of dramatic execution peculiar to Michaelangelo'. 
Unfortunately it is darkened by age (seen best 11-12 a.m.). In the Sacristy, 
above the door, Circumcision of Christ by Tintoretto. 

We may return from this point past S. Giovanni e Paolo to the 
Riva degli Schiavoni; comp. pp. 236-238. 

E. From the Piazza of St. Mark to S. Giovanni e Paolo, and 
thence to the Eiva degli Schiavoni. Eastern Quarters. 

From the small piazza on the N. side of St. Mark's, in which 
rises the monument of Manin (p. 210), we turn to the E., pass 
round the Pal. Patriarcale on the right , and observe opposite us 
the Pal. Trevisani (PL H, 5"), or Bianca Cappello, built in the style 
of the Lombardi about 1500 , with a fine facade. We cross the 
bridge (fine view of the back of the Palace of the Doges and of the 

234 Route 37. VENICE. 8. Zaccaria. 

Bridge of Sighs), and traverse two small piazzas to the Campo and 
the church of • — 

*S. Zaccaria (PL H, 5), erected by Martino Lombardoin 1457- 
1515 in mixed Gothic and Renaissance styles. The rounded 
arcades are borne by six Corinthian columns. The recess of the 
high-altar is Gothic. Facade later. Over the entrance the statue 
of St. Zacharias by Al. Vittoria. 

The walls of the Nave are covered with large pictures , all , except 
those over the altars, representing events in the history of the church. 
To the right of the entrance, over the benitier, a statuette of John the 
Baptist by Al. Vittoria. On the wall to the left, above the second altar : *Ma- 
donna enthroned and four saints, by Giov. Bellini: — this altarpiece, painted 
in 1505, shows, even more than the Baptism of Christ in S. Corona at 
Vicenza (p. 187), the growing mastery of Giovanni, and 'takes us with 
a spring into the midst of the Venetian moderns. . . . There is no other 
example up to this time of great monumental art in this school; none in 
which composition, expression, movement, effect, and colour are so richly 
combined with freedom of hand' ( C. & C). — The third arcade on the 
right leads to the Coeo delle Monache (choir of the nuns). — In the 
Cappella di S. Taeasio (to the right of the high-altar; opened by the 
sacristan), three gilded *Altars in carved wood, of 1443-44, with old 
Venetian '-Pictures by Giov. and Ant. da Murano. At the high-altar is a 
Madonna of 1444 ; the altars to the right and left are adorned with saints 
of 1443. Behind each altar is an angel of 1444 on a pedestal. — Third 
altar in the ambulatory, Circumcision, School of Giovanni Bellini. In the 
left aisle, the tombstone of Alessandro Vittoria (d. 1605) , with a bust by 
the master himself, l qui vivens vivos duxit e marmore vultus\ — 2nd altar 
(1.), ''Enthroned Madonna and saints, School of Palma Vecchio. 

We retrace our steps , from the first Campo beyond the bridge 
over the Rio della Paglia we take the Calle della Chiesa to the 
right (N.), cross the Ponte Storto , follow the Ruga Giuffa to the 
left (on the right is the Gothic Arco Bon), and thus reach the 
larger Campo S. Makia Formosa, in which is situated — 

S. Maria Formosa (PI. H, 4), of early origin, but several times 
remodelled, a cruciform church covered with a dome, and with 
smaller domes over the sections of the aisles. 

Interior. 1st Altar on the right: *"Palma Vecchio, St. Barbara and 
four S'.dnts, with a Pieta above, in tlie best and grandest form of Palma's 
art. 'St. Barbara's shape is grandiose and queenly. The glance, the massive 
hair, the diadem and vestments, the full neck and throat, are all regal; 
and the whole impersonation scents of the Giorgionesque and reveals 
the 16th century. It is the very counterpart of the fine-chiselled and 
voluptuous fair one who sits so gorgeously in her red dress and auburn 
locks amongst the three graces of the Dresden Museum 1 (G. & C). — 
2nd Altar: Bart. Vivarini, Mary, Anna, and St. Joachim (1473); 3rd Altar: 
Palma Giovane, Descent from the Cross. S. Transept: L. Bassano, Last 
Supper. Choir: modern frescoes by Paoletti (1844). — A' chapel, to which 
a staircase ascends (shown by the sacristan), contains (1.) a Madonna and 
Child by Sassoferrato and another by Pietro da Messina (a signed work 
of this rare master). 

The Palazzo Malipiero in the Campo S. Maria Formosa dates 
from the beginning of the 16th cent. To the N.W., beyond the bridge, 
the picturesque Porta del Paradiso. — To the E. of S. Maria For- 
mosa, beyond the Ponte Ruga Giuffa, are the Pal. Querini (p. 201) 
and the Pal. Orimani, erected in the 16th cent, under the in- 
fluence of Pietro Lombardo. Little remains of its once famous 

8. Oiov. e Paolo. VENICE. 37. Route. 235 

collection of antiquities ; in the court, a statue of Augustus, only 
partially antique. 

We leave the Campo S. Maria Formosa by the Calle Lunga, 
and, turning to the left before the first bridge, cross the Rio S. Gio- 
vanni in Laterano to the church of the Dominicans — 

**S. Giovanni e Paolo ('S. Zanipolo 1 ; PI. H, 4), begun in 1240 
and completed in 1430, a very spacious and magnificent Italian- 
Gothic domed edifice, supported by ten columns. This church, next 
to St. Mark's the mosLimposing at Venice, contains the burial-vaults 
of the doges, whose funeral service was always performed here. 

Right Aisle. In front: ''Mausoleum of the victorious Doge Pietro 
Mocenigo (d. 1476), with fifteen statues by the Lombardi; sarcophagus '■ex 
hostium manukas' (from the spoils of his enemies). By the 1st altar on 
the right: Bissolo, Madonna and saints; monument of Marc Antonio Bra- 
gadino (d. 1571), who long defended Famagosta in Cyprus against the Turks, 
and after its surrender was barbarously flayed alive, as the picture above 
indicates; *Altarpiece in six sections by Bellini, or Garpaccio; monument 
of Senator Alb. Michiel (d. 1589). — To the right from the next chapel is 
the Oratory. Above the door, Coronation of the Virgin, with numerous 
saints, by Gima da Conegliano ; six pictures with three saints in each, by 
Bonifazio III. ; in the corners, SS. Laurence and Dominic, by B. Vivarini. Over 
the doors of the sacristy the '-Mausoleum of Bertucci, Silvestro, and 
Elisabetta Valier with their statues, a rich rococo monument in marble 
of the 18th cent., by various sculptors. The door on the left below it is 
an egress. The following chapel contains five reliefs in bronze and one 
(5th on left) in wood, scenes from the life of St. Dominic, by Mazza (1720). 

[The Right Transept is temporarily closed for restoration, now al- 
most complete, and the pictures are at present in the Academy (p. 218). 
Among its contents were or are St. Augustine, an oil-painting by Bart. 
Vivarini (1475) ; tomb of General Niccolo Orsini (d. 1509), with equestrian 
statue ; * Apotheosis of St. Antoninus, Bishop of Florence, an altarpiece by 
Lorenzo Lotto; stained glass designedly Vivarini (1473, restored in 1814).] 

Choir. Tombs of the Doges: (r.) *Michele Morosini (d. 1382), in the 
late-Gothic style ('voluptuous and over-wrought", according to Mr. Ruskin), 
with a mosaic in the lunette, and Leonardo Loredan (d. 1521) by Danese 
Cataneo; (1.) *Andrea Vendramin (d. 1478; by Alessandro Leopardo, pro- 
bably the most sumptuous monument in Venice , designed under the in- 
fluence of antique Greek sculptures (the figures of the muses on the right 
and left are not the originals; see however, Chap. I. of 'Stones of Ve- 
nice') , and *Marco Corner (d. 1368) , Gothic. The magnificent high-altar 
dates from 1619. — In the Choir: 1st chapel to the right, tomb of the 
English Baron Windesor (d. 1574) ; 2nd chapel to the right, Renaissance 
altar with a statue of Mary Magdalene by 0. Bergamasco; in the last chapel, 
tomb of L. Cavalli (d. 1384). 

Left Transept. Above, by the entrance to the Chapel of the Rosary, 
a Group in marble by Antonio Dentone , 15th cent., St. Helena presenting 
General Vittore Cappello with the marshal's baton; over the door the 
monument of Doge Antonio Venier (d. 1400) , and of his wife. — The 
Cappella del Rosario , founded in 1571 to commemorate the victory of 
Lepanto, was destroyed by fire in Aug., 1867, but is being rebuilt. Of its 
former valuable contents nothing remains but blackened and mutilated 
fragments of reliefs in marble , scenes from the life of the Saviour and 
the Virgin, by Bonazza, Torcelli, and other masters from 1600 to 1732. At 
the time of the fire a celebrated picture by Titian, St. Peter Martyr 
attacked and murdered in a wood, and a Madonna by Oiov. Bellini had un- 
fortunately been deposited in the chapel during the repair of the church, 
and were burned. — Farther on in the church , Monument of the wife 
and daughter of Doge Antonio Venier, 1411; monument, with equestrian 
statue, of Leonardo da Prato (d. 1511). 

236 Route 37. VENICE. Scuola di S. Marco. 

Left Aisle. On the right and left of the door of the Sacristy, admirable 
wood carving by Bru.Holone (18th cent.). Over the door busts of Titian and 
the two Palmas, by Jac. Albarelli, 17th century. — In the Sacristy : to the 
left of the altar, Christ bearing the Cross, by Alvise Vivarini (about 
1500; signature forged; restored). — Then ' s Mausoleum of Doge Pasquale 
Malipiero (d. 1462) ; tombstone of the senator Bonzio (d. 1508) , under it 
statues of St. Thomas by Antonio Lombardo and St. Peter Martyr by Paolo 
da Milano; in the niches, (r.) the recumbent effigy of Doge Michael Steno 
(d. 1413), formerly painted, (1.) that of Aloiso Trevisan (d. 1528, aged 23)'; 
monument with equestrian statue of General Pompeo Giustiniani (d. 1616) 
by F. Terilli; *Monument of Doge Tommaso Mocenigo (d. 1423), Gothic, 
by two Florentines ; monument of Doge Mccolo Marcello (d. 1474) by Pietro 
Lombardo ; 2nd altar, left of the principal entrance, early copy of Titian's 
martyrdom of St. Peter (p. 235), presented by K